The evening bat is a small bat (7–15 grams) found throughout much of the midwestern and eastern United States. Their forearms are 34–38 mm (1.33 in) in length. The tip of each dorsal hair is a light gray, and one- to two-thirds of the basal is dark brown. Though there have been some cases of white pelage, the majority of the population is mostly brown in color. They have wide, dog-like muzzles, pronounced facial glands, and disproportionately large bacula. Evening bats can be mistaken for juvenile big brown bats, due to their physical resemblance but smaller size.
Evening bats have relatively robust jaws, compared to other insectivorous bats. They have an unkeeled calcar and a short, round tragus. The curvature of the tragus helps distinguish it from bats of the genus Myotis, which otherwise look very similar. Their skull has one upper incisor on each side with 4 molariform teeth.
The evening bat is a relatively short-lived, especially compared to other bats in its geographic range. It has a maximum age of 6 years, though few individuals live past 4 years. Its short lifespan for a bat could be explained by its considerably higher reproductive output. Bats that only have one pup per year would need to live much longer to have the same fitness as a shorter-lived species with two or three pups per year.
Evening bats mate in the fall and winter; the sperm is stored until the spring, when fertilization occurs. Female bats form maternity colonies in May, consisting of 15-300 individuals. Of females that give birth, 90% have twins, but singletons and triplets are also possible. Though it is more common for evening bats to nurse their own offspring, a small proportion of offspring are nursed by unrelated females. The pups are capable of flight within a month of birth. Pups are weaned within 42 days of birth. Female pups exhibit natal philopatry, meaning that as adults, they return to the roost where they were born to give birth.
These bats have varied diets. A majority of the bats' diet in Indiana and Illinois are beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, which is a serious agricultural pest. In southern Illinois, the spotted cucumber beetle is almost 25% of the evening bats' diet. Other beetles consumed include ground beetles and scarab beetles. Moths are also a significant dietary component. Bugs, winged ants, and flies are prey items of less significance. Evening bats partition resources with other insectivorous bats in their range, such as the eastern red bat and Seminole bat. Despite foraging in the same areas at the same time, these three bat species choose different prey items at different points throughout the summer.
At first, the evening bat was thought of as a southeastern bat species. However, breeding evening bats have been found as far north as Michigan and as far west as the 100th meridian. Evening bats roost in a variety of structures, including Spanish moss, under bark, in tree cavities, and in buildings. For foraging habitat, evening bats in Georgia prefer pine forest, riparian zones, and open fields. Evening bats have home ranges of approximately 300 hectare (1.15 mi2). Because the evening bat is not found in the northernmost extent of its range in the winter, it is likely that at least some evening bats are migratory.
While the evening bat is considered endangered in the state of Indiana, it has a cosmopolitan distribution throughout the southeast and midwest. Because evening bats do not enter or hibernate in caves, the species is not at-risk from white-nose syndrome, which has killed over six million bats in the United States since 2006. The evening bat's avoidance of this disease, along with die-offs of many other species, is possibly responsible for the evening bat recently expanding its range into Wisconsin in 2015 and Minnesota in 2016.
|Alabama||Lowest Conservation Concern|
|North Carolina||Not listed|
|Ohio||Species of Special Interest|
|South Carolina||Not listed|
|West Virginia||Not listed|
Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:
Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)
Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)
Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)
Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)
Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)Barbastella
Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.Birdlike noctule
The birdlike noctule (Nyctalus aviator) is a species of bat. An adult birdlike noctule has a body length of 7.1-9.5 cm, a tail of 5.5-6.4 cm, and a wing length of 5.8-5.95 cm. It nests in the holes in old trees and buildings, and sometimes in mineshafts. It is distributed across Northeast Asia, from northeast China and Siberia through the Korean Peninsula to Japan.
Along with the greater noctule bat and the Asian great evening bat, this is one of three bat species to prey on small, nocturnally-migrating birds, pursuing them in open air. At least one specific bird, Middendorff’s grasshopper warbler (Locustella ochotensis), has been identified based on faecal DNA in the diet of N. aviator in Japan.Cuban evening bat
The Cuban evening bat (Nycticeius cubanus) is a species of bat in the vesper bat family, Vespertilionidae, that is endemic to western Cuba. It is a small bat, even smaller than cogener Nycticeius humeralis. It is insectivorous, but otherwise little is known about its behavior and diet.Eptesicus
Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:
Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)
Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)
Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)
Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)
Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)
Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)
Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)
Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)
Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)
Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)
Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)
Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)
Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)
Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)
Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)
Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)
Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)
Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)
Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)
Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)
Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)
Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)
Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)
Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)Great evening bat
The great evening bat (Ia io) is the largest bat in the vesper bat family (Vespertilionidae) and the only living species in the genus Ia. It is common to Eastern and Southeastern Asia (China, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam), mainly living in areas with limestone caves at altitudes of 400–1,700 metres (0.25–1.06 mi). Their roost sites have been found both near the cave entrances and up to 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) within the cave systems.The great evening bat reaches a length of 90 to 105 millimetres (3.5–4.1 in). It is colored brown on the top and grayish on the bottom. Average wingspan is .51 m (20 in) and it typically weighs 58 g (2.0 oz).Not much is known about its habits and behavior. The bat usually lives in small groups. Its food consists of insects, as with most vesper bats. The great evening bat also sometimes feeds on small birds . The bat leaves its sleeping place already in the late afternoon for the search of food. During the winter months it may migrate to warmer regions.
The IUCN lists its conservation status as Least Concern. One of the threats to its survival in South Asia is human influence by habitat destruction; many caves have been turned into attractions. They have also been disturbed by farmers collecting their excrement. Also the excessive use of insecticides poses a threat to the great evening bats.At four letters, Ia io is tied with Yi qi for the shortest existing (and shortest possible) scientific name of any animal under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and is one of very few scientific names composed solely of vowels .Hesperoptenus
Hesperoptenus is a genus of bats within the Vespertilionidae or "Vesper bats" family. Species within this genus are:
Blanford's bat (Hesperoptenus blanfordi)
False serotine bat (Hesperoptenus doriae)
Gaskell's false serotine (Hesperoptenus gaskelli)
Tickell's bat (Hesperoptenus tickelli)
Large false serotine (Hesperoptenus tomesi)Hypsugo
The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.Ia (genus)
Ia is a genus of bat in the family Vespertilionidae. It belongs to the subfamily Vespertilioninae and has been placed in the tribe Vespertilionini. In the past, it has also been considered a synonym or subgenus of the genera Pipistrellus or Eptesicus, which used to contain many more species than they do now. Ia comprises a single living species, the great evening bat (I. io) of eastern and southeastern Asia, and one extinct fossil species, I. lanna, from the Miocene epoch in Thailand. Another living species, I. longimana, was recognized in the past, but it is no longer considered a valid species distinct from the great evening bat.
At two letters, Ia ties the bat-like dinosaur Yi for the shortest possible name of any animal genus under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.Laephotis
Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:
Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)
Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)
Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)
De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)Moloney's mimic bat
Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.Neoromicia
Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
It contains the following species:
Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)
Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)
Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)
Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)
Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)
Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)
Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)
Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)
Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)
Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)
Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)
Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)
Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)
White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)
Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)Nyctalus
Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.
There are eight species within this genus:
Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator
Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum
Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus
Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus
Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri
Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus
Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula
Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyiNycticeius
Nycticeius is a small genus of bats in the vesper bat family, Vespertilionidae. It contains three species, the evening bat (N. humeralis), the Cuban evening bat (N. cubanus) and Nycticeius aenobarbus. Some authorities include several other Old World species in Nycticeius, but recent genetic work shows that is a completely New World genus. Nycticeius is of Greek and Latin origin, meaning "belonging to the night".The Cuban evening bat is found only on the island of Cuba, and very little is known about this species. It is similar in appearance to N. humeralis, but is considerably smaller (4–7 grams).Pipistrellus
For the light aircraft manufacturer, see Pipistrel.
Pipistrellus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae and subfamily Vespertilioninae. The name of the genus is derived from the Italian word pipistrello, meaning "bat" (from Latin vespertilio "bird of evening, bat").
The size of the genus has been considerably reduced as a result of work during the 1990s and 2000s, with genera such as Arielulus, Hypsugo, Falsistrellus, Neoromicia, Parastrellus, Perimyotis, Scotozous, and Vespadelus being split off. Still, molecular evidence suggests the genus is not monophyletic. Several other genera in the subfamily Vespertilioninae have also been merged with Pipistrellus in previous classifications. Species in the genus may be referred to as "pipistrelles" or "pipistrelle bats", though these terms are also used for species now placed in other genera, such as the western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus) and eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) of North America. Species of the southern hemisphere separated to genus Falsistrellus are sometimes referred to as 'false pipistrelle' or 'falsistrelle'.They are somewhat distinguished from their much larger relatives, the noctule bats Nyctalus by their weak, fluttery flight reminiscent of a butterfly, though a few species are more direct in their flight.Plecotus
The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.Rüppell's pipistrelle
Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.Scotoecus
Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.Vespertilioninae
The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.
Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae