Eurostat

Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg. Its main responsibilities are to provide statistical information to the institutions of the European Union (EU) and to promote the harmonisation of statistical methods across its member states and candidates for accession as well as EFTA countries. The organisations in the different countries that cooperate with Eurostat are summarised under the concept of the European Statistical System.

Eurostat Newlogo

Organisation

Eurostat operates pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 223/2009. As a Directorate-General of the Commission, Eurostat is allocated to the portfolio of the European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility, a position occupied as of April 2015 by Marianne Thyssen.[1]

The Director-General of Eurostat is Mariana Kotzeva, former Deputy Director-General of Eurostat and President of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.[2][3]

History

  • 1953 The Statistics Division for the European Coal and Steel Community established.
  • 1958 The European Community founded and the forerunner of Eurostat established.
  • 1959 The present name of Eurostat as the Statistical Office of the European Communities adopted. First publication issued - on agricultural statistics.
  • 1960 First Community Labour Force Survey.
  • 1970 The European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (European System of Accounts, ESA) published and the general Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE) established.
  • 1974 First domain in the statistical database Cronos databank installed.
  • 1988 European Commission adopts a document defining the first policy for statistical information.
  • 1989 The Statistical Programme Committee established and the first programme (1989–1992) adopted by the Council as an instrument for implementing statistical information policy.
  • 1990 The Council adopts a directive on transmission of confidential data to Eurostat, previously an obstacle to Community statistical work.
  • 1991 Eurostat's role extended as a result of the agreement on establishment of the European Economic Area and adoption of the Maastricht Treaty.
  • 1993 The single market extends Eurostat's activities e.g. Intrastat established for statistics on intra-EU trade. Eurostat starts issuing regular news releases.
  • 1994 First European household panel held, analysing income, employment, poverty, social exclusion, households, health, etc.
  • 1997 Statistics added for the first time to the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Statistical Law approved by the Council. Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices HICP published for the first time - designed for Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU) convergence criteria.
  • 1998 The eleven countries in at the start of EMU (EUR-11) announced, and Eurostat issues the first indicators specific to the EMU area.
  • 1999 Start of EMU, 1 January 2001.
  • 2001 In April, Eurostat, in collaboration with five other international organisations (APEC, IAE, OLADE, OPEC, UNSD) launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise, which in 2005 became the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI).
  • 2002 Start of the Euro on 1 January, Eurostat supplies key statistics for monetary policy.
  • 2003 Irregularities were suspected in Eurostat, see Eurostat scandal.
  • 2004 Start of free-of-charge dissemination of all statistical data except microdata for research purposes.
  • 2005 Commission Recommendation on the independence, integrity and Accountability of the National and Community Statistical Authorities (European Statistics Code of Practice)
  • 2005 Start of a three-year peer review exercise across the European Statistical System to monitor compliance with the Code of Practice.
  • 2007 The currently valid five-year Statistical Programme 2008-2012 was adopted.
  • 2009 New European Regulation governing statistical cooperation in the European Union was adopted.
  • 2010 Following strong criticism, from within the EU and otherwise, of how it had handled inaccurate data regarding Greece, Eurostat published a report[4] to try to rectify its procedures. The European Commission proposes powers for Eurostat to audit the books of national governments in response to the Greek government-debt crisis.[5]
  • 2011 Revision of European Statistics Code of Practice by the European Statistical System Committee.[6]

Directors General

Name Nationality Term
Rolf Wagenführ  West Germany 1952–1966
Raymond Dumas  France 1966–1973
Jacques Mayer  France 1973–1977
Aage Dornonville de la Cour  Denmark 1977–1982
Pieter de Geus  Netherlands 1982–1984
Silvio Ronchetti  Italy 1984–1987
Yves Franchet  France 1987–2003
Michel Vanden Abeele  Belgium 2003–2004
Günther Hanreich  Austria 2004–2006
Hervé Carré  France 2006–2008
Walter Radermacher  Germany 2008–2016
Mariana Kotzeva (acting)  Bulgaria 2017–present

Regulations

The Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on European statistics establishes the legal framework for the European statistics[7]

Amending Regulation (EU) 759/2015 clarifies that heads of NSIs coordinate national level activities for European statistics and decide on processes, methods, standards and procedures of their respective statistics.[7]

Previous Eurostat regulations were a Decision on Eurostat (2012/504/EU), and the earlier Decision on Eurostat (97/281/EC).

Main areas of statistical activities

The Eurostat statistical work is structured into Themes and Sub-themes.

EU Policy Indicators
  • Structural Indicators
  • Euro indicators/ Principal European Economic Indicators (PEEI)
  • Sustainable Development Indicators
General and regional statistics
  • Regions and cities
  • International Co-operation
  • Co-operation with Mediterranean countries-MEDSTAT programme
  • Candidate and potential candidate countries
Economy and finance
  • National accounts (including GDP)
  • ESA 95 Input-Output tables
  • European sector accounts
  • Government finance statistics
  • Financial accounts
  • Exchange rates
  • Interest rates
  • Monetary and other financial statistics
  • Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP)
  • Balance of payments
Population and social conditions
  • Population
  • Health (Public health/ Health and safety at work)
  • Education and training
  • Labour market (including LFS - Labour Force Survey)
  • Living conditions and social protection
  • Crime and criminal justice
  • Culture
Industry, trade and services
Agriculture and fisheries
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Fisheries
  • Food: from farm to fork
External trade Transport
Environment and energy
  • Environment
  • Energy
Science and technology

General statistical activities related to the European Statistical system are:

  • Coordination and governance of the European Statistical System
  • Statistical methodological coordination and research
  • Statistical quality and reporting

Geographical scope

Currently Eurostat data are aggregated at the EU-28 level, known as EU-28. Although Brexit is planned for 29 March 2019, it is expected that after the Brexit date data will be computed for the EU-27 only because Brexit will make the UK a third country. Nonetheless, to avoid confusion with the previous EU-27 group of 27 member states — which was used in the series of statistical data before the accession of member state number 28 — another name for the future EU 27 without the UK might be defined later, according to Eurostat.[8] The concept of the EU 28 has been used since 1 January 2014, also according to the Eurostat methodological manual on city statistics, 2017 edition.

Eurostat is also engaged in cooperation with third countries through the European Statistical System, EU Enlargement Policy, and European Neighbourhood Policy.[9] Statistical cooperation in and around Europe

Local data are also computed at the NUTS level.

Access to Eurostat statistics

The most important statistics are made available via press releases. They are placed on the Eurostat website at 11:00 in the morning. This is also the time that the press release content may be distributed to the public by press agencies.

Eurostat disseminates its statistics free of charge via its Internet and its statistical databases that are accessible via the Internet. The statistics are hierarchically ordered in a navigation tree. Tables are distinguished from multi-dimensional datasets from which the statistics are extracted via an interactive tool.

In addition various printed publications are available either in electronic form free on the internet or in printed form via the EU Bookshop. Only larger publications are charged for as printed copies.

Since September 2009 Eurostat has pioneered a fully electronical way of publishing, Statistics Explained,[10] like Wikipedia based on Mediawiki open source software and with a largely similar structure and navigation. Statistics Explained is not only a dissemination format, however, but also a wiki working platform for producing flagship publications like the Eurostat Yearbook.[11]

Ireland now has the lowest tax-to-GDP measure across 30 European countries, new figures from Eurostat have shown. The metric is calculated by dividing the tax revenue collected by the Government from the gross domestic product (GDP).

Statistical data for research purposes

Microdata, which in principle allows the identification of the statistical unit (e.g., a person in the labour force survey or a company for innovation statistics), is treated as strictly confidential. Under tight security procedures various anonymised datasets are provided to research institutions for validated research projects.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Commissioner Marianne Thyssen". europa.eu. European Comission. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  2. ^ "MEET OUR ACTING DIRECTOR-GENERAL". europa.eu. European Comission. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  3. ^ "Meet our Director-General". europa.eu. European Comission. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Report on Greek Government Deficit and Debt Statistics" (PDF). Eurostat. European Comission: 30. 8 January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  5. ^ Castle, Stephen; Saltmarsh, Matthew (15 February 2010). "Greece Pressed to Take Action on Economic Woes". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 26 June 2019. ... the European Commission proposed powers for Eurostat to audit the books of national governments
  6. ^ "European Statistics Code of Practice". eurostat. European Comission. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Eurostat and the European Statistical System - Statistics Explained". Eurostat. 26 April 2019. ISSN 2443-8219. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  8. ^ Methodological manual on city statistics. Eurostat. 2017. p. 53. doi:10.2785/708009. ISBN 978-92-79-67746-5. ISSN 2315-0815.
  9. ^ "Statistical cooperation in and around Europe". Eurostat. European Comission. 24 September 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Statistics Explained". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  11. ^ "Europe in figures - Eurostat yearbook 2010". Eurostat. 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2019.

External links

Coordinates: 49°37′59″N 6°10′13″E / 49.6330°N 6.1702°E

Cantons of Luxembourg

The 12 cantons (French: cantons, German: Kantone, Luxembourgish: Kantounen) of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg are areas of local government at the first level of Local administrative unit (LAU-1) in the European Union's Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics for Eurostat purposes. They were subdivisions of the three Districts of Luxembourg until 2015, when the district level of government was abolished. The cantons are in turn subdivided into 102 communes (i.e. municipalities).

Central Macedonia

Central Macedonia (Greek: Κεντρική Μακεδονία, romanized: Kentrikí Makedonía, pronounced [cʲe̞n.dɾiˈcʲi ma̠.cʲe̞.ðo̞.ni.a̠]) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the geographical and historical region of Macedonia. With a population of almost 1.9 million, it is the second most populous in Greece after Attica.

Demographics of the European Union

The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 28 member states.

As of 1 January 2018, the population of the EU is about 512.6 million people.

Economy of Greece

The economy of Greece is the 51st largest in the world with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $203.086 billion per annum. It is also the 55th largest in the world by purchasing power parity, at $307.367 billion per annum. As of 2017, Greece is the seventeenth-largest economy in the 28-member European Union. According to IMF estimates for 2018, Greece's GDP per capita was $20,408 at nominal value and $29,123 at purchasing power parity.Greece is a developed country with an economy based on the service (80%) and industrial sectors (16%), with the agricultural sector contributing an estimated 4% of national economic output in 2017. Important Greek industries include tourism and shipping. With 18 million international tourists in 2013, Greece was the 7th most visited country in the European Union and 16th in the world. The Greek Merchant Navy is the largest in the world, with Greek-owned vessels accounting for 15% of global deadweight tonnage as of 2013. The increased demand for international maritime transportation between Greece and Asia has resulted in unprecedented investment in the shipping industry.The country is a significant agricultural producer within the EU. Greece has the largest economy in the Balkans and is as an important regional investor. Greece was the largest foreign investor in Albania in 2013, the third in Bulgaria, in the top-three in Romania and Serbia and the most important trading partner and largest foreign investor in North Macedonia. The Greek telecommunications company OTE has become a strong investor in certain former Yugoslav and other Balkan countries.Greece is classified as an advanced, high-income economy, and was a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). The country joined what is now the European Union in 1981. In 2001 Greece adopted the euro as its currency, replacing the Greek drachma at an exchange rate of 340.75 drachmae per euro. Greece is a member of the International Monetary Fund and of the World Trade Organization, and ranked 34th on Ernst & Young's Globalization Index 2011.World War II (1939-1945) devastated the country's economy, but the high levels of economic growth that followed from 1950 to 1980 have been called the Greek economic miracle. From 2000 Greece saw high levels of GDP growth above the Eurozone average, peaking at 5.8% in 2003 and 5.7% in 2006. The subsequent Great Recession and Greek government-debt crisis, a central focus of the wider European debt crisis, plunged the economy into a sharp downturn, with real GDP growth rates of −0.3% in 2008, −4.3% in 2009, −5.5% in 2010, −9.1% in 2011, −7.3% in 2012 and −3.2% in 2013. In 2011, the country's public debt reached €356 billion (172% of nominal GDP). After negotiating the biggest debt restructuring in history with the private sector, Greece reduced its sovereign debt burden to €280 billion (137% of GDP) in the first quarter of 2012. Greece achieved a real GDP growth rate of 0.7% in 2014—after 6 years of economic decline—but contracted by 0.4% in 2015 and by 0.2% in 2016. The country returned to modest growth of 1.4% in 2017 and 1.9% in 2018.

Economy of the European Union

The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms (after the United States) and according to purchasing power parity or PPP (after China). The European Union's GDP was estimated to be $18.8 trillion (nominal) in 2018, representing ~22% of global economy (Nominal global GDP).

The euro, used by 19 of its 28 members, is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The euro is the official currency in 25 countries, in the eurozone and in six other European countries, officially or de facto.

The European Union (EU) economy consists of an internal market of mixed economies based on free market and advanced social models. The GDP per capita (PPP) was $37,800 in 2017, compared to $59,495 in the United States, $42,695 Japan and $16,636 in China. There are significant disparities in GDP per capita (PPP) between member states ranging from $105,148 in Luxembourg to $21,678 in Bulgaria. With a low Gini coefficient of 31, the European Union has a more egalitarian repartition of incomes than the world average.Major economic hubs and financial centres where the large number of institutions, companies and banks is located are Amsterdam, Brussels, Bucharest, Dublin, Frankfurt, Göteborg, Helsinki, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Milan, Paris and Warsaw.

Euronext is the main stock exchange of the Eurozone and the 7th world largest by market capitalisation. Foreign investments made in the European Union total $5.1 trillion in 2012, while the EU's investments in foreign countries total $9.1 trillion, by far the highest domestic and foreign investments in the world.Since the beginning of the public debt crisis in 2009, opposite economic situations have emerged between Southern Europe on one hand, and Central and Northern Europe on the other hand: a higher unemployment rate and public debt in the Mediterranean countries with the exception of Malta, and a lower unemployment rate with higher GDP growth rate in the Eastern and in Northern member countries. In 2015, public debt in the European Union was 85% of GDP, with disparities between the lowest rate, Estonia with 9.7%, and the highest, Greece with 176%.The ten largest trading partners of the European Union are the United States, China, Switzerland, Russia, Turkey, Japan, Norway, South Korea and India (trade with all these countries crossed $110 billion mark in 2016). The EU is represented as a unified entity in the World Trade Organization (WTO), the G-20 and G7, alongside with the EU's member countries participating.

Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression. As a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, and hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country.The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone (according to certain arguments),and revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits had been underreported by the Greek government (the official forecast for the 2009 budget deficit was less than half the final value as calculated in 2010, while after revisions according to Eurostat methodology, the 2009 government debt was finally raised from €269.3 bn to €299.7 bn, i.e., about 11% higher than previously reported).

This led to a crisis of confidence, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and rising cost of risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to the other Eurozone countries, particularly Germany. The government enacted 12 rounds of tax increases, spending cuts, and reforms from 2010 to 2016, which at times triggered local riots and nationwide protests. Despite these efforts, the country required bailout loans in 2010, 2012, and 2015 from the International Monetary Fund, Eurogroup, and European Central Bank, and negotiated a 50% "haircut" on debt owed to private banks in 2011, which amounted to a €100bn debt relief (a value effectively reduced due to bank recapitalisation and other resulting needs). After a popular referendum which rejected further austerity measures required for the third bailout, and after closure of banks across the country (which lasted for several weeks), on June 30, 2015, Greece became the first developed country to fail to make an IMF loan repayment on time (payment was made with a 20-day delay). At that time, debt levels had reached €323bn or some €30,000 per capita (a per capita value still below the OECD average, but high as a percentage of the respective GDP).

Between 2009 and 2017 the Greek government debt rose from €300 bn to €318 bn, i.e. by only about 6% (thanks, in part, to the aforementioned debt restructuring); however, during the same period, the critical debt-to-GDP ratio shot up from 127% to 179% due to the severe GDP drop during the handling of the crisis.

Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques

The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE (French pronunciation: ​[inse]), is the national statistics bureau of France. It collects and publishes information about the French economy and people and carries out the periodic national census. Headquartered in Paris, it is the French branch of Eurostat. The INSEE was created in 1946 as a successor to the Vichy regime's National Statistics Service (SNS). It works in close cooperation with the Institut national d'études démographiques (INED).

Italian National Institute of Statistics

The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social, economic and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, and is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat.

Its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" (CC BY) license.

Larger urban zone

The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe. It consists of a city and its commuting zone.The definition was introduced in 2004 by Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union (EU), in agreement with the national statistics offices in the member states. Eurostat data is provided on cities in the EU, its candidate countries and EFTA countries. Several cities were excluded by definition from the 2004 list of LUZs on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area. Eurostat's objective was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region." To ensure a good data availability, Eurostat adjusts the LUZ boundaries to administrative boundaries that approximate the functional urban region.

In 2006 LUZ definitions were changed significantly, improving the comparability of LUZ definitions across different countries, and allowing for almost all cities to be included.

List of European Union member states by average wage

This is a map and list of European Union member states containing monthly (annual divided by 12 months) net income (after taxes) average wages of full-time single workers in the European Union expressed in euros. The chart below reflects the average (mean) wage as reported by Eurostat for 2018. In less developed markets, actual incomes may exceed those listed in the table due to the existence of grey economies. In some countries, social security, contributions for pensions, public schools, and health are included in taxes.

List of countries by current account balance

This is a list of countries by current account balance.

List of countries by employment rate

This is a list of countries by employment rate, this being the proportion of employed adults in the working age. The definition of "working age" varies: Many sources, including the OECD, use 15–64 years old, but the Office for National Statistics of the United Kingdom uses 16–64 years old and EUROSTAT uses 20–64 years old.

List of metropolitan areas by population

One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core. There is currently no generally accepted, globally consistent definition of exactly what constitutes a metropolitan area, thus making comparisons between cities in different countries especially difficult. However, for consistency, the sources on this article include official figures from governments only.

As an alternative to the metropolitan area, Eurostat introduced the concept of the Larger Urban Zone in 2004. Similarly, OECD defines Functional Urban Areas for cities in OECD countries. Both Larger Urban Zone and Functional Urban Area define a city as an urban core surrounded by a commuting zone, and so are similar to the general concept of the "metropolitan area". Eurostat only computes Larger Urban Zone populations for European Union member states, candidate members, and European Free Trade Area members. OECD computes Functional Urban Area populations for OECD member states. These two statistics are therefore not available for most developing countries.

List of sovereign states in Europe by budget revenues

This is map and list of European countries by budget revenues and budget revenues per capita for year 2013 from Eurostat and CIA World Factbook. Countries in blue have more than €100 billion, green €10-€99 billion and yellow below €10 billion budget revenues from Eurostat and CIA Factbook

NUTS statistical regions of Portugal

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is developed by Eurostat, and employed in Portugal for statistical purposes. The NUTS branch extends from NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 regions, with the complementary LAU (Local Administrative Units) sub-categorization being used to differentiate the local areas, of trans-national importance.

Developed by Eurostat and implemented in 1998, the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions, which comprises three levels of the Portuguese territory, are instrumental in European Union's Structural Fund delivery mechanisms. The standard was developed by the European Union, and thus only covers the member states, and extensively used by national governments, Eurostat and other EU bodies for statistical and policy matters. Until 4 November 2002, the Sistema Estatístico Nacional (SEN) used a NUTS codification system that was distinct from the Eurostat system. With the enactment of Decree Law 244/2002 (5 November 2002), published in the Diário da República, this system was abandoned in order to harmonize the national system with that of Eurostat.

Northumberland County Council

Northumberland County Council is a unitary authority in North East England. The population of the Non-Metropolitan Unitary Authority at the 2011 Census was 316,028.

SDMX

SDMX, which stands for Statistical Data and Metadata eXchange is an international initiative that aims at standardising and modernising (“industrialising”) the mechanisms and processes for the exchange of statistical data and metadata among international organisations and their member countries.The SDMX sponsoring institutions are the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the European Central Bank (ECB), Eurostat (the statistical office of the European Union), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and the World Bank.

These organisations are the main players at world and regional levels in the collection of official statistics in a large variety of domains (agriculture statistics, economic and financial statistics, social statistics, environment statistics etc.).

The latest version of the SDMX – SDMX 2.1 – was released in May 2011, and was approved by ISO as International Standard (ISO 17369:2013) in 2013.

People who are new to SDMX are invited to consult the “Learning about SDMX Basics” page which will provide them with the necessary basic material for understanding SDMX.

Users who are already familiar with the SDMX standard will find on the SDMX.org website all material, such as the technical standards and guidelines necessary for properly implementing SDMX in a statistical domain.

Unemployment in Poland

Unemployment in Poland appeared in the 19th century during industrialization, and was particularly severe during the Great Depression. Under communist rule Poland officially had close to full employment, although hidden unemployment existed. After Poland's transition to a market economy the unemployment rate sharply increased, peaking at above 16% in 1993, then dropped afterwards, but remained well above pre-1993 levels. Another period of high unemployment occurred in the early 2000s when the rate reached 20%. As Poland entered the European Union (EU) and its job market in 2004, the high unemployment set off a wave of emigration, and as a result domestic unemployment started a downward trend that continued until the onset of the 2008 Great Recession. Recent years have seen an increase in the unemployment rate from below 8% to above 10% (Eurostat) or from below 10% to 13% (GUS). The rate began dropping again in late 2013. Polish government (GUS) reported 9.6% registered unemployment in November 2015, while European Union's Eurostat gave 7.2%. According to Eurostat data, since 2008, unemployment in Poland has been constantly below the EU average. Significant regional differences in the unemployment rate exist across Poland.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.