Sir Eustace Henry William Tennyson d'Eyncourt, 1st Baronet KCB FRS (1 April 1868 – 1 February 1951) was a British naval architect and engineer. As Director of Naval Construction for the Royal Navy, 1912–1924, he was responsible for the design and construction of some of the most famous British warships. He was also chairman of the Landship Committee at the Admiralty, which was responsible for the design and production of the first military tanks to be used in warfare.
Sir Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt, Bt
|Born||1 April 1868|
Hadley House, Barnet, Hertfordshire
|Died||1 February 1951 (aged 82)|
|Known for||Director of Naval Construction|
|Spouse(s)||Janet Finlay (married about 1898, Scotland)|
|Awards||Fellow of the Royal Society|
D'Eyncourt was born in April 1868 at Hadley House, Barnet, Hertfordshire. He was the sixth child of Louis Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt (1814–1896) and his wife Sophia Yates (d. 1900). Through his father, he was a cousin of Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
He was educated at Charterhouse before becoming an apprentice in naval architecture at the shipyard of Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. in Elswick. By 1898, he was employed as a naval architect in Govan, Glasgow. There he met Janet Burns (née Watson Finlay), a widow whom he married that same year. She had two children from her first marriage, Kingsley and Gwyneth; together she and d'Eyncourt had a son and daughter, Cecily and Gervais. Janet Tennyson d'Eyncourt died in 1909 when accompanying her husband on a business trip to Buenos Aires.
D'Eyncourt received a number of awards and honours: in 1921, he was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society, in 1930, he was created a baronet, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in 1946. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Gervais (d. 1971). The writer Adam Nicolson is Eustace d'Eyncourt's great grandson.
As an apprentice at Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., d'Eyncourt worked on the design of warships for the Austrian, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Turkish governments. He joined the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan in 1898, before returning to Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. in 1902. In 1904, he undertook consultancy work on the state of the Turkish navy which earned him the Order of the Medjidie, Third Class.
In 1912, d'Eyncourt was appointed director of naval construction with the Royal Navy. He pioneered new forms of ship construction that helped provide protection from torpedo attack.
On 20 February 1915, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill asked him to be Chairman of the Landship Committee, a group of Royal Naval Air Service officers and engineers assembled to design a vehicle capable of crossing No Man's Land and suppressing the enemy machine guns that had caused heavy casualties in the first six months of the First World War. The machine that was eventually developed was given the name "tank".
D'Eyncourt resigned from the Admiralty in 1924 and rejoined his former company, Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. However, the firm failed in the late 1920s owing to the building slump following the end of the war. In 1928, d'Eyncourt joined the board of Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company until he retired in 1948. He lived for most of his retirement in Hailsham, Sussex, but died in London in 1951.
He is buried in Brookwood Cemetery.
In his battlecruisers, "large light cruisers" and the Hawkins-class cruisers, d'Eyncourt evolved a novel hull form: in cross-section the hull was an isosceles trapezoid, with the ship's sides sloping inboard at an angle of 10 degrees from the vertical, while outboard of this, external bulges extended over the full length of the machinery spaces. The result was a hull structure of great strength, and the sloping sides increased the possible spread of impact of shells, thus giving greater resistance to penetration.
The aesthetic side of naval architecture has seldom been given much attention, though it is as much of an art as the architecture of buildings; in general appearance (in terms of harmonious proportion as regards length, beam, and freeboard, as well as the size of the superstructure and funnels in relation to the hull), the opinion has been expressed that d'Eyncourt created some of the most elegant and eye-pleasing warships ever designed, the prime example being the battle cruiser Hood.
D'Eyncourt was not necessarily the principal designer of the vessels listed below, but had ultimate responsibility for them.
D'Eyncourt summarized his World War I work in an article "Naval Construction During the War", published in Engineering, 11 April 1919, pp. 482–490. He also published an autobiography entitled A Shipbuilder's Yarn (London: Hutchinson, 1948).
