European driving licence

The European driving licence is a driving licence replacing the many driving licence styles already in use in the member states of the European Economic Area (EEA) (all 28 EU member states as well as 3 EFTA member states; Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). It has the credit card-style with a photograph and possibly a microchip. They were introduced to replace the 110 different plastic and paper driving licences of the 300 million drivers in the EEA. The main objective of the licence is to decrease the risk of fraud.

A driving licence issued by a member state of the EEA, is recognised throughout the EEA and can be used as long as it is valid, the driver is old enough to drive a vehicle of the equivalent category, and the licence is not suspended or restricted and has not been revoked in the issuing country. If the holder of an EEA driving licence moves to another EEA country, the licence can be exchanged for a driving licence from the new EEA country. However, as all EEA driving licences are recognised throughout the EEA, it is usually not necessary to exchange it.

The exception is for those holding EEA driving licences issued in exchange for a non‑EEA licence. When holding a converted licence, one should not assume the licence can be exchanged when moving to another EEA country. This only applies when permanently relocating to a different EEA country. As a tourist, an EEA-licence issued in exchange of a non-EEA licence is recognised throughout the EEA.[1]

European driving licence
Date first issued29 July 1991
Issued by28 EU member states and 3 EFTA member states
Valid in28 EU member states and 3 EFTA member states
PurposeAccess to unified driving licence in any of the 31 EEA member states
Eligibility requirementsEEA residency
DE Licence 2013 Front
German version of an EU driving licence card with the EU flag on it (2013, specimen)
Fahrerlaubnisklassen
Driving licences within the European Union are subdivided into different categories (Note: Above graphic may be outdated since 19 January 2013)

History

Pre-1996 European driving licence

The first step to a European driving licence was taken on 4 December 1980, when the Council of Ministers adopted Council Directive 80/1263/EEC on the introduction of a Community driving licence, which established a Community model national licence that guaranteed the mutual recognition by the Member States of national licences. It also established the practice of exchange of licences by holders moving from one Member State to another.

European driving licence as from 1996

Directive 91/439/EEC
European Union directive
TitleCouncil Directive on driving licences
Made byCouncil of the European Union
Made underArt. 75 TEC
Journal referenceL237, pp 1-24
History
Date made29 July 1991
Came into force24 August 1991
Implementation date1 July 1996
Other legislation
ReplacesDirective 80/1263/EEC
Replaced byDirective 2006/126/EC
Repealed

On 29 July 1991, the Council of Ministers adopted the Council of the European Union Directive 91/439/EEC on driving licences. The directive required EU Member States to adopt laws implementing the directive before 1 July 1994, which laws would take effect on 1 July 1996. Directive 80/1263/EEC would be repealed on the same date. Directive 91/439/EEC specified the European Union driving licence until its repeal 19 January 2013.

Provisions

The Council of the European Union Directive 91/439/EEC harmonises the categories of driving licences among the Member States and establishes two Community driving licence models, one paper version and one plastic card version. It furthermore establishes an obligatory test of knowledge (theory) and a test of skills and behaviour (practical) which has to be successfully passed before an individual is offered a driving licence. It also requires an applicant to meet the minimum standards of physical and mental fitness to drive. The directive specifies the minimum ages for driving different types of vehicles, and establishes progressive access in categories A, C, and D, from light vehicles to larger or more powerful vehicles. The directive stipulates that it is mandatory to have the normal residence in the Member State issuing the licence.[2]

Amendments

The Directive has been substantially amended by nine directives and two acts of accession. The plastic card version of the Community licence model, for example, was added to the Directive by Council Directive 96/47/EC of 23 July 1996.[3]

European driving licence as from 2013

Directive 2006/126/EC
European Union directive
TitleDirective of the European Parliament and of the Council on driving licences (Recast)
Made byEuropean Parliament & Council
Made underArt. 71 TEC
Journal referenceL403, pp. 18-60
History
Date made30 December 2006
Came into force19 January 2007
Implementation date19 January 2013
Other legislation
ReplacesDirective 91/439/EEC
Current legislation

In March 2006, the Council of Ministers adopted a Directive proposed by the European Commission to create a single European driving licence to replace the 110 different models currently in existence throughout the EU/EEA.[4][5] The European Parliament adopted the Directive in December 2006.[6] Directive 2006/126/EEC was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 30 December 2006.[7] Its provisions took effect on 19 January 2013; Directive 91/439/EEC was then concurrently repealed.

