Evenks

The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki)[note 1] are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396 (2010 census). In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875 (2010 census).[2] There are 537 Evenks, called Khamnigan in Mongolian, in Mongolia (2015 census).[3]

Evenks
Эвэнкил
Flag of Evenks
Evenk family in the early 1900s
An Evenk family in the early 1900s
Total population
69,856[1][2][3][4]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia38,396[1]
 China30,875[2]
 Mongolia537[3]
 Ukraine48[4]
Languages
Evenki, Russian, Chinese, Mongolian, Ukrainian
Religion
Shamanism, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Tibetan Buddhism[5][6][7]
Related ethnic groups
Evens, Manchus, Oroqens, Oroch

Origin

The Evenks or Ewenki are sometimes conjectured to be connected to the Shiwei people who inhabited the Greater Khingan Range in the 5th to 9th centuries, although the native land of the majority of Evenki people is in the vast regions of Siberia between Lake Baikal and the Amur River. The Ewenki language forms the northern branch of the Manchu-Tungusic language group and is closely related to Even and Negidal in Siberia. By 1600 the Evenks or Ewenki of the Lena and Yenisey river valleys were successful reindeer herders. By contrast the Solons (ancestors of the Evenkis in China) and the Khamnigans (Ewenkis of Transbaikalia) had picked up horse breeding and the Mongolian deel from the Mongols. The Solons nomadized along the Amur River. They were closely related to the Daur people. To the west the Khamnigan were another group of horse-breeding Evenks in the Transbaikalia area. Also in the Amur valley a body of Siberian Evenki-speaking people were called Orochen by the Manchus.

Historical distribution

The ancestors of the south-eastern Evenks have most likely been in the Baikal region of Southern Siberia (near the modern-day Mongolian border) since the Neolithic era. Considering the north-western Evenks, "The origin of the Evenks is the result of complex processes, different in time, involving the mixing of different ancient aboriginal tribes from the north of Siberia with tribes related in language to the Turks and Mongols. The language of these tribes took precedence over the languages of the aboriginal population" (Vasilevich, 623). Vasilevich is meaning the Tungusic languages. And the aborigianals are the Kets in Evenkia and Yukagirs in Yakutia. Elements of more modern Evenk culture, including conical tent dwellings, bone fish-lures, and birch-bark boats, were all present in sites that are believed to be Neolithic. From Lake Baikal, “they spread to the Amur and Okhotsk Sea…the Lena Basin…and the Yenisey Basin” (623).

Contact with Russians

In the 17th century, the Russian empire made contact with the Evenks. Cossacks, who served as a kind of “border-guard” for the tsarist government, imposed a fur tax on the Siberian tribes. The Cossacks exploited the Evenk clan hierarchy and took hostages from the highest members in order to ensure payment of the tax. Although there was some rebellion against local officials, the Evenks generally recognized the need for peaceful cultural relations with the Russians (Vasilevich, 624). Contact with the Russians and constant demand for fur taxes pushed the Evenks east all the way to Sakhalin island, where some still live today (Cassells). In the 19th century some groups migrated south and east into Mongolia and Manchuria (Vasilevich, 625). Today there are still Evenk populations in Sakhalin, Mongolia, and Manchuria (Ethnologue), and to a lesser extent, their traditional Baikal region (Janhunen). Russian invasion of the Evenks (and other indigenous peoples) resulted in language erosion, traditional decline, identity loss, among others, of thereof. This was especially the case during the Soviet regime. Soviet policies of collectivization, forced sedentarization (or sometimes refer to as Sedentism), "unpromising villages", and Russification of the education system compromised social, cultural, and mental well-being of the Evenks[8][9] . Today, few people can speak the Evenki language, reindeer herding is in significant decline, the suicide rate is extremely high, and alcoholism is a serious issue.

Traditional life

Orochen postcard
Evenks in 1912

Traditionally they were a mixture of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers—they relied on their domesticated reindeer for milk and transport and hunted other large game for meat (Vasilevich, 620-1). Today “[t]he Evenks are divided into two large groups…engaging in different types of economy. These are the hunting and reindeer-breeding Evenks…and the horse and cattle pastoral Evenks as well as some farming Evenks” (620). The Evenks lived mostly in areas of what is called a taiga, or boreal forest. They lived in conical tents made from birch bark or reindeer skin tied to birch poles. When they moved camp, the Evenks would leave these frameworks and carry only the more portable coverings. During winter, the hunting season, most camps consisted of one or two tents while the spring encampments had up to 10 households (Vasilevich, 637).

Their skill of riding the domesticated reindeer allowed the Evenks to “colonize vast areas of the eastern taiga which had previously been impenetrable” (Vitebsky, 31). The Evenks used a saddle unique to their culture which is placed on the shoulders of the reindeer so as to lessen the strain on the animal, and used not stirrups but a stick to balance (31-32). Evenks did not develop reindeer sledges until comparatively recent times (32). They instead used their reindeer as pack animals and often traversed great distances on foot, using snowshoes or skis (Vasilevich, 627). The Evenki people did not eat their domesticated reindeer (although they did hunt and eat wild reindeer) but kept them for milk. (Forsyth, 49-50).

Evenks1862
Evenks in 1862

Large herds of reindeer were very uncommon. Most Evenks had around 25 head of reindeer because they were generally bred for transportation. Unlike in several other neighboring tribes Evenk reindeer-breeding did not include “herding of reindeer by dogs nor any other specific features” (Vasilevich, 629). Very early in the spring season, the winter camps broke up and moved to places suitable for calving. Several households pastured their animals together throughout the summer, being careful to keep “[s]pecial areas…fenced off…to guard the newborn calves against being trampled on in a large herd” (629).

Clothing

The Evenks wore a characteristic costume “adapted to the cold but rather dry climate of Central Siberia and to a life of mobility…they wore brief garments of soft reindeer or elk skin around their hips, along with leggings and moccasins, or else long supple boots reaching to the thigh” (49). They also wore a deerskin coat that did not close in front but was instead covered with an apron-like cloth. Some Evenkis decorated their clothing with fringes or embroidery (50). The Evenki traditional costume always consisted of these elements: the loincloth made of animal hide, leggings, and boots of varying lengths (Vasilevich, 641). Facial tattooing was also very common.

Hunting

The traditional Evenk economy was a mix of pastoralism (of horses or reindeer), fishing, and hunting. The Evenk who lived near the Okhotsk Sea hunted seal, but for most of the taiga-dwellers, elk, wild reindeer, and fowl were the most important game animals. Other animals included “roe deer, bear, wolverine, lynx, wolf, Siberian marmot, fox, and sable” (Vasilevich, 626). Trapping did not become important until the imposition of the fur tax by the tsarist government. Before acquiring guns in the 18th century, Evenks used steel bows and arrows. Along with their main hunting implements, hunters always carried a “pike”—“which was a large knife on a long handle used instead of an axe when passing through the thick taiga or as a spear when hunting bear” (626). The Evenks have deep respect for animals and all elements of nature: "It is forbidden to torment an animal, bird, or insect, and a wounded animal must be finished off immediately. It is forbidden to spill the blood of a killed animal or defile it. It is forbidden to kill animals or birds that were saved from pursuit by predators or came to a person for help in a natural disaster." (Sirina, 24).

Evenks of Russia

Evenkshome
Evenks domicile, chum – Evenks' home in ethnographic museum in Ulan Ude, Russia

The Evenks were formerly known as tungus. This designation was spread by the Russians, who acquired it from the Yakuts and the Siberian Tatars (in the Yakut language tongus) in the 17th century. The Evenks have several self-designations, of which the best known is evenk. This became the official designation for the people in 1931. Some groups call themselves orochen ('an inhabitant of the River Oro'), orochon ('a rearer of reindeer'), ile ('a human being'), etc. At one time or another tribal designations and place names have also been used as self-designations, for instance manjagir, birachen, solon, etc. Several of these have even been taken for separate ethnic entities.

There is also a similarly named Siberian group called the Evens (formerly known as Lamuts). Although related to the Evenks, the Evens are now considered to be a separate ethnic group.

Discussion Media vs Natives 06
Evenks in Sakha Republic

The Evenks are spread over a huge territory of the Siberian taiga from the River Ob in the west to the Okhotsk Sea in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Manchuria and Sakhalin in the south. The total area of their habitat is about 2,500,000 km². In all of Russia only the Russians inhabit a larger territory. According to the administrative structure, the Evenks live, from west to east, in Tyumen and Tomsk Oblasts, Krasnoyarsk Krai with Evenk Autonomous Okrug, Irkutsk, Chita, and Amur Oblasts, the Buryat and the Sakha Republics, Khabarovsk Krai, and Sakhalin Oblast. However, the territory where they are a titular nation is confined solely to Evenk Autonomous Okrug, where 3,802 of the 35,527 Evenks live (according to the 2002 Census). More than 18,200 Evenks live in the Sakha Republic.

Evenki is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes Even and Negidal.