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
| Tennyson-d’Eyncourt baronets
(of Carter's Corner Farm)
Sir Eustace Gervais Tennyson d'Eyncourt, 2nd Baronet
Adam Nicolson, 5th Baron Carnock, FRSL, FSA (born 12 September 1957) is an English author who has written about history, landscape, great literature and the sea.
He is noted for his books Sea Room (about the Shiant Isles, a group of uninhabited islands in the Hebrides); God's Secretaries: The Making of the King James Bible; The Mighty Dead (US title:Why Homer Matters) exploring the epic Greek poems; and The Seabird's Cry about the disaster afflicting the world's seabirds.Anti-torpedo bulge
The anti-torpedo bulge (also known as an anti-torpedo blister) is a form of defence against naval torpedoes occasionally employed in warship construction in the period between the First and Second World Wars. It involved fitting (or retrofitting) partially water-filled compartmentalized sponsons on either side of a ship's hull, intended to detonate torpedoes, absorb their explosions, and contain flooding to damaged areas within the bulges.Baron Tennyson
Baron Tennyson, of Aldworth in the County of Sussex and of Freshwater in the Isle of Wight, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1884 for the poet Alfred Tennyson. His son, the second Baron, served as Governor-General of Australia, and his grandson, the third Baron, as a captain for the English cricket team. On the death in 2006 of the latter's younger son, the fifth Baron, the line of the eldest son of the first Baron failed. The title was inherited by the late Baron's second cousin once removed, the sixth and present holder of the peerage. He is the great-grandson of Hon. Lionel Tennyson, second son of the first Baron.
Another member of the Tennyson family was the naval architect Sir Eustace Tennyson-d'Eyncourt, 1st Baronet. He was the grandson of Charles Tennyson-d'Eyncourt, uncle of the first Baron Tennyson.Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt
Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt (20 July 1784 – 21 July 1861), born Charles Tennyson, was a British politician, landowner and Member of Parliament (MP) for Stamford from 1831 to 1832 and for Lambeth from 1832 to 1852. He is also known for his social pretensions and his graceless behaviour towards his nephew, the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge.He was the younger son of George Tennyson, who bought the family seat of Beacons, in the village of Tealby, Lincolnshire, along with 2,000 acres (8 km²) of land, and came in time to own a large part of the village. George, as is well known, disinherited his elder son George Clayton Tennyson, the poet’s father, at the age of 12, putting him into a career in the Church, for which he felt no calling; and bestowed all his fortune on Charles.
As a result, there was bad blood between the penurious Tennysons of Somersby, where George Clayton Tennyson had the living until he succumbed to drink and depression, and the opulent Tennysons of Beacons, who fancied themselves not only the wealthy but the socially superior side of the family. Old George’s wife Elizabeth Clayton was supposed to have descended from the Lords of Lovel and d’Eyncourt, and also from King Edward III.
A ruined castle was part of the property, and Charles wished to establish a noble lineage for himself with a title and a castle. When his father died he changed his family’s name to Tennyson d'Eyncourt. Beacons was renamed Bayons, to make it sound like a Norman castle, and it was extensively enlarged and rebuilt in the style of a Gothic castellated manor-house.
In public life Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt was for many years MP for Lambeth, and was made a Privy Counsellor in 1832. Also in the 1830s, along with Augustus, Duke of Sussex and Admiral Sir Sidney Smith, he was one of the prime movers in a plan to have the Order of Knights Templar revived as a British order of chivalry. In this he failed, and he also failed during 1839–1841 in an attempt to revive the d'Eyncourt peerage for himself and his heirs. In February 1829 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society He published, in 1850 a book of poems, Eustace, in memory of his youngest and favourite son who had died abroad; it had the misfortune to appear at the same time as Tennyson's In Memoriam, and suffered greatly by the comparison. Charles thoroughly disapproved of the poetry of his nephew Alfred (Horrid rubbish indeed . . . a discredit to British taste), and the latter’s appointment as Poet Laureate in the same year and subsequent offer of a baronetcy caused him outrage and chagrin. He did not live long enough to have to endure a 'Somersby Tennyson' being elevated to the peerage.