Provisions

The licence is a credit-card-style, single plastic-coated document, very difficult to falsify. The document will be renewable every 10 or 15 years depending on the member state. Several member states will have the option to include a microchip containing information about the card holder on the card.

Some categories like C and D will be issued for five years only. After expiration, a medical check-up is necessary in order to renew the licence for another five years.

EEA relevance

The provisions of Directive 2006/126/EC mentions that it has European Economic Area (EEA) relevance, meaning that its provisions apply to all 28 EU member states, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway, through incorporation into the agreement on the EEA.[8]

Implementation

The directive stipulates that all 31 EEA members states should adopt laws implementing the directive no later than 19 January 2011. Those laws should take effect in all EEA members states on 19 January 2013. All licences issued before that date will become invalid by 2033.

Participating member states

EEA
The 31 participating member states, including 28 EU (blue) and 3 EEA (green).

As of 2013, the 31 member states of the EEA participate. This includes the 28 EU members plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. Switzerland, an EFTA member state, is not party to the EEA agreement, and is instead linked to the EU by a series of bilateral agreements.

Brexit

Irish residents have been advised to switch their UK driving licence, if they hold one, for an Irish one as the UK one may not be valid after Brexit.[9]

Standard data field labelling

To help users of different languages to understand what each of the data fields on the licence contains, they are labelled with a number. A legend is usually supplied on the reverse of the card in the issuing authority's language.

  1. surname
  2. given name[a]
  3. date of birth, place of birth[d]
  4. a) date of issue, b) date of expiry, c) issuing authority, d) personal number[b]
  5. licence number
  6. photograph of holder
  7. signature of holder
  8. Address[c]
  9. licence categories
  10. first issuing date of the category
  11. expiry date of the category
  12. restrictions (number coded)
  13. space reserved for the possible entry by the host Member State of information essential for administering the licence[10] (barcode (personal number))
  14. space reserved for the possible entry by the Member State which issues the licence of information essential for administering the licence or related to road safety (optional).

Notes

aThough the EU directive states this to be other names, local variations may occur
bThe addition of the personal number is a local variation. 4(d) is optional and should be a number other than the one listed under number 5
cThe address is optional and not implemented by all countries
dNorway[11] and Sweden:[12] a hyphen (-) is shown in lieu of place of birth.

Categories valid in all EEA member states

[1][13][14]

Class Description Age of acquisition Requires Includes Remarks
Mopeds
AM Two-wheel vehicles or three-wheel vehicles with a maximum design speed of not more than 45 kilometres per hour (28 mph) and with a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cubic centimetres (3.1 cu in). 16 years (15 years in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden, 14 years in Estonia, Latvia, France, Italy, Poland, and Hungary). Until 19 January 2013 this class was called "M" in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, and Norway.
Motorcycles
A1 Motorcycles with a cylinder capacity not exceeding 125 cubic centimetres (7.6 cu in) and a power not exceeding 11 kilowatts (15 hp); and motor tricycles with a power not exceeding 15 kilowatts (20 hp). 16 years. (17 years in the UK, 18 years in Denmark, Greece, Belgium, and the Netherlands). AM, (also T in Finland) B licence holders in Czech Republic (only motorcycles with automatic transmission), Italy, Latvia, Malta (after a training of 10 hours), Slovakia (after two years and only motorcycles with automatic transmission), Spain (after three years), Poland (after three years), Portugal (at least 25 years old or additional licence for mopeds), and Belgium (only with a Belgian Driving Licence, after two years) are allowed to drive motorcycles not exceeding 125 cubic centimetres (7.6 cu in) within the respective countries. In Austria (after five years, training of 6 hours), France (after two years, a training of 7 hours), Luxembourg (after two years, training of 7 hours), and the United Kingdom (Compulsory Basic Training), a practical training without exam is needed for B licence holders.
A2 Motorcycles of a power not exceeding 35 kilowatts (47 hp) and with a power/weight ratio not exceeding 0.2 kilowatts per kilogram (0.12 hp/lb) and not derived from a vehicle of more than double its power. 18 years. (19 years in the UK, 20 years in Denmark, Greece, and the Netherlands). A1, AM, (also T in Finland) Replaced class "A" on 19 January 2013 in Malta.[15]
A Any motorcycle or motor tricycle not in category A1/A2 20 years. (21 years in the UK, 22 years in Denmark, Greece, and the Netherlands). However, access to the driving of motorcycles of this category shall be subject to a minimum of two years' experience on motorcycles under an A2 licence. This requirement as to previous experience may be waived if the candidate is at least 24 years old. A2, A1, AM, (also T in Finland) B licence holders who are at least 21 years of age are allowed to drive motor tricycles (including three-wheeled motorcycles with a power exceeding 15 kilowatts (20 hp) in the following countries: France, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland (after three years of B licence) and the United Kingdom. In France, a practical training (at least 7 hours) without an exam is needed for B licence holders who want to drive motor tricycles only, and this option is available only after at least two years of B licence. In the Netherlands it's allowed to drive from the age of at least 18, and if you had your driving licence B before 19 January 2013. Replaced class "A+" on 19 January 2013 in Malta.[16]
Motor vehicles
B Motor vehicles with a maximum authorised mass (MAM) not exceeding 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb) and designed and constructed for the carriage of no more than eight passengers in addition to the driver; motor vehicles in this category may be combined with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass which does not exceed 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). You can also tow heavier trailers if the total MAM of the vehicle and trailer isn’t more than 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb).