Russian Federation

According to the 2002 census 35,527 Evenki lived in Russia.

Расселение эвенков 2010
Evenk settlement in Russia by municipal areas and urban districts in percents of the total number of this nation in the Russian Federation. According to the 2010 census
Evenki in Russia
Administrative unit Evenki population, according to the 2002 census [1]
Sakha (Yakutia) Republic 18,232
Krasnoyarsk Krai 4,632
Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Evenkia) 3,802
Khabarovsk Krai 4,533
Amur Oblast 1,501
Sakhalin Oblast 243
Republic of Buryatia 2,334
Irkutsk Oblast 1,431
Zabaykalsky Krai 1,492
Tomsk Oblast 103
Tyumen Oblast 109

Evenks of China

Stielers Handatlas 1891 62 NE
The lands of the Solons (Solonen) near Hailar (Chailar) in the late Qing Empire

According to the 2000 Census, there are 30,505 Evenks in China mainly made up of the Solons and the Khamnigans. 88.8% of China's Evenks live in the Hulunbuir region in the north of the Inner Mongolia Province, near the city of Hailar. The Evenk Autonomous Banner is also located near Hulunbuir. There are also around 3,000 Evenks in neighbouring Heilongjiang Province.

The Manchu Emperor Hong Taiji conquered the Evenks in 1640, and executed their leader Bombogor. After the Manchu conquest, the Evenks were incorporated into the Eight Banners.

In 1763, the Qing government moved 500 Solon Evenk and 500 Daur families to the Tacheng and Ghulja areas of Xinjiang, in order to strengthen the empire's western border. 1020 Xibe families (some 4000 persons) followed the next year. Since then, however, the Solons of Xinjiang have assimilated into other ethnic groups, and are not identified as such anymore.[10][11]

Evenk autonomous prefectures and counties in China
Map of Evenk-designated autonomous prefectures and counties in China.

By county

County-level distribution of the Evenk

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.1% of China's Evenk population.)

Province Prefecture County Evenk Population % of China's Evenk Population
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Evenki Autonomous Banner 9,733 31.91%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner 5,126 16.8%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Oroqin Autonomous Banner 3.155 10.34%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Arun Banner 2,144 7.03%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Old Barag Banner 1,906 6.25%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadt Zhalantun 1,201 3.94%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadtbezirk Hailar 971 3.18%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadt Nehe 778 2.55%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Heihe Kreis Nenjiang 678 2.22%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadt Yakeshi 405 1.33%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadt Genhe 369 1.21%
AR Inner Mongolia Stadt Hohhot Stadtbezirk Saihan 158 0.52%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadt Manjur 141 0.46%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadtbezirk Meilisi der Daur 135 0.44%
Province Heilongjiang RB Großes Hinggan-Gebirge Jagdaqi 129 0.42%
AR Inner Mongolia Stadt Hohhot Stadtbezirk Xincheng 128 0.42%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Kreis Fuyu 111 0.36%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Stadt Ergun 110 0.36%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Neues Linkes Bargu-Banner 103 0.34%
Stadt Beijing keine Stadtbezirk Haidian 68 0.22%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadtbezirk Jianhua 65 0.21%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadtbezirk Tiefeng 65 0.21%
AR Inner Mongolia Hinggan League Stadt Ulanhot 60 0.20%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Kreis Gannan 59 0.19%
Province Heilongjiang RB Großes Hinggan-Gebirge Kreis Mohe 55 0.18%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadtbezirk Hulan Ergi 54 0.18%
AR Inner Mongolia City Hulunbuir Neues Rechtes Bargu-Banner 54 0.18%
Province Heilongjiang RB Großes Hinggan-Gebirge Kreis Huma 52 0.17%
AR Inner Mongolia Stadt Hohhot Stadtbezirk der Huimin 48 0.16%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Kreis Longjiang 44 0.14%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Qiqihar Stadtbezirk Longsha 36 0.12%
AR Inner Mongolia Stadt Baotou Stadtbezirk Qingshan 35 0.11%
AR Inner Mongolia Stadt Tongliao Stadtbezirk Horqin 35 0.11%
AR Inner Mongolia Hinggan League Jalaid-Banner 34 0.11%
Province Heilongjiang Stadt Heihe Stadt Wudalianchi 32 0.10%
Other 2,228 7.33%

Evenks of Ukraine

According to the 2001 census, there were 48 Evenks living in Ukraine. The majority (35) stated that their native language was Russian; four indicated Evenk as their native language, and three that it was Ukrainian.[12]

Religion

Prior to contact with the Russians, the belief system of the Evenks was animistic. Many have adopted Tibetan Buddhism.[5][6][7]

The Evenki, like most nomadic, pastoral, and subsistence agrarian peoples, spend most of their lives in very close contact with nature. Because of this, they develop what A. A. Sirina calls an "ecological ethic". By this she means "a system of responsibility of people to nature and her spirit masters, and of nature to people"(9). Sirina interviewed many Evenks who until very recently spent much of their time as reindeer herders in the taiga, just like their ancestors. The Evenki people also spoke along the same lines: their respect for nature and their belief that nature is a living being.

This idea, "[t]he embodiment, animation, and personification of nature—what is still called the animistic worldview—is the key component of the traditional worldview of hunter-gatherers" (Sirina, 13). Although most of the Evenkis have been "sedentarized"—that is, made to live in settled communities instead of following their traditional nomadic way of life (Fondahl, 5)—"[m]any scholars think that the worldview characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies is preserved, even if they make the transition to new economic models (Sirina, 30, quoting Barnard 1998, Lee 1999, Peterson 1999).

Although nominally Christianized in the 18th century, the Evenki people maintain many of their historical beliefs—especially shamanism (Vasilevich, 624). The Christian traditions were "confined to the formal performance of Orthodox rites which were usually timed for the arrival of the priest in the taiga" (647).

The religious beliefs and practices of the Evenks are of great historical interest since these retain some archaic forms of belief. Among the most ancient ideas are spiritualization and personification of all natural phenomena, belief in an upper, middle, and lower world, belief in the soul (omi) and certain totemistic concepts. There were also various magical rituals associated with hunting and guarding herds. Later on, these rituals were conducted by shamans. Shamanism brought about the development of the views of spirit-masters (Vasilevich 647).

There are few sources on the shamanism of the Evenki peoples below the Amur/Helongkiang river in Northern China. There is a brief report of fieldwork conducted by Richard Noll and Kun Shi in 1994 of the life of the shamaness Dula'r (Evenki name), also known as Ao Yun Hua (her Han Chinese name).[13] She was born in 1920 and was living in the village of Yiming Gatsa in the Evenki Banner (county) of the Hulunbuir Prefecture, in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. While not a particularly good informant, she described her initiatory illness, her multiyear apprenticeship with a Mongol shaman before being allowed to heal at the age of 25 or 26, and the torments she experienced during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s when most of her shamanic paraphernalia was destroyed. Mongol and Buddhist Lamaist influences on her indigenous practice of shamansim were evident. She hid her prize possession—an Abagaldi (bear spirit) shaman mask, which has also been documented among the Mondols and Dauer peoples in the region. The field report and color photographs of this shaman are available online.[14]

Olga Kudrina (c. 1890–1944) was a shamaness among the Reindeer Evenki of northern Inner Mongolia along the Amur River's Great Bend (today under the jurisdiction of Genhe, Hulunbuir).[15]

See also

Bibliography

  • D. O. Chaoke (an Evenk), WANG Lizhen (2002). 鄂温克族宗教信仰与文化 (Zipped NLC (Modified JBIG)). Beijing: 中央民族大学. ISBN 978-7-81056-700-8.
  • "Altaic." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 4 Nov. 2009.
  • Anderson, David G. "Is Siberian Reindeer Herding in Crisis? Living with Reindeer Fifteen Yearss after the End of State Socialism." Nomadic Peoples NS 10.2 (2006): 87-103. EBSCO. Web. 6 Nov. 2009.
  • Bulatova, Nadezhda, and Lenore Grenoble. Evenki. Munchen: LINCOM Europa, 1999. Print. Languages of the World.
  • "Evenki." Cassell's Peoples, Nations, and Cultures. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005. EBSCO. Web. 4 Nov. 2009.
  • "Evenki." Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth Edition. Ed. Paul M. Lewis. SIL International, 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[16]
  • Fondahl, Gail. Gaining ground? Evenkis, land and reform in southeastern Siberia. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. Print.
  • Forsyth, James. History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony, 1581-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992. Print.
  • Georg, Stefan, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis M. Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell. "Telling general linguists about Altaic." Journal of Linguistics 35.1 (1999): 65-98. JSTOR. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.
  • Hallen, Cynthia L. "A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis." Department of Linguistics. Brigham Young University, 6 Sept. 1999. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[17]
  • Janhunen, Juha. "Evenki." Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. Ed. Christopher Moseley. UNESCO Culture Sector, 31 Mar. 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.[18]
  • Nedjalkov, Igor. Evenki. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. Descriptive Grammars.
  • Sirina, Anna A. "People Who Feel the Land: The Ecological Ethic of the Evenki and Eveny." Trans. James E. Walker. Anthropology & Archaeology of Eurasia 3rd ser. 47.Winter 2008-9 (2009): 9-37. EBSCOHost. Web. 27 November 2009.
  • Vasilevich, G. M., and A. V. Smolyak. "Evenki." The Peoples of Siberia. Ed. Stephen Dunn. Trans. Scripta Technica, Inc. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1964. 620-54. Print.
  • Vitebsky, Piers. Reindeer people: Living with Animals and Spirits in Siberia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Print.
  • Wood, Alan, and R. A. French, eds. Development of Siberia: People and Resources. New York: St. Martin's, 1989. Print.

Notes

  1. ^ Autonym: ᠧᠸᠧᠩᠺᠢ Эвэнкил Evenkil; Russian: Эвенки Evenki; Chinese: 鄂温克族 Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Mongolian: Хамниган Khamnigan) or Aiwenji (Chinese: 埃文基族 āiwénjī Zú

References

  1. ^ a b Ethnic groups in Russia, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  2. ^ a b c "Evenk Archives - Intercontinental Cry". Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  3. ^ a b c "2015 POPULATION AND HOUSING BY-CENSUS OF MONGOLIA: NATIONAL REPORT". National Statistics Office of Mongolia. 20 February 2017.
  4. ^ a b "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Ewenki, Solon" (PDF). Asiaharvest.org. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Ewenki, Tungus" (PDF). Asiaharvest.org. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  7. ^ a b Шубин А. Ц. Краткий очерк этнической истории эвенков Забайкалья (XVIII-XX век). Улан-Удэ: Бурят. кн. изд-во, 1973. С. 64, 65 (in Russian)
  8. ^ Klokov, K.B., Khrushchev, S.A. (2010). Demographic dynamics of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Russian North, 1897-2002. Sibirica, 9, 41-65
  9. ^ Vakhtin, N. (1992). Native peoples of the Russian Far North. London
  10. ^ Herold J. Wiens "Change in the Ethnography and Land Use of the Ili Valley and Region, Chinese Turkestan", Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1969), pp. 753-775 (JSTOR access required)
  11. ^ Tianshannet / Окно в Синьцзян / Народности, не относящиеся к тюркской группе (Window to Xinjiang / Non-Turkic peoples) (in Russian)
  12. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  13. ^ Richard Noll and Kun Shi, A Solon Evenki shaman and her Abgaldi Shaman mask. Shaman, 2007, 15 (1-2):167-174
  14. ^ Noll, Richard. ""A Solon Ewenki shaman and her Abagaldai mask," Shaman (2007), 15 (1-2)". Academia.edu. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  15. ^ Heyne, F. Georg (2007), "Notes on Blood Revenge among the Reindeer Evenki of Manchuria" (PDF), Asian Folklore Studies, 66 (1/2): 165–178
  16. ^ "Evenki". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  17. ^ "A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesis". Linguistics.byu.edu. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  18. ^ "UNESCO Culture Sector - Intangible Heritage - 2003 Convention : UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". Web.archive.org. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2018.

External links

Bombogor (chief)

Dular Bombogor (simplified Chinese: 杜拉尔·博木博果尔; traditional Chinese: 杜拉爾·博木博果爾; pinyin: Dùlā’ěr Bómùbóguǒ’ěr) (Yaksa, ? - Mukden, 1640) was an Evenk chief, leader of the Evenk federation. His power base laid on the basin of the Amur river

In 1638, the Qing Emperor Hong Taiji sent general Samshika against Bombogor but his campaign failed to subdue Evenk resistance.In December 1639, Hong Taiji sent another large force to the Amur. This force penetrated deep into Solon territory, reaching the Kumara River. The Battle of Gualar was fought between 2 Manchu regiments and a detachment of 500 Solons and Daurs led by Bombogor.

In May 1640, the Manchus assaulted the Evenk fortresses of Duochen, Asajin, Yakesa, and Duojin; capturing all four of them and large numbers of horses, cattle, pelts and slaves.Although Bombogor continued his resistance he was losing support, the Evenks were no match for the powerful Manchu armies and many Solons switched their allegiance to the Manchu Khan.In August 1640 Hong Taiji sent general Xiteku against Bombogor. The latter fled to Mongolia, but Xiteku caught up with him in the vicinity of Qiluotai, capturing his baggage train, wives and children. Bombogor was captured and taken to Mukden where he was executed. With Bombogor's death Evenk resistance collapsed and the Manchu secured control of the Amur peoples. The Evenks and other local peoples were absorbed into the Eight Banners.

Chum (tent)

A chum (pronounced "choom") is a temporary dwelling used by the nomadic Uralic (Nenets, Nganasans, Enets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi) reindeer herders of northwestern Siberia of Russia. The Evenks, Tungusic peoples, tribes, in Russia, Mongolia and China also use chums. They are also used by the southernmost reindeer herders, of the Todzha region of the Republic of Tyva and their cross-border relatives in northern Mongolia. It has a design similar to a Native American tipi but some versions are less vertical. It is very closely related to the Sami lavvu in construction, but is somewhat larger in size. Some chums can be up to thirty feet (ten meters) in diameter.

The traditional chum consists of reindeer hides sewn together and wrapped around wooden poles that are organized in a circle. In the middle there is a fireplace used for heating and to keep the mosquitoes away. The smoke escapes through a hole on top of the chum. The canvas and wooden poles are usually quite heavy, but could be transported by using their reindeer. The chum is still in use today as a year-round shelter for the Yamal-Nenets, Khanty and Todzha Tyvan people of Russia.

In Russian use, the terms chum, yurt and yaranga may be used interchangeably.The word chum (Russian: чум) came from Komi: ćom [t͡ɕom] or Udmurt: ćum [t͡ɕum], both mean "tent, shelter". In different languages it has different names: Nenets: ḿāʔ [mʲaːʔ], Nganasan: maʔ, Khanty: (ńuki) χot. Evenki: ǯū [d͡ʒuː].

Circumpolar peoples

Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.

Cultural backwardness

Cultural backwardness (Russian: культурная отсталость) was a term used by Soviet politicians and ethnographers. There were at one point officially 97 "culturally backward" nationalities in the Soviet Union. Members of a "culturally backward" nationality were eligible for preferential treatment in university admissions. In 1934 the Central Executive Committee declared that the term should no longer be used, however preferential treatment for certain minorities and the promotion of local nationals in the party structure through korenizatsiya continued for several more years.

D. O. Chaoke

Dular Osor Chaoke (Chinese: 杜拉尔·敖斯尔·朝克; pinyin: Dùlā'ěr Áosī'ěr Zhāokè; born 1958) is a Chinese linguist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. His primary area of study is on the Tungusic languages, especially his native Evenki language.

Dolgans

Dolgans (Russian: долганы; self-designation: долган, тыа-киһи, һака(саха)) are a Turkic people, who mostly inhabit Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The 2010 Census counted 7,885 Dolgans. This number includes 5,517 in former Taymyr Autonomous Okrug. There are 26 Dolgans in Ukraine, four of whom speak Dolgan (2001 Ukrainian Census).Dolgans speak the Dolgan language. Some believe that it is a dialect of Yakut language.

The Dolgan identity began to emerge during the 19th and early 20th centuries, under the influence of three groups who migrated to the Krasnoyarsk area from the Lena River and Olenyok River region: Evenks, Yakuts, Enets, and so-called Tundra peasants (Зату́ндренные крестья́не Zatúndrennye krest’jáne, literally "tundranized peasants").

Originally, the Dolgans were nomadic hunters and reindeer herders. However, they were prevented from following a nomadic lifestyle during the Soviet era and required to form kolkhozy (rural collectives) that – in addition to their traditional activities – engaged in reindeer breeding, fishing, dairy farming and market gardening. In 1983, the anthropologist Shirin Akiner claimed: "Dolgans enjoy full Soviet citizenship. They are found in all occupations, though the majority are peasants and collective farm workers. Their standard of housing is comparable to that of other national groups in the Soviet Union."Most Dolgans practice old shamanistic beliefs; however, some are influenced with Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

East Siberian Sea

The East Siberian Sea (Russian: Восто́чно-Сиби́рское мо́ре, tr. Vostochno-Sibirskoye more) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the Arctic Cape to the north, the coast of Siberia to the south, the New Siberian Islands to the west and Cape Billings, close to Chukotka, and Wrangel Island to the east. This sea borders on the Laptev Sea to the west and the Chukchi Sea to the east.

This sea is one of the least studied in the Arctic area. It is characterized by severe climate, low water salinity, and a scarcity of flora, fauna and human population, as well as shallow depths (mostly less than 50 m), slow sea currents, low tides (below 25 cm), frequent fogs, especially in summer, and an abundance of ice fields which fully melt only in August–September. The sea shores were inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous tribes of Yukaghirs, Chukchi and then Evens and Evenks, which were engaged in fishing, hunting and reindeer husbandry. They were then absorbed by Yakuts and later by Russians.

Major industrial activities in the area are mining and navigation within the Northern Sea Route; commercial fishing is poorly developed. The largest city and port is Pevek, the northernmost city of mainland Russia.

Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Russian: Эвенки́йский автоно́мный о́круг, Evenkiysky avtonomny okrug; Evenki: Эведы Автомоды Округ, Ēvēde Avtōmōde Okrug), or Evenkia, was a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Krasnoyarsk Krai). It had been created in 1930. Its administrative center was the urban-type settlement of Tura. As of 2006, at 767,600 km², it was Russia's seventh largest federal subject, and the country's least populous: 17,697 (2002 Census).In 1999, the governor of Krasnoyarsk, General Alexander Lebed, demanded the okrug recognize the central district government of Krasnoyarsk had authority over it, which the okrug refused to do, causing a power struggle between the central district and the okrug's government. Following a referendum on the issue held on April 17, 2005, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs were merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai effective January 1, 2007 (some Evenks contested the results, however). Administratively, they are now considered to be districts with special status within Krasnoyarsk Krai; municipally, they have a status of municipal districts (see Evenkiysky District).

Boris Zolotaryov was the last governor of the autonomous okrug.

Evenk Ethnic Sumu

The Evenk Ethnic Sumu (simplified Chinese: 鄂温克民族苏木; traditional Chinese: 鄂溫克民族蘇木; pinyin: Èwēnkè Mínzúsūmù) is an administrative subdivision in the northeastern part of Old Barag Banner in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia. It has an area of 6,037 km2 (2,331 sq mi) and, as of 2010, a population of 2665 of which 1560 (54.4%) are ethnic Evenks.As of 2010, it is the only "ethnic sumu" in China; the sumu is a type of administrative unit at the township (fourth) level only found in Inner Mongolia, equivalent to ethnic townships in other parts of China.

It is located on grassland 68 kilometres (42 mi) north-northeast of the urban area of Hulunbuir.

Evenki

Evenki or Evenk may refer to

Evenks, or Evenki, a people of Russia and China

Evenki languages, languages of Tungusic family

Evenki language, a subdivision of Evenki languages, spoken by Evenks

Evenk Autonomous Banner, a 3rd-level subdivision of Inner Mongolia, China

Evenk Ethnic Sumu, a 4th-level subdivision of Inner Mongolia, China

Evenk Autonomous Okrug, a former subdivision of Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai, now the Evenkiysky District

Evenki language

Evenki , formerly known as Tungus or Solon, is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language. The name is sometimes wrongly given as "Evenks". It is spoken by Evenks in Russia and China.

In certain areas the influences of the Yakut and the Buryat languages are particularly strong. The influence of Russian in general is overwhelming (in 1979, 75.2% of the Evenkis spoke Russian, rising to 92.7% in 2002). Evenki children were forced to learn Russian at Soviet residential schools, and returned with a “poor ability to speak their mother tongue...". The Evenki language varies considerably among its dialects which are divided into three large groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects. These are further divided into minor dialects. A written language was created for Evenkis in the Soviet Union in 1931, first using a Latin alphabet, and from 1937 a Cyrillic one. In China, Evenki is written experimentally in the Mongolian script. The language is generally considered endangered.

Evens

The Evens (эвэн; pl. эвэсэл, evesel, in Even and эвены, evëny in Russian; formerly called Lamuts) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. They live in some of the regions of the Magadan Oblast and Kamchatka Krai and northern parts of Sakha east of the Lena River. According to the 2002 census, there were 19,071 Evens in Russia. According to the 2010 census, there were 22,383 Evens in Russia. They speak their own language called Even language, one of the Tungusic languages. The Evens are close to the Evenks by their origins and culture. Officially, they were considered to be of Orthodox faith since the 19th century, but the Evens managed to preserve different forms of non-Christian beliefs, such as shamanism. Traditional Even life is centred upon nomadic pastoralism of domesticated reindeer, supplemented with hunting, fishing and animal-trapping. There were 104 Evens in Ukraine, 19 of whom speaking Even. (Ukr. Cen. 2001)

Galina Varlamova

Galina Ivanovna Varlamova or Keptuke (native name) (born January 18, 1951) (Russian: Галина Ивановна Варламова, Кэптукэ) is an Evenk writer, philologist and folklorist. She is an expert in Evenk language and folklore. She writes in Russian, Evenk and Yakut languages.

Hamnigan

The Hamnigan Buryats or Khamnigan are Mongolized Evenks of Tungusic origin.

Khamnigan is the Buriat-Mongolian term for all Ewenkis. In the early 16th century, the Evenks of Transbaikalia or Khamnigans were tributary to the Khalkha. The Khamnigan are only ethnic group of Tungus origin in Mongolia. They who lived around Nerchinsk and the Aga steppe faced both Cossack demands for tribute and Khori-Buriats trying to occupy their pastures. Most of them came under the Cossack rule and enrolled the Cossack regiments in the Selenge valley. The Khori Buriats occupied most of the Aga steppe and forced the Ewenkis to flee to the Qing Dynasty.

After 1880 Russia's Khamnigan Evenks moved to semi nomadic herding of cattle, sheep, camels and horses. Some time after 1918 the Evenks, along with their Buriat neighbors, fled over the border into Mongolia and Hulun Buir, establishing the current Khamnigan communities there. The Khamnigan of Mongolia, numbering 300 households, are scattered among the Buriats and speak only the Khamnigan dialect of Buriat language. They live around the Yeruu Lake, Dornod and Khentii provinces as well as Möngönmorit of Töv Province.

There are 535? Hamnigans (3,000? Hamnigans in Selenge province) in Mongolia. All Hamnigans are not of Tungusic origin and there are some Mongols among the Hamnigans.

Karyms

Karyms (Russian: Карымы) is an ethnic group in Russia which are métises of mixing Russians with Evenks and Buryats resulting from the lack of women among Russian settlers.In the 2002 Russian Census, 2 persons self-identified themselves as karyms and were included into the ethnicity "Russians".

The Russian volcano, Karymsky was named after the ethnic group.

Khabarovsk Krai

Khabarovsk Krai (Russian: Хаба́ровский край, tr. Khabarovsky kray, IPA: [xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative center of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the second largest city in the Russian Far East (after Vladivostok). Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, with a population of 1,343,869 as of the (2010 Census).The southern region lies mostly in the basin of the lower Amur River, with the mouth of the river located at Nikolaevsk-on-Amur draining into the Strait of Tartary, which separates Khabarovsk Krai from the island of Sakhalin. The north occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. Khabarovsk Krai is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the north, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and the Sakha Republic to the west, Primorsky Krai to the south, and Sakhalin Oblast to the east.

The population is mostly ethnic Russians, but indigenous people of the area are various Tungusic peoples (Evenks, Negidals, Ulchs, Nanai, Oroch, Udege) and Amur Nivkhs.

List of Tungusic languages

Tungusic is a group of languages that forms a language family that is spoken in Northern Asia that includes Eastern Russia (Siberia) and the Northeastern Provinces (or old Manchuria) of China and some areas of Inner Mongolia, also in China.Tungusic is formed by about 12 living languages and has two branches: northern and southern.

Tungusic languages are spoken by about 75 000 native/first language speakers over a wide geographical area. Except for Xibe (30 000 speakers) and Evenki (15 800 speakers) all the other Tungusic languages have a few thousand, some hundreds or some tens of speakers.

Many of the Tungusic languages are endangered, however there has been some revival atempts to save several Tungusic languages.

Some Tungusic ethnic groups are much larger than their native language community, especially the Manchu people, that number more than 10 million 430 thousand (but today there are only 10 native/first language speakers of Manchu language and some thousands that are second languages speakers).

Although the language family name is Tungusic, that name comes from an exonym, from the Yakut and Siberian Tatar word tungus that means pig, (i.e. a pejorative or derogatory word from another people or peoples that was applied to the Evenks) and not from an endonym of any of its languages.

Semyon Nomokonov

Semyon Danilovich Nomokonov (12 August 1900 – 12 June or 15 July 1973) was a Soviet sniper during World War II, credited with 367 kills, recorded in his sniper log. An ethnic Hamnigan Evenk, Nomokonov was among the indigenous peoples of Russia who fought in the war. He received the nickname Taiga Shaman from the enemies.Nomokonov was awarded two Orders of the Red Star, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Lenin and medals.

Wild Jurchens

The Wild Jurchens (Chinese: 野人女真) or Haidong Jurchens (Chinese: 海東女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the northernmost group of the Jurchen people (the other being the Jianzhou Jurchens and Haixi Jurchens) in the fourteenth century, inhabiting the northernmost part of Manchuria from the western side of the Greater Khingan mountains to the Ussuri River and the lower Amur River bordered by the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan.

The descendants of wild Jurchens do not identify themselves as Manchus. Instead, they formed different nations such as Nanai, Evenks, Negidals, Oroqen and Nivkh.

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