Evening bat

The evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) is a species of bat in the vesper bat family that is native to North America.[2] Hunting at night, they eat beetles, moths, and other flying insects.

Evening bat
Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Nycticeius
Species:
N. humeralis
Binomial name
Nycticeius humeralis
(Rafinesque, 1818)
Nycticeius humeralis map

Description

Evening bat

The evening bat is a small bat (7–15 grams)[3] found throughout much of the midwestern and eastern United States. Their forearms are 34–38 mm (1.33 in) in length.[4] The tip of each dorsal hair is a light gray, and one- to two-thirds of the basal is dark brown. Though there have been some cases of white pelage, the majority of the population is mostly brown in color.[4] They have wide, dog-like muzzles, pronounced facial glands, and disproportionately large bacula.[4][5] Evening bats can be mistaken for juvenile big brown bats, due to their physical resemblance but smaller size.

Morphology

Evening bats have relatively robust jaws, compared to other insectivorous bats.[6] They have an unkeeled calcar and a short, round tragus.[7] The curvature of the tragus helps distinguish it from bats of the genus Myotis, which otherwise look very similar.[7] Their skull has one upper incisor on each side with 4 molariform teeth.[8]

Biology

The evening bat is a relatively short-lived, especially compared to other bats in its geographic range.[9] It has a maximum age of 6 years, though few individuals live past 4 years.[10][9] Its short lifespan for a bat could be explained by its considerably higher reproductive output. Bats that only have one pup per year would need to live much longer to have the same fitness as a shorter-lived species with two or three pups per year.[9]

Reproduction

Evening bats mate in the fall and winter; the sperm is stored until the spring, when fertilization occurs.[11] Female bats form maternity colonies in May,[12] consisting of 15-300 individuals.[3] Of females that give birth, 90% have twins, but singletons and triplets are also possible.[11][12][13] Though it is more common for evening bats to nurse their own offspring,[3] a small proportion of offspring are nursed by unrelated females. The pups are capable of flight within a month of birth.[12] Pups are weaned within 42 days of birth.[3] Female pups exhibit natal philopatry, meaning that as adults, they return to the roost where they were born to give birth.[3]

Diet

These bats have varied diets. A majority of the bats' diet in Indiana and Illinois are beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, which is a serious agricultural pest.[14] In southern Illinois, the spotted cucumber beetle is almost 25% of the evening bats' diet.[15] Other beetles consumed include ground beetles and scarab beetles.[14] Moths are also a significant dietary component.[14] Bugs, winged ants, and flies are prey items of less significance.[15][16] Evening bats partition resources with other insectivorous bats in their range, such as the eastern red bat and Seminole bat.[16] Despite foraging in the same areas at the same time, these three bat species choose different prey items at different points throughout the summer.[16]

Distribution

At first, the evening bat was thought of as a southeastern bat species.[17] However, breeding evening bats have been found as far north as Michigan and as far west as the 100th meridian.[13] Evening bats roost in a variety of structures, including Spanish moss, under bark, in tree cavities, and in buildings.[18] For foraging habitat, evening bats in Georgia prefer pine forest, riparian zones, and open fields.[19] Evening bats have home ranges of approximately 300 hectare (1.15 mi2).[19] Because the evening bat is not found in the northernmost extent of its range in the winter, it is likely that at least some evening bats are migratory.[4]

Conservation

While the evening bat is considered endangered in the state of Indiana,[20] it has a cosmopolitan distribution throughout the southeast and midwest.[18] Because evening bats do not enter or hibernate in caves, the species is not at-risk from white-nose syndrome, which has killed over six million bats in the United States since 2006.[21] The evening bat's avoidance of this disease, along with die-offs of many other species, is possibly responsible for the evening bat recently expanding its range into Wisconsin in 2015 and Minnesota in 2016.[21][22]

State Conservation Status
Alabama Lowest Conservation Concern
Arkansas Not listed
Florida Not listed
Georgia Not listed
Illinois Not listed
Indiana State Endangered
Iowa Not listed
Kentucky Threatened
Kansas Not listed
Louisiana Not listed
Maryland Not listed
Michigan Threatened
Minnesota Not listed
Mississippi Not listed
Missouri Not listed
Nebraska Not listed
North Carolina Not listed
Ohio Species of Special Interest
Oklahoma Not listed
Pennsylvania Not listed
South Carolina Not listed
Tennessee Not listed
Texas Not listed
Virginia Not listed
West Virginia Not listed
Wisconsin Not listed

References

  1. ^ Solari, S. (2019). "Nycticeius humeralis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T14944A22015223. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T14944A22015223.en.
  2. ^ Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 312–529. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  3. ^ a b c d e Wilkinson, G.S. (1992). "Communal Nursing in the Evening Bat, Nycticeius humeralis". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 31 (4): 225–235. doi:10.1007/bf00171677.
  4. ^ a b c d Watkins, L. C. (1972). Nycticeius humeralis. Mammalian species, (23), 1-4.
  5. ^ Hamilton, W. J. (1949). "The bacula of some North American vespertilionid bats". Journal of Mammalogy. 30 (2): 97–102. doi:10.2307/1375254. JSTOR 1375254. PMID 18121317.
  6. ^ Freeman, P. W. (1981). "Correspondence of food habits and morphology in insectivorous bats". Journal of Mammalogy. 62 (1): 166–173. doi:10.2307/1380489. JSTOR 1380489.
  7. ^ a b Barbour, R., W. Davis. 1974. Mammals of Kentucky. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
  8. ^ Whitaker, John O. (2010). Mammals of Indiana. 601 North Morton Street, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 118 & 119. ISBN 978-0-253-22213-8.
  9. ^ a b c Austad, S. N. (2010). Cats,"rats," and bats: the comparative biology of aging in the 21st century. Integrative and comparative biology, icq131.
  10. ^ Humphrey, S. R.; Cope, J. B. (1970). "Population samples of the evening bat, Nycticeius humeralis". Journal of Mammalogy. 51 (2): 399–401. doi:10.2307/1378503. JSTOR 1378503.
  11. ^ a b Whitaker, J. O., Jr., J. B. Cope, D. W. Sparks, V. Brack, Jr., and S. Johnson. Bats of Indiana. Publication no. 1, ISU Center for North American Bat Research and Conservation. Indiana State University. 59 pp.
  12. ^ a b c Watkins, L. C., & Shump Jr, K. A. (1981). Behavior of the evening bat Nycticeius humeralis at a nursery roost. American Midland Naturalist, 258-268.
  13. ^ a b Kurta, A., Foster, R., Hough, E., & Winhold, L. (2005). The evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) on the northern edge of its range—a maternity colony in Michigan. The American midland naturalist, 154(1), 264-267.
  14. ^ a b c Whitaker Jr, J. O., & Clem, P. (1992). Food of the evening bat Nycticeius humeralis from Indiana. American Midland Naturalist, 211-214.
  15. ^ a b Feldhamer, G. A., Whitaker Jr, J. O., Krejca, J. K., & Taylor, S. J. (1995). Food of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) and red bat (Lasiurus borealis) from southern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science, 88, 139-143.
  16. ^ a b c Carter, T. C., Menzel, M. A., Chapman, B. R., & Miller, K. V. (2004). Partitioning of food resources by syntopic eastern red (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole (L. seminolus) and evening (Nycticeius humeralis) bats. The American midland naturalist, 151(1), 186-191.
  17. ^ Baker, W. W.; Marshall, S. G.; Baker, V. B. (1968). "Autumn fat deposition in the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis)". Journal of Mammalogy. 49 (2): 314–317. doi:10.2307/1377991. JSTOR 1377991.
  18. ^ a b Menzel, M. A., Carter, T. C., Ford, W. M., & Chapman, B. R. (2001). Tree-roost characteristics of subadult and female adult evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis) in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The American Midland Naturalist, 145(1), 112-119.
  19. ^ a b Morris, A. D.; Miller, D. A.; Conner, L. M. (2011). "Home-range size of evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis) in southwestern Georgia". Southeastern Naturalist. 10 (1): 85–94. doi:10.1656/058.010.0107.
  20. ^ "Bats in Indiana". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. IN.gov. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  21. ^ a b Bergquist, Lee (September 13, 2016). "First find of bat species in 60 years". Journal Sentinel. Milwaukee. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  22. ^ "First new bat species discovered in Minnesota in more than a century". Minnesota DNR. Minnesota. August 1, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2017.

External links

Media related to Nycticeius humeralis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Nycticeius humeralis at Wikispecies

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Birdlike noctule

The birdlike noctule (Nyctalus aviator) is a species of bat. An adult birdlike noctule has a body length of 7.1-9.5 cm, a tail of 5.5-6.4 cm, and a wing length of 5.8-5.95 cm. It nests in the holes in old trees and buildings, and sometimes in mineshafts. It is distributed across Northeast Asia, from northeast China and Siberia through the Korean Peninsula to Japan.

Along with the greater noctule bat and the Asian great evening bat, this is one of three bat species to prey on small, nocturnally-migrating birds, pursuing them in open air. At least one specific bird, Middendorff’s grasshopper warbler (Locustella ochotensis), has been identified based on faecal DNA in the diet of N. aviator in Japan.

Cuban evening bat

The Cuban evening bat (Nycticeius cubanus) is a species of bat in the vesper bat family, Vespertilionidae, that is endemic to western Cuba. It is a small bat, even smaller than cogener Nycticeius humeralis. It is insectivorous, but otherwise little is known about its behavior and diet.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Great evening bat

The great evening bat (Ia io) is the largest bat in the vesper bat family (Vespertilionidae) and the only living species in the genus Ia. It is common to Eastern and Southeastern Asia (China, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam), mainly living in areas with limestone caves at altitudes of 400–1,700 metres (0.25–1.06 mi). Their roost sites have been found both near the cave entrances and up to 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) within the cave systems.The great evening bat reaches a length of 90 to 105 millimetres (3.5–4.1 in). It is colored brown on the top and grayish on the bottom. Average wingspan is .51 m (20 in) and it typically weighs 58 g (2.0 oz).Not much is known about its habits and behavior. The bat usually lives in small groups. Its food consists of insects, as with most vesper bats. The great evening bat also sometimes feeds on small birds [2]. The bat leaves its sleeping place already in the late afternoon for the search of food. During the winter months it may migrate to warmer regions.

The IUCN lists its conservation status as Least Concern. One of the threats to its survival in South Asia is human influence by habitat destruction; many caves have been turned into attractions. They have also been disturbed by farmers collecting their excrement. Also the excessive use of insecticides poses a threat to the great evening bats.At four letters, Ia io is tied with Yi qi for the shortest existing (and shortest possible) scientific name of any animal under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and is one of very few scientific names composed solely of vowels [3].

Hesperoptenus

Hesperoptenus is a genus of bats within the Vespertilionidae or "Vesper bats" family. Species within this genus are:

Blanford's bat (Hesperoptenus blanfordi)

False serotine bat (Hesperoptenus doriae)

Gaskell's false serotine (Hesperoptenus gaskelli)

Tickell's bat (Hesperoptenus tickelli)

Large false serotine (Hesperoptenus tomesi)

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Ia (genus)

Ia is a genus of bat in the family Vespertilionidae. It belongs to the subfamily Vespertilioninae and has been placed in the tribe Vespertilionini. In the past, it has also been considered a synonym or subgenus of the genera Pipistrellus or Eptesicus, which used to contain many more species than they do now. Ia comprises a single living species, the great evening bat (I. io) of eastern and southeastern Asia, and one extinct fossil species, I. lanna, from the Miocene epoch in Thailand. Another living species, I. longimana, was recognized in the past, but it is no longer considered a valid species distinct from the great evening bat.

At two letters, Ia ties the bat-like dinosaur Yi for the shortest possible name of any animal genus under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Nycticeius

Nycticeius is a small genus of bats in the vesper bat family, Vespertilionidae. It contains three species, the evening bat (N. humeralis), the Cuban evening bat (N. cubanus) and Nycticeius aenobarbus. Some authorities include several other Old World species in Nycticeius, but recent genetic work shows that is a completely New World genus. Nycticeius is of Greek and Latin origin, meaning "belonging to the night".The Cuban evening bat is found only on the island of Cuba, and very little is known about this species. It is similar in appearance to N. humeralis, but is considerably smaller (4–7 grams).

Pipistrellus

For the light aircraft manufacturer, see Pipistrel.

Pipistrellus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae and subfamily Vespertilioninae. The name of the genus is derived from the Italian word pipistrello, meaning "bat" (from Latin vespertilio "bird of evening, bat").

The size of the genus has been considerably reduced as a result of work during the 1990s and 2000s, with genera such as Arielulus, Hypsugo, Falsistrellus, Neoromicia, Parastrellus, Perimyotis, Scotozous, and Vespadelus being split off. Still, molecular evidence suggests the genus is not monophyletic. Several other genera in the subfamily Vespertilioninae have also been merged with Pipistrellus in previous classifications. Species in the genus may be referred to as "pipistrelles" or "pipistrelle bats", though these terms are also used for species now placed in other genera, such as the western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus) and eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) of North America. Species of the southern hemisphere separated to genus Falsistrellus are sometimes referred to as 'false pipistrelle' or 'falsistrelle'.They are somewhat distinguished from their much larger relatives, the noctule bats Nyctalus by their weak, fluttery flight reminiscent of a butterfly, though a few species are more direct in their flight.

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.