The limit in the first condition is: 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb) + 750 kilograms (1,650 lb)= 4,250 kilograms (9,370 lb).

The limit for in the second condition is: 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) + 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb)= 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb).

18 years (17 years in Denmark and Slovakia (under supervision, from age of 18 without supervision),[17] Iceland, Germany, Hungary, and Netherlands (under supervision, from age of 18 without supervision)).

17 years in the UK and Ireland. 17 in Austria after 3000km of driving under supervision.

AM (some countries), S, (also A1 in Czech Republic and F and G in Croatia) In Poland and Spain, drivers with 3 years B driver licence are also entitled to ride motorcycles <= 125 centimetres (49 in) and power <= 11 kilowatts (15 hp) and ratio power/weight <= 0.1 kilowatts per kilogram (0.061 hp/lb) Does not include S in Norway.
BE Without prejudice to the provisions of type-approval rules for the vehicles concerned, a combination of vehicles consisting of a tractor vehicle in category B and a trailer or semi-trailer where the maximum authorised mass of the trailer or semi-trailer does not exceed 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb). 18 years (17 years in the UK and Ireland). B Includes T in Norway and Poland.
B1 Heavy quadricycles 16 years AM This class is optional, i.e. it is not implemented by all countries.
Large goods vehicle
C1 Large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of not more than 7.5 tonnes (7.4 long tons; 8.3 short tons); with or without a trailer with a maximum mass of less than 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 18 years B
C1E Combinations of vehicles where the tractor vehicle is in category C and its trailer or semi-trailer has a maximum authorised mass of over 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 18 years C1
C Large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of more than 3.5 tonnes (3.4 long tons; 3.9 short tons) mass and not more than 8 + 1 seats (lorry); with a trailer with a maximum mass of 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 21 years (18 years in Sweden, Finland, UK and Ireland; 18 years in Germany for non-commercial use only except for apprenticeship as professional driver) B for 1 year, not including restricted licence C1
CE Other combinations of vehicles and trailers which with combined maximum authorised mass of more than 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 21 years C C1E, T
Buses
D1 Light buses with a maximum of 16 + 1 seats, maximum length of 8 metres (26 ft). 21 years B for 1 year, not including restricted licence Motor vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of no more than 16 passengers in addition to the driver.; motor vehicles in this category may be combined with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass not exceeding 750 kilograms (1,650 lb).
D1E Combinations of vehicles where the tractor vehicle is in category D1 and its trailer has a maximum authorised mass of over 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 21 years D1
D Vehicles with more than 8 + 1 seats (buses). 24 years (21 years in Ireland) B for 2 years, not including restricted licence D1 Motor vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of more than eight passengers in addition to the driver; motor vehicles which may be driven with a category D licence may be combined with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass which does not exceed 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). Includes articulated buses (at least in the UK and in Germany).[18]
DE Combinations of vehicles where the tractor vehicle is in category D and its trailer has a maximum authorised mass of over 750 kilograms (1,650 lb). 24 years (21 years in Ireland) D D1E

National categories in EEA member states

There are other national categories for tractors, large motorcycles, motorised wheel boats, motor tricycles (modern voiturettes, Category B1 or S), and military categories such as for driving tanks. National categories mean they are not harmonised and only valid within the issuing country. The tables below are general descriptions that do not include full details of regulations.

Austria

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
F Tractor 16 Austria

Bulgaria

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
Tкт Tractor 16 Bulgaria
Tтб Trolleybus 24
Tтм Tram 24

Croatia

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
F Tractor – with or without a trailer 16 Croatia
G Heavy equipment 16
H Tram 21

Germany

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
BF17 Begleitetes Fahren (accompanied driving) — BF17 licensed driver must be accompanied by B-licence holder age 30+ 17 Germany, Austria[19]
L Tractor not exceeding 40 km/h by design (with trailer attached: max. 25 km/h) 16 Germany
T Tractor 16

Hungary

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
M Moped 14 Hungary
K Two-wheel tractor 16
T Tractor – with maximum 2 trailer 16
TR Trolleybus 20
V Tram 20

Ireland

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
W Work Vehicle – includes land tractors with or without a trailer 16 Ireland

Latvia

Class Description Valid in
TRAM Tram Latvia
TROL Trolleybus

Norway

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
S Snowmobile 16 Norway
T Tractor 16

Poland

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
T Tractor 16 Poland

Slovenia

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
F Tractor 16 Slovenia

Switzerland

Even though Switzerland is an EFTA member state, it is not a member of the European Economic Area. Switzerland has, however, generally adopted much of the harmonised EU legislation with regard to driving licences. Swiss licences can be exchanged in most EEA countries. Switzerland has, since the 2000s, used the EU system of vehicle categories and issued EEA-style credit-card licences, similar to many other non-EU-countries.

To apply for a car driving licence (category B), the applicant must be at least 18 years old. They must first attend first aid courses and pass an eyesight test. Passing a theory exam is required to receive a learner's permit/licence valid for two years. This allows holders to drive a car only if accompanied by a person, aged 23 or more, who has had a full driving licence for a minimum of three years. Before passing the practical exam, the candidate must attend 10 hours of theory lessons on "familiarisation to road traffic". Practical driving lessons are not legally required but are considered a de facto prerequisite for passing the practical exam taken with a government official Driving Test Examiner. Upon succeeding the practical exam, a probationary driving licence is issued for three years. To obtain the full, unlimited, driving licence after these three years, the candidate must not commit a serious traffic offence and attend two days of further driving training.

For motorcycles and heavier vehicles, the regulations are different, and some agrarian vehicles can be driven without a licence. As of 2011, a 45-minute driving lesson costs around 90 CHF, while the various fees and theoretical instruction costs associated with getting a car driving licence can amount to up to CHF 600, without counting the costs for the two days of further training.

The theoretical exam must be taken in either German, French, or Italian. In some cantons, it is possible to take it in English.

Class Description Age minimum Valid in
F Tractor <= 45 kilometres per hour (28 mph) 16 Switzerland
G Tractor <= 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) 14
M Moped <= 30 kilometres per hour (19 mph) 14

Gallery

Country Code Before 19 January 2013 (in Croatia before 1 July 2013) Since 19 January 2013 (in Croatia since 1 July 2013)
Austria A ATdrivinglicencefront A Licence 2013 Front
Belgium B Belgisch rijbewijs BE driving license
Bulgaria BG
Croatia HR Croatian driving licence
Croatian driving licence back
Cyprus CY
Czech Republic CZ
Denmark DK DK Licens j12a
Estonia EST
Finland FIN Finnish driver's licence, front
Finnish driver's licence, back[20]
France F PC-Europ01-275x379 French driving license 2013
Germany D DE Licence Desiré Jeanette Mustermann Front
DE Licence Desiré Jeanette Mustermann Back
DE Licence 2013 Front
DE Licence 2013 Back
Greece GR Hellenic Driving Licence
Hungary H
Iceland IS
Ireland IRL Irish Drivers Licence
Italy I IT licence (front)
IT licence (back)
Latvia LV
Liechtenstein FL
Lithuania LT
Luxembourg L
Malta M
Netherlands NL
Norway N Førerkort fremside
Førerkort bakside

