Euthymides

Euthymides was an ancient Athenian potter and painter of vases, primarily active between 515 and 500 BC. He was a member of the Greek art movement later to be known as "The Pioneers" for their exploration of the new decorative style known as red-figure pottery.[1] Euthymides was the teacher of another Athenian red-figure vase painter, the Kleophrades Painter.[2]

Euthymides was admired for his portrayal of human movement and studies of perspective, his painted figures being amongst the first to show foreshortened limbs. He was more minimalist than others in the movement, and his tendency was to draw relatively few figures, and only rarely overlap them.

His works were normally inscribed "Euthymides painted me". Euthymides was a rival of his fellow Athenian Euphronios, and one of his amphorae is additionally marked with the playful taunt "hos oudepote Euphronios", words which have been variously interpreted as "as never Euphronios [could do]",[3] or "this wasn't one of Euphronios".

Only eight vessels signed by Euthymides survive, six signed as painter, and two as potter. His most famous work is probably The Revelers Vase, an amphora depicting three men partying. They are presumably drunk; one of them is holding a kantharos, a large drinking vessel.

An unsigned two-handled amphora (Boston 63.1515) is attributed to the "circle of Euthymides".

Arming warrior Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2308
Hector putting his armor on, side A of a red-figure paunch amphora, 510–500 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2308).

References

  1. ^ Papadopoulos, John K.; Camp, John McK.; De Jong, Piet (2007). The Art of Antiquity. ASCSA. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-87661-960-5.
  2. ^ Clark, Andrew J.; Elston, Maya; Hart, Marie Louise (2002). Understanding Greek Vases. Getty Publications, p. 40.ISBN 0-89236-599-4.
  3. ^ Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (1985). The Art and Culture of Early Greece. Cornell University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-8014-9401-7.

Further Reading:

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Archaeological Museum of Aidone

The Archaeological Museum of Aidone is a regional museum in Aidone in the province of Enna, Sicily. It is housed in a former Capuchin convent dedicated to Saint Francis. It was inaugurated in the summer of 1984 and preserves the findings of over thirty years of excavations in Morgantina, ordered according to chronological and thematic criteria.

Chaonians

The Chaonians (Greek: Χάονες, Cháones) were an ancient Greek tribe that inhabited the region of Epirus located in the north-west of modern Greece and southern Albania. On their southern frontier lay another Epirote kingdom, that of the Molossians, to their southwest stood the kingdom of the Thesprotians, and to their north lived the Illyrian tribes. According to Virgil, Chaon was the eponymous ancestor of the Chaonians. By the 5th century BC, they had conquered and combined to a large degree with the neighboring Thesprotians and Molossians. The Chaonians were part of the Epirote League until 170 BC when their territory was annexed by the Roman Republic.

Euphronios

Euphronios (Greek: Εὐφρόνιος; c. 535 – after 470 BC) was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. As part of the so-called "Pioneer Group," (a modern name given to a group of vase painters who were instrumental in effecting the change from Black-figure pottery to Red figure), Euphronios was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique. His works place him at the transition from Late Archaic to Early Classical art, and he is one of the first known artists in history to have signed his work.

Kleophrades Painter

The Kleophrades Painter is the name given to the anonymous red-figure Athenian vase painter, who was active from approximately 510 – 470 BCE and whose work, considered amongst the finest of the red figure style, is identified by its stylistic traits.

Leagros Group

The Leagros Group was a group of Attic black-figure vase painters active during the last two decades of the 6th century BC. The name given to the group by modern scholars is a conventional one, derived from a series of name vases.

The Leagros Group was the final important group of Attic vase painters in the black-figure style to paint large-format images on vases. Their significance is so great that their time of activity is also known as the Leagros period. About 400 vases are ascribed to the group; most of them are hydriaI and neck amphorae, constituting about half of the group's surviving products. Additionally, they painted other types of amphorae, kraters, lekythoi, and, in small amounts, some other shapes. The group's conventional name is derived from five vases with kalos-inscriptions mentioning the ephebe Leagros.

Hydriai by the group resemble those by the Antimenes Painter, feature more widely flayed lips and shallower broader shoulders. The earlier animal frieze predellas and frame lines decorated with ivy leaves are now replaced by palmettes with broad separate leaves. They are organised in rounded loops. Such patterns are rare in black-figure vase painting, but very popular in the red-figure style contemporary with the Leagros Group. At times, the Leagros Group painters used the white-ground technique on the necks of their amphora, again a feature introduced by the Antimenes Painter. The decoration of their neck amphorae is also similar to his, but the vegetal ornaments on the necks are more carefully painted and the lotus flowers look rather like celery stalks.

Their figural scenes, for the last time, demonstrate the power and complexity of the black-figure style. They include complex scenes with multiple figures, often overlapping. The incisions are forceful and clear, the depiction of anatomic detail is restrained. Additional colours are only used to a limited extent. Garment folds and patterns only occur rarely and in little detail. Thus, the Leagros Group artists demonstrate the strong points of the black-figure style, while the contemporaneous Pioneer Group show the possibilities offered by the newly introduced red-figure technique, veritably indulging in details of anatomy and clothing. The Leagros Group achieved to adopt some of the innovations associated with the new technique within the limits of their style. Muscles and textiles are depicted in a reduced form. The small eyes of their figures are another striking feature. The group's artists profit particularly from innovations in terms of perspective and spatial depictions, although they use them rarely. All figures feature idealised proportions of body and facial expression. Compared to the figures by the Antimenes Painter, they appear quite sturdy. The group does not waste available space; its image fields are usually well filled. That they do not appear crammed is due to the compository talent of the painters. The compositions are balanced, convincing and full of tension. Sometimes, details extend beyond the margins of the pictorial field proper.

Within the group, several smaller sub-groups and individual painters can be identified, albeit with considerable difficulty, due to the very homogenous styles of the painters. The most significant individual artists are the Acheloos Painter and the Chiusi Painter. The group favoured mythological themes, especially scenes from the Trojan War and the adventures of Herakles. For example, the scene of Achilles and Ajax playing a board game is depicted several times. Some motifs were newly introduced by painters of the Leagros Group, others depicted and interpreted in new ways. Although similar changes took place in red-figure vase painting, the two developments should probably be seen as separate, in spite of the possibility of a degree of mutual influence. Leagros Group painters may have been active in the same workshops as Pioneer Group ones, as is suggested by the fact that the kalos name Leagros also occurs on vases by Euphronios, Phintias and Euthymides. The links and mutual influences among the two groups remain disputed. John Boardman sees them exist side-by-side, Heide Mommsen suggests a major degree of interaction.

List of Greek artists

This is a list of Greek artists from the antiquity to today.

Artists have been categorised according to their main artistic profession and according to the major historical period they lived in: the Ancient (until the foundation of the Byzantine Empire), the Byzantine (until the fall of Constantinople in 1453) and the Modern period (1453-today).

List of Greek vase painters

The following is a list of ancient Greek vase painters who have been identified either by name or by style. Because of the research of academics like John Davidson Beazley, Arthur Dale Trendall, Robert Manuel Cook, Darrell A. Amyx and Conrad Stibbe more than 2800 individual painters are known.

List of ancient Greeks

This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. These include ethnic Greeks and Greek language speakers from Greece and the Mediterranean world up to about 200 AD.

List of ancient Macedonians in epigraphy

Ancient Macedonians are attested in epigraphy from the 5th century BC throughout classical antiquity. For those recorded in classical literary sources, see list of ancient Macedonians.

List of artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide

The List of artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide is a list of the artists indexed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art museum guide. The guide, with a foreword by the museum director Philippe de Montebello, was first produced in 1983 and the edition from 1994 has been digitized.

This guide was a new pocketbook version of the magazine-format guidebook published in 1972 as Guide to The Metropolitan Museum of Art, edited by Nora Beeson during Thomas Hoving's tenure. That guidebook was the first to include fold-out museum maps of the collection wings. This guide, with color illustrations followed by concise descriptions, was updated in 1983 and 1994 as The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide (edited by Kathleen Howard during Philippe de Montebello tenure), and under the same name in 2012 (edited by Harriet Whelchel, Margaret Aspinwall and Elisa Urbanelli during Thomas P. Campbell tenure).

National Archaeological Museum, Athens

The National Archaeological Museum (Greek: Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity. It is considered one of the greatest museums in the world and contains the richest collection of artifacts from Greek antiquity worldwide. It is situated in the Exarcheia area in central Athens between Epirus Street, Bouboulinas Street and Tositsas Street while its entrance is on the Patission Street adjacent to the historical building of the Athens Polytechnic university.

Phintias (painter)

Phintias was an ancient Greek vase painter; along with Euphronios and Euthymides, he was one of the most important representatives of the Pioneer Group of Athenian red-figure vase painters. Ten works from the period between 525 BC and 510 BC bearing his signature survive: seven vase paintings and three pottery works. Since his career began before the time of the Pioneer Group, his paintings look somewhat more old-fashioned than those of the other Pioneers; and the influence of earlier red-figure painters such as Psiax or Oltos is strong. Even during the Pioneer Group period he continued to use certain techniques of the black-figure style, e.g. outlines reinforced by scratching and black-figure ornamental borders. His paintings have been called clear, concise, and exact, but also static and somewhat stiff. Phintias' repertoire, however, is rich. He drew everyday scenes such as hetaerae, symposia and music lessons, but also mythological scenes. Like the other major members of the Pioneer group, he frequently wrote on his vases, and depicted some of his "colleagues".

Pioneer Group

The Pioneer Group were a number of red-figure vase painters working in Kerameikos or the potters' quarter of Athens around the beginning of the 5th century BCE. Characterized by John Boardman as perhaps the first conscious art movement in the western tradition, the group comprised the painters Euphronios, Euthymides, Smikros, Hypsis, the 'Dikaios Painter' and Phintias. We can credit John Beazley with first identifying these artists as a coherent group, though no documentary evidence remains of them; everything we know about them consists of their work itself.

The pioneer group were not innovators of the red-figure technique but rather late adopters of the practice developed by such bilingual painters as Andokides and Psiax. Coming some 10 years after the earliest work in the technique Euphronios's first works are thought to have been produced circa 520 BCE. As a group their work makes frequent reference to one another, often in a playful competitive spirit; Euthymides boasts on one of his signed pots "hos oudepote Euphronios" – "as never Euphronios" (Munich 2307). Their work is distinctive for its simple rendering of dress, bold handling of anatomy, experimental use of foreshortening and a thematic preference for representations of symposia.

Pottery of ancient Greece

Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society. The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide available to understand the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were several vessels produced locally for everyday and kitchen use, yet finer pottery from regions such as Attica was imported by other civilizations throughout the Mediterranean, such as the Etruscans in Italy. There were various specific regional varieties, such as the South Italian ancient Greek pottery.

Throughout these places, various types and shapes of vases were used. Not all were purely utilitarian; large Geometric amphorae were used as grave markers, kraters in Apulia served as tomb offerings and Panathenaic Amphorae seem to have been looked on partly as objets d’art, as were later terracotta figurines. Some were highly decorative and meant for elite consumption and domestic beautification as much as serving a storage or other function, such as the krater with its usual use in diluting wine.

Earlier Greek styles of pottery, called "Aegean" rather than "Ancient Greek", include Minoan pottery, very sophisticated by its final stages, Cycladic pottery, Minyan ware and then Mycenaean pottery in the Bronze Age, followed by the cultural disruption of the Greek Dark Age. As the culture recovered Sub-Mycenaean pottery finally blended into the Protogeometric style, which begins Ancient Greek pottery proper.The rise of vase painting saw increasing decoration. Geometric art in Greek pottery was contiguous with the late Dark Age and early Archaic Greece, which saw the rise of the Orientalizing period. The pottery produced in Archaic and Classical Greece included at first black-figure pottery, yet other styles emerged such as red-figure pottery and the white ground technique. Styles such as West Slope Ware were characteristic of the subsequent Hellenistic period, which saw vase painting's decline.

Red-figure pottery

Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting.

It developed in Athens around 520 BC and remained in use until the late 3rd century BC. It replaced the previously dominant style of black-figure vase painting within a few decades. Its modern name is based on the figural depictions in red colour on a black background, in contrast to the preceding black-figure style with black figures on a red background. The most important areas of production, apart from Attica, were in Southern Italy. The style was also adopted in other parts of Greece. Etruria became an important centre of production outside the Greek World.

Attic red-figure vases were exported throughout Greece and beyond. For a long time, they dominated the market for fine ceramics. Only few centres of pottery production could compete with Athens in terms of innovation, quality and production capacity. Of the red figure vases produced in Athens alone, more than 40,000 specimens and fragments survive today. From the second most important production centre, Southern Italy, more than 20,000 vases and fragments are preserved. Starting with the studies by John D. Beazley and Arthur Dale Trendall, the study of this style of art has made enormous progress. Some vases can be ascribed to individual artists or schools. The images provide evidence for the exploration of Greek cultural history, everyday life, iconography, and mythology.

Smikros

Smikros (English transliteration: Small) was an ancient Greek vase painter who flourished in Athens between 510 and 500 BCE. He was active in the workshop of the Euphronios. Beside Euphronios, Euthymides, Hypsis and the Dikaios painter, Smikros was one of the most important representatives of the so-called Pioneer Group of Athenian red figure vase painting.

There are three signed vases from Smikros. John Beazley called him an imitator of Euphronios. It is possible that Smikros cooperated in some late and not completely successful vases, which are assigned to Euphronios. On one psykter in the Hermitage (St Petersburg), Euphronios has a female figure with the inscription Smikra provided, which could be understood to be a reference to his pupil. Another amphora seems to belong to Smikros, which suggests possibly a co-operation between both artists. Smikros might also have decorated another stamnos and two pelikai assigned to him.

Beazley called Smikros a bad draughtsman. This is, however, only in comparison with the other members of the Pioneer Group. At that time, red figure vase painting was still in its infancy and the pioneers were still vigorously experimenting. A lack of ingenuity with the picture composition can be seen. His designs are precise, yet become inaccurate in his representation of such details as ears, fingers and dress.

Staatliche Antikensammlungen

The Staatliche Antikensammlungen (German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçə anˈtiːkənˌzamlʊŋən], State Collections of Antiquities) is a museum in Munich's Kunstareal holding Bavaria's collections of antiquities from Greece, Etruria and Rome, though the sculpture collection is located in the opposite Glyptothek and works created in Bavaria are on display in a separate museum. Ancient Egypt also has its own museum.

The Revelers Vase

The Three Revelers Vase, also known as simply the Revelers Vase, is a Greek vase originating from the Archaic Period. Painted around 510 BCE in the red figure pottery style, the Revelers vase was found in an Etruscan tomb in Vulci, Italy. The painting is attributed to Euthymides. Although the vase is in the amphora shape, its purpose is more decorative than functional. The painting itself shows three nude partygoers and Hector arming on the reverse. The work is remarkable because of the early use of foreshortening (3/4 views) as opposed to conventional profile and frontal views. The Revelers Vase currently resides in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen in Münich, Germany.

Two-handled amphora (Boston 63.1515)

This two-sided, red figure belly amphora is housed in the Classics wing of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. It was bought during Art Basel from Münzen und Medaillen, A.G., October 17, 1963. With flat handles decorated with depictions of ivy, and a double layered foot, it qualifies as a type A amphora. Dated circa 510 BCE, it was likely created by a member of the circle of Euthymides in Athens. It is an early example of red-figure pottery which had been invented only ten years previously. It is regarded by scholars as one of the best examples of the vases that influenced artists in Etruria. It is in excellent condition, but lacks an original find-spot.

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