The Tennyson d'Eyncourt family eventually gained its baronetcy at the beginning of the 20th century and still continues. Two of its later members had notable maritime roles. Charles's second son Edwin Tennyson d’Eyncourt (1813–1903) entered the Royal Navy and became an Admiral. Undoubtedly the most significant member of the family was the naval architect Sir Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt (1868–1951), the First Baronet, who was the Royal Navy's Director of Naval Construction in the first decades of the 20th century.Director of Naval Construction
The Director of Naval Construction (DNC) also known as the Department of the Director of Naval Construction and Directorate of Naval Construction and originally known as the Chief Constructor of the Navy was a senior principal civil officer responsible to the Board of Admiralty for the design and construction of the warships of the Royal Navy. From 1883 onwards he was also head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, the naval architects who staffed his department from 1860 to 1966. The (D.N.C.'s) modern equivalent is Director Ships in the Defence Equipment and Support organisation of the Ministry of Defence.F. Tennyson Jesse
Fryniwyd Tennyson Jesse Harwood (born Wynifried [also recorded as Winifred] Margaret Jesse, 1 March 1888 – 6 August 1958) was an English criminologist, journalist and author (she also wrote as Wynifried Margaret Tennyson).Gervais Tennyson d'Eyncourt
Sir Eustace Gervais Tennyson d'Eyncourt, 2nd Baronet (19 January 1902–21 November 1971).HMS Renown (1916)
HMS Renown was the lead ship of her class of battlecruisers of the Royal Navy built during the First World War. She was originally laid down as an improved version of the Revenge-class battleships. Her construction was suspended on the outbreak of war on the grounds she would not be ready in a timely manner. Admiral Lord Fisher, upon becoming First Sea Lord, gained approval to restart her construction as a battlecruiser that could be built and enter service quickly. The Director of Naval Construction (DNC), Eustace Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, quickly produced an entirely new design to meet Admiral Lord Fisher's requirements and the builders agreed to deliver the ships in 15 months. They did not quite meet that ambitious goal, but the ship was delivered a few months after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Renown, and her sister HMS Repulse, were the world's fastest capital ships upon completion.
Renown did not see combat during the war and was reconstructed twice between the wars; the 1920s reconstruction increased her armour protection and made other more minor improvements, while the 1930s reconstruction was much more thorough. The ship frequently conveyed royalty on their foreign tours and served as flagship of the Battlecruiser Squadron when Hood was refitting.
During the Second World War, Renown was involved in the search for the Admiral Graf Spee in 1939, participated in the Norwegian Campaign of April–June 1940 and the search for the German battleship Bismarck in 1941. She spent much of 1940 and 1941 assigned to Force H at Gibraltar, escorting convoys and she participated in the inconclusive Battle of Cape Spartivento. Renown was briefly assigned to the Home Fleet and provided cover to several Arctic convoys in early 1942. The ship was transferred back to Force H for Operation Torch and spent much of 1943 refitting or transporting Winston Churchill and his staff to and from various conferences with various Allied leaders. In early 1944, Renown was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean where she supported numerous attacks on Japanese-occupied facilities in Indonesia and various island groups in the Indian Ocean. The ship returned to the Home Fleet in early 1945 and was refitted before being placed in reserve after the end of the war. Renown was sold for scrap in 1948.HMS Repulse (1916)
HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser of the Royal Navy built during the First World War. Originally laid down as an improved version of the Revenge-class battleships, her construction was suspended on the outbreak of war because she would not be ready in a timely manner. Admiral Lord Fisher, upon becoming First Sea Lord, gained approval to restart her construction as a battlecruiser that could be built and enter service quickly. The Director of Naval Construction (DNC), Eustace Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, quickly produced an entirely new design to meet Admiral Lord Fisher's requirements and the builders agreed to deliver the ships in 15 months. They did not quite meet that ambitious goal, but the ship was delivered a few months after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Repulse, and her sister ship Renown, were the world's fastest capital ships upon completion.
