European golden plover

The European golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria), also known as the Eurasian golden plover or just the golden plover within Europe, is a largish plover. This species is similar to two other golden plovers: the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica, and Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva, which are both smaller, slimmer and relatively longer-legged than European golden plover, and both have grey rather than white axillary feathers (only properly visible in flight).

European golden plover
Kulík zlatý (Pluvialis apricaria) a (3949776435)
Adult in breeding plumage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Charadriidae
Genus: Pluvialis
P. apricaria
Binomial name
Pluvialis apricaria
Pluvialis apricaria map
  • Charadrius apricarius Linnaeus, 1758
  • Charadrius pluvialis Linnaeus, 1758


The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent.[2] The species name apricaria is Latin and means to bask in the sun.[3]


Pluvialis apricaria MWNH 0292
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The European golden plover is quite thickset, with its wings only being slightly longer than its tail. Its most distinct feature is a white "s"-shaped band stretching from its forehead to its flanks.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The European golden plover tends to breed in the Arctic tundra and other palearctic areas, ranging as far west as Iceland, where they are called Heiðlóa, and as far east as central Siberia.[4] It tends to gather in large flocks and winter in open areas, agricultural plains, ploughed land, and short meadows, ranging from Europe to North Africa.[5][6]

In the United Kingdom, golden plover chicks rely on Tipulidae for feeding, while in Sweden Bibionidae are more important.[7]

Behaviour and ecology

The European golden plover's call is a monosyllabic, slightly descending, melancholic "tuu".[4][6]

Its flight action is rapid and powerful, with regular wingbeats.[5]

In culture


The European golden plover spends summers in Iceland, and in Icelandic folklore, the appearance of the first plover in country means that spring has arrived.[8] The Icelandic media always covers the first plover sighting, which in 2017, took place on March 27.[9]

Origin of Guinness World Records

On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver, then the managing director of the Guinness Breweries,[10] went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland. After missing a shot at a Eurasian golden plover, he became involved in an argument over which was the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse (the former being correct).[11] That evening at Castlebridge House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird.[12][13] Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records. He realised then that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove popular.[14] A Guinness employee told Sir Hugh of two twin brothers, Norris and Ross McWhirter, who had opened a fact checking agency in London. Sir Hugh interviewed the brothers and, impressed by their prodigious knowledge, commissioned the book. Later, he published the first Guinness World Records which became a best seller within months.[15]


The European golden plover is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pluvialis apricaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 57, 311. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ a b c Frédéric Jiguet, Aurélien Audevard (2017). Birds of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East: A Photographic Guide (illustrated ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780691172439.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b Mark Beaman, Steve Madge (2010). The Handbook of Bird Identification: For Europe and the Western Palearctic (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. p. 309. ISBN 9781408135235.
  6. ^ a b Jon Lloyd Dunn, Jonathan K. Alderfer, ed. (2006). National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, National Geographic Field Guide to Birds Series (illustrated ed.). National Geographic Books. p. 154. ISBN 9780792253143.
  7. ^ Machín, P.; Fernández-Elipe, J.; Flinks, H.; Laso, M.; Aguirre, J. I.; Klaassen, R. H. G. (2017). "Habitat selection, diet and food availability of European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks in Swedish Lapland". Ibis. 159 (3): 657–672. doi:10.1111/ibi.12479.
  8. ^ Jóhannsson, K. (27 March 2017). "The Golden Plover has arrived, indicating spring in Iceland". Icenews. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  9. ^ "Spring has arrived in Iceland, according to folklore". Iceland Monitor. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  10. ^ "The History of the Book". Guinness Record Book Collecting. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  11. ^ Davenport, Fionn (2010). Ireland. Lonely Planet. p. 193. ISBN 9781742203508.
  12. ^ "Early history of Guinness World Records". 2005. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007.
  13. ^ Cavendish, Richard (August 2005). "The Guinness Book of Records was first published on August 27th, 1955". History Today. 55 (8).
  14. ^ Guinness World Records 2005 (50th Anniversary ed.). Guinness. 2004. p. 6. ISBN 978-1892051226.
  15. ^ "The Guinness Book of Records, Witness - BBC World Service".

External links

American golden plover

The American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica) is a medium-sized plover. The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name dominica refers to Santo Domingo, now Hispaniola, in the West Indies.

Arrocampo Reservoir

(This article is a summary translation of Spanish article Embalse de Arrocampo of Wikipedia (es))

The Arrocampo Reservoir, (embalse de Arrocampo or embalse de Arrocampo-Almaraz in Spanish), is located in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain.

It was created at 1976 to refrigerate the turbines of the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant.

The nearest municipalities are Almaraz, Romangordo, Saucedilla and Serrejón.

The dam is on the Arrocampo River (arroyo Arrocampo), very close to where this little river joins the Tagus.

Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.

Linnaeus first included birds in the 6th edition of his Systema Naturae which was published in 1748. In it he listed 260 species arranged into 51 genera and six orders. The entries for each species were very brief; he did not include a description but instead provided a citation to an earlier publication, often to his own Fauna suecica which was published in 1746. Linnaeus generally followed the classification scheme introduced by the English parson and naturalist John Ray which grouped species based on the characteristics of their bill and feet.The 10th edition appeared in 1758 and was the first in which Linnaeus consistently used his binomial system of nomenclature. He increased the number of birds to 554 species which filled 116 pages compared with only 17 in the 6th edition. For each species he included both a brief description and also citations to earlier publications. He maintained 6 orders as in the 6th edition but renamed Scolopaces to Grallae. He rearranged some of the genera, dropping several and adding others to bring the total to 63.The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. In 2016 the list of birds of the world maintained by Frank Gill and David Donsker on behalf of the International Ornithologists' Union included 448 species for which Linnaeus's description in the 10th edition is cited as the authority. Of the species 101 have been retained in their original genus and 347 have been moved to a different genus. In addition, there are five species on Linnaeus's 1758 list that are now considered as subspecies. Of Linnaeus's 63 genera, only Tantalus and Colymbus are not now used.In the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1766, Linnaeus described many additional birds that had not been included in the 10th edition. The 12th edition included 931 bird species divided into 6 orders and 78 genera. The 12th edition is cited as the authority for 257 modern species of which only 25 have been retained in their original genus. There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species.Linnaeus described the class Aves as:

A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are aereal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood

Lungs: respires alternately

Jaw: incombent, naked, extended, without teeth

Eggs: covered with a calcareous shell

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, and ears without auricles

Covering: incumbent, imbricate feathers

Supports: 2 feet, 2 wings; and a heart-shaped rump. Flies in the Air & SingsIn the list below, the binomial name is that used by Linnaeus.

Egg predation

Egg predation is a feeding strategy by animals (ovivores) including fish, birds, snakes and insects, in which they consume the eggs of other species. Since an egg represents a complete organism at one stage of its life cycle, eating an egg is a form of predation, the killing of another organism for food.

Egg predation is found widely across the animal kingdom, including in insects such as ladybirds, molluscs such as the leech Cystobranchus virginicus, fishes such as haddock, snakes such as colubrids, birds such as carrion crow and buzzard, and mammals such as red fox, badgers and pine martens. Some species are specialist egg predators, but many more are generalists which take eggs when the opportunity arises.

Snakes specialising in egg predation have greatly reduced venom, implying that the main function of venom is to subdue prey.

Eurasian dotterel

The Eurasian dotterel (Charadrius morinellus), also known in Europe as just dotterel, is a small wader in the plover family of birds.

The dotterel is a brown and black streaked bird with a broad white eye-stripe and an orange-red chest band when in breeding plumage. The female is more colourful than the male. The bird is tame and unsuspecting and the term "dotterel" has been applied contemptuously to mean an old fool.

The Eurasian dotterel is a migratory species, breeding in northern Europe and Asia and migrating south to north Africa and the Middle East in the winter. It nests in a bare scrape on the ground and lays two to four eggs. The male does the incubation and rears the chicks, the female having gone off to find another male and lay another clutch of eggs. It is a common bird with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being of "least concern".

Geography of Greater Manchester

The geography of Greater Manchester is dominated by one of the United Kingdom's largest metropolitan areas, and in this capacity the landlocked metropolitan county constitutes one of the most urbanised and densely populated areas of the country. There is a mix of high density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but overwhelmingly the land use in the county is urban.Greater Manchester is a landlocked county spanning 492.7 sq mi (1,276 km2) (39th largest in England). The Pennines rise along the eastern side of the county, through parts of the boroughs of Oldham, Rochdale and Tameside. The West Pennine Moors, as well as a number of coalfields (mainly sandstones and shales) lie in the west of the county. The rivers Mersey, Irwell and Tame run through the county boundaries, each of which rise in the Pennines. Other rivers run through the county, including the Beal, the Douglas, the Etherow, the Goyt, the Irk, the Medlock and the Roch. Black Chew Head is the highest point of Greater Manchester, rising 542 metres (1,778 ft) above sea-level, within the parish of Saddleworth. Chat Moss at 10.6 square miles (27 km2) comprises the largest area of Grade 1 and 2 farmland in Greater Manchester and contains the largest block of semi-natural woodland in the county. Wardle is the most northerly settlement of Greater Manchester and Ramsden Clough the most northerly point; the suburb of Woodford the most southerly settlement and New Hall Farm (by the River Dean) the most southerly point.

Greater Manchester has a strong regional central business district, formed by Manchester City Centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford. However, Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has a major town centre – and in some cases more than one – and many smaller settlements. Greater Manchester is arguably the most complex urban area in the United Kingdom outside London, and this is reflected in the density of its transport network and the scale of needs for investment to meet the growing and diverse movement demands generated by its development pattern.

Les Landes

Les Landes is an area of coastal heathland in the north-west of Jersey. It has been designated as a Site of Special Interest (SSI) since 1996.The site is the largest of its kind in Jersey at 160 ha.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of North America (Charadriiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Charadriiformes, and are native to North America.

Lomstjønna Nature Reserve

The Lomstjønna Nature Reserve (Norwegian: Lomstjønna naturreservat) is located on Harøya island in the municipality of Sandøy in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.The area received protection in 1988 "to preserve an important wetland area with associated plant communities, bird life and other wildlife," according to the conservation regulations. The reserve is based around a pond named Lomstjørna (a.k.a. Lomstjønna), located in a hilly and nutrient-poor bog landscape that is flat and uniform. The area encompasses the main pond, the bog, and several small ponds, and it forms a representative part of this landscape type on the island. Several bird species that prefer coastal heaths nest here: the greylag goose, European golden plover, sandpipers, and gulls. There are also some ducks and some special species such as the red-necked phalarope and Lapland longspur.

The reserve is one of six natural areas that were included in the Harøya Wetlands System Ramsar site, which was established in 1996.

National symbols of Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

Symbols of Ireland are marks, images, or objects that represent Ireland. Because Ireland was not partitioned until 1922, many of the symbols of Ireland predate the division into Southern Ireland (later Irish Free State and then Ireland) and Northern Ireland.

Unlike other countries (such as the United States, with the state symbols), Irish and Northern Irish state symbols are rarely defined by official Acts; they are defined by common usage or by various interest groups.

These symbols are seen in official capacities, such as flags, coats of arms, postage stamps, and currency, and in URLs.

They appear less formally as recurring themes in literature, art and folk art, heraldry, monuments, clothing, personal decoration, and as the names of parks, bridges and streets.

Pacific golden plover

The Pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva) is a medium-sized plover. The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name fulva is Latin and refers to a tawny colour.The 23–26 cm long breeding adult is spotted gold and black on the crown, and back on the wings. Its face and neck are black with a white border, and it has a black breast and a dark rump. The legs are black. In winter, the black is lost and the plover then has a yellowish face and breast, and white underparts.

It is similar to two other golden plovers: the Eurasian and American plovers. The Pacific golden plover is smaller, slimmer and relatively longer-legged than the European golden plover, Pluvialis apricaria, which also has white axillary (armpit) feathers. Overall, the Pacific golden plover is found to be more similar to the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica, with which it was once considered conspecific as "lesser golden plover". The Pacific golden plover is slimmer than the American species, has a shorter primary projection, longer legs, and is usually found to have more yellow on the back.

This wader forages for food on tundra, fields, beaches and tidal flats, usually by sight. It eats insects and crustaceans and some berries.

The breeding habitat of Pacific golden plover is the Arctic tundra from northernmost Asia into western Alaska. It nests on the ground in a dry open area.

It is migratory and winters in south Asia and Australasia. A few winter in California and Hawaii, USA. In Hawaii, the bird is known as the kōlea, and in New Zealand it is known to Māori as kuriri. It is very rare vagrant to western Europe. They return to the same wintering territory each year, which allowed scientists in Hawaii to attach tiny light level geolocator devices to the birds and then retrieve them the following year in the same location. This research revealed that these birds make the 4800 km non-stop flight between Alaska and Hawaii in 3–4 days.

Padjelanta National Park

Padjelanta (Swedish: Padjelanta nationalpark) is a national park in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. Established in 1963, it is the largest national park in Sweden with an area of 1,984 km2 (766 sq mi), and part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Laponia established in 1996.


Plovers ( or ) are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae.


Pluvialis is a genus of plovers, a group of wading birds comprising four species that breed in the temperate or Arctic Northern Hemisphere.

In breeding plumage, they all have largely black underparts, and golden or silvery upperparts. They have relatively short bills and feed mainly on insects, worms or other invertebrates, depending on habitat, which are obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing of some other wader groups. They hunt by sight, rather than by feel as do longer-billed waders.

Stora Sjöfallet National Park

Stora Sjöfallet (Swedish: Stora Sjöfallets nationalpark) is a national park in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden, in Gällivare Municipality and Jokkmokk Municipality. The national park is 1,278 km2 (493 sq mi) and the third-largest in Sweden. It is about 20 km (12 mi) above the Arctic Circle by the Norwegian border and lies north and south of the lake system of the Lule River.The area was declared a national park in 1909. The national park is part of the Laponian area, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Stora sjöfallet is also a part of Natura 2000, which is a network for protected areas in the European Union.

Thy National Park

Thy National Park (Danish: Nationalpark Thy) is a national park area in Thy, Denmark, opened to the public on 22 August 2008. It is located in Northwest Jutland, along the coast from Hanstholm to Agger Tange and it spans 55 km (34 mi) north to south and 5–12 km (3.1–7.5 mi) east to west. The total area of the national park is 244 km2 (94 square miles).The dune and heath landscape of Thy was officially selected on 29 June 2007 to be the first national park in Denmark proper (Northeast Greenland National Park was established in 1974). Other national parks have been established later.The governmental Forest and Nature Agency states:

A Danish national park contains the most unique and characteristic Danish nature. ...The idea is about improving and strengthening the Danish nature, and giving both local and foreign visitors better possibilities to experience, use and get knowledge about nature, the landscape and the history of civilization.

Thy National Park is thus not just a simple tourist attraction.

Ķemeri National Park

Ķemeri National Park (Latvian: Ķemeru nacionālais parks) is a national park west of the city of Jūrmala, Latvia. Established in 1997, Ķemeri is the third largest national park in the country by area, covering an area of 381.65 km². The territory of the park is mostly occupied by forests and mires, the most significant of them being The Great Ķemeri Bog (Latvian: Lielais Ķemeru tīrelis). There are also several lakes, that are former lagoons of the Littorina Sea. Lake Kaņieris is a Ramsar site. The park also protects the famous natural mineral-springs and muds, used for centuries because of their therapeutic nature. The springs led to development of many resorts, spas, and sanitariums in the 19th century.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.