Poland PL PL driving license front Projekt nowego prawa jazdy
Portugal P
Romania RO RO licence front
Slovakia SK
Slovenia SLO
Spain E Permiso de conducir plastificado
Sweden S
United Kingdom UK

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Driving licence recognition and validity". Europa.eu. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  2. ^ European Commission website - Transport: driving licence Archived 7 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Consolidated version of Directive 91/439/EEC as of 18 July 2008". europa.eu.
  4. ^ "Klartecken för EU-körkort". Svenska Dagbladet. Retrieved 27 March 2006.
  5. ^ "EU backs European driving licence". BBC News. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  6. ^ "EU announces plans for European driving license". Workpermit.com. 18 December 2006.
  7. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2006/126/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". Official Journal of the European Union.
  8. ^ "32016L1106 - European Free Trade Association - European Free Trade Association". Efta.int.
  9. ^ http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/news/explainer-why-irish-citizens-are-advised-to-ditch-their-british-driving-licence-ahead-of-brexit-37845907.html
  10. ^ Directive 2006/126/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on driving licences
  11. ^ "Nytt norsk førerkort : fra 19. januar 2013" (PDF). Vegvesen.no. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Föreskrifter om ändring i Transportstyrelsens föreskrifter (TSFS 2012:60) om körkortets utformning och innehåll" (PDF). Transportstyrelsen.se. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  13. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2006/126/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ "Press Release: Changes to the Minimum Ages and Test Requirements to obtain a Driving Licence". Transport Malta.
  16. ^ "Press Release: Changes to the Minimum Ages and Test Requirements to obtain a Driving Licence". Transport Malta.
  17. ^ "Kørekort til 17-årige (Ledsagerordningen)". Sikkertrafik.dk.
  18. ^ "INF30 - Requirements for towing trailers in Great Britain - GOV.UK" (PDF). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2013.
  19. ^ "Ist Begleitetes Fahren mit 17 im Ausland erlaubt?". Focus.de.
  20. ^ "Polisen.ax - Körkort". Polisen.ax.

External links

Cigarette machine

A cigarette machine is a vending machine that takes cash in payment for packs of cigarettes.

Driving licence in Belgium

In Belgium the driving licence is a governmental right given to those who request a licence for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of Motor vehicle. The age to obtain a driving licence is: 18 years for a car, 21 years for buses and cargo vehicles and between 18 and 24 years for motorcycles depending on their horsepower.

Driving licence in Bulgaria

In Bulgaria the driving licence (Bulgarian: Свидетелство за управление на моторно превозно средство (Certificate for driving a motorized vehicle), abbreviated СУМПС) is a governmental right given to those who request a license for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of motorized vehicle. The minimum age to obtain a driving license is: 16 years for a motorcycle, 18 years for a car, and 21 years for buses and cargo vehicles.

In addition to the plastic card, each holder of a Bulgarian driving licence is in a possession of a second document, named check counterfoil (контролен талон). It is made of blue paper, is filled in by hand and is stamped. When a driver is fined for road violation, the counterfoil is taken by the authorities and is replaced by а breech act (акт за нарушение). The driver may continue driving for a limited period of time, stated in the document. The check counterfoil is returned only after the fine is paid.

Since 1999, the Bulgarian driving license format was changed from that of a pink booklet to a credit-card sized card. The pink booklet had been used for several decades and thus the driving license was and still is informally called in Bulgarian: шофьорска книжка (driver's booklet).

Driving licence in Croatia

In Croatia, the driving licence (Croatian: vozačka dozvola) is a type of licence granted by the government to citizens who request it, provided they satisfy certain requirements. The licence permits holders to drive motorised vehicles on public roads.Until 2013, the Croatian driving licence had a pink booklet format, which was common in Europe at the time. A separate booklet was required for each vehicle category endorsement. This was before the European Parliament adopted the Directive 2006/126/EC of the European Commission, which mandated the creation of a single European driving licence. Since 2013, Croatian driving licences are issued in a EU-standard, credit-card-style format. Only one card is required per licence holder as it contains information on all vehicle categories that the holder is allowed to operate. Old (pre-2013) licences remain to be valid until their expiry, or until year 2033, whichever comes sooner.The licence for any category can be obtained after finishing driving school and passing a two-stage test, the theory test and the road test, which test the prospective driver's knowledge of the rules of the road including the speed limits in