Repulse participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1917; the only combat she saw during the war. She was reconstructed twice between the wars; the 1920s reconstruction increased her armour protection and made lesser improvements, while the 1930s reconstruction was much more thorough. Repulse accompanied the battlecruiser Hood during the Special Service Squadron's round-the-world cruise in 1923–24 and protected international shipping during the Spanish Civil War in 1936–39.
The ship spent the first months of the Second World War hunting for German raiders and blockade runners. She participated in the Norwegian Campaign of April–June 1940 and searched for the German battleship Bismarck in 1941. Repulse escorted a troop convoy around the Cape of Good Hope from August to October 1941 and was transferred to East Indies Command. She was assigned in November to Force Z which was supposed to deter Japanese aggression against British possessions in the Far East. Repulse and her consort Prince of Wales were eventually sunk by Japanese aircraft on 10 December 1941 when they attempted to intercept landings in British Malaya.Landship Committee
The Landship Committee, also known as the Director of Naval Construction's Committee, was a small British committee formed during the First World War to develop armoured fighting vehicles for use on the Western Front. The eventual outcome was the creation of what is now called the tank. Established in February 1915 by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, the Committee was composed mainly of naval officers, politicians and engineers. It was chaired by Eustace Tennyson d’Eyncourt, Director of Naval Construction at the Admiralty.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921
This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921.List of people buried in Brookwood Cemetery
The following is a list of notable burials at Brookwood Cemetery near Woking in Surrey.
William Addison (VC)
Alexis Theodorovich Aladin
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Syed Ameer Ali
Abdul Rahman Andak
Margaret Campbell, Duchess of Argyll
Robert Nisbet Bain
Daniel Marcus William Beak
John Hay Beith
Boris Berezovsky (businessman)
Benjamin Thomas Brandreth-Gibbs
Robert Ashington Bullen
Sir James Charles Chatterton, 3rd Baronet
Lord Edward Clinton
Admiral Robert Coote
Alexander Angus Croll
Arthur Cumming (Royal Navy officer)
Dadiba Merwanji Dalal
Evelyn De Morgan
John Eugène, 8th Count de Salis-Soglio
William De Morgan
John Lowther du Plat Taylor
Thomas Farrer, 1st Baron Farrer
Cyril Frisby VC
John Augustus Fuller
James Galloway (physician)
Reginald Ruggles Gates
Charles Tyrrell Giles
Robert Freke Gould
William Henry Hadow
Sir Archibald Hamilton, 5th Baronet
Edmund Hartley VC
Rowland Allanson-Winn, 5th Baron Headley
Christopher Hewett, actor best known for his role of the title character on Mr. Belvedere
James Hollowell VC
Alfred William Hunt
Edgar Inkson VC
Samuel Swinton Jacob
Jeejeebhoy Piroshaw Bomanjee Jeejeebhoy
Samuel Johnson (comedian)
William Kenny (VC)
Lady Henry Somerset
Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner
Dugald McTavish Lumsden
Mary Horner Lyell
Ross Mangles VC
John Charles Oakes Marriott
Homi Maneck Mehta
Matthew Fontaine Maury Meiklejohn
Ernest William Moir
Margaret, Lady Moir
Francis David Morice
Sir Michael O'Dwyer
John Humffreys Parry
General Sir Robert Phayre
Margaret Raine Hunt
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
William Reynolds (VC)
Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet
William Stewart Ross
Said bin Taimur
John Singer Sargent
Ikbal Ali Shah
Saira Elizabeth Luiza Shah
John Sherwood-Kelly VC
Newton John Stabb
Jane Stephens (actress)
Marie Spartali Stillman
William James Stillman
James T. Tanner
Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt
Edith Thompson - removed to the City of London Cemetery in 2018
Edward Maunde Thompson
J. H. A. Tremenheere
Thomas Twisden Hodges
Dennis Wheatley*John Wolfe Barry
Henry Saint Clair Wilkins
Bernard Barham Woodward
Wallace Duffield Wright
F. F. E. Yeo-ThomasMark IX tank
The Mark IX tank was a British armoured fighting vehicle from the First World War. It was the world's first specialised armoured personnel carrier (APC).Marshal Ney-class monitor
The Marshal Ney class was a class of monitor built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.Philip Watts (naval architect)
Sir Philip Watts (30 May 1846 – 15 March 1926) was a British naval architect, famous for his design of the revolutionary Elswick cruiser and HMS Dreadnought.Renown-class battlecruiser
The Renown class comprised a pair of battlecruisers built during the First World War for the Royal Navy. They were originally laid down as improved versions of the Revenge-class battleships. Their construction was suspended on the outbreak of war on the grounds they would not be ready in a timely manner. Admiral Lord Fisher, upon becoming First Sea Lord, gained approval to restart their construction as battlecruisers that could be built and enter service quickly. The Director of Naval Construction (DNC), Eustace Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, quickly produced an entirely new design to meet Admiral Lord Fisher's requirements and the builders agreed to deliver the ships in 15 months. They did not quite meet that ambitious goal, but they were delivered a few months after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. They were the world's fastest capital ships upon their commissioning.
Repulse was the only ship of her class to see combat in the First World War when she participated in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1917. Both ships were reconstructed twice between the wars; the 1920s reconstruction increased their armour protection and made lesser improvements, while the 1930s reconstruction was much more thorough, especially for Renown. Repulse accompanied the battlecruiser Hood during the Special Service Squadron's round-the-world cruise in 1923–24 and protected British interests during the Spanish Civil War between 1936–39. Renown frequently conveyed royalty on their foreign tours and served as flagship of the Battlecruiser Squadron when Hood was refitting.
Both ships served during the Second World War; they searched for the Admiral Graf Spee in 1939, participated in the Norwegian Campaign of April–June 1940 and searched for the German battleship Bismarck in 1941. Repulse was sunk on 10 December 1941 in the South China Sea off Kuantan, Pahang by Japanese aircraft. Renown spent much of 1940 and 1941 assigned to Force H at Gibraltar, escorting convoys and she fought in the inconclusive Battle of Cape Spartivento. She was briefly assigned to the Home Fleet and provided cover to several Arctic convoys in early 1942. The ship was transferred back to Force H for Operation Torch and spent much of 1943 refitting or transporting Winston Churchill and his staff to and from various conferences with various Allied leaders. In early 1944 Renown was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in the Indian Ocean where she supported numerous attacks on Japanese-occupied facilities in Indonesia and various island groups in the Indian Ocean. The ship returned to the Home Fleet in early 1945 and was refitted before being placed in reserve after the end of the war. Renown was sold for scrap in 1948.TOG1
The Tank, Heavy, TOG 1 was a prototype British heavy tank produced in the early part of the Second World War in the expectation that battlefields might end up like those of the First World War. It was designed so it could cross churned-up countryside and trenches. A single prototype was built, and followed by an improved model (the TOG 2), but interest faded with the successful performance of another cross-country design, the Churchill tank, and the mobile war that was being fought.Tennyson d’Eyncourt baronets
The Tennyson d'Eyncourt Baronetcy, of Carter's Corner Farm in the Parish of Herstmonceux in the County of Sussex, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 3 February 1930 for the naval architect Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt. He was a grandson of Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt.
Another member of the Tennyson family was poet Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson. He was the nephew of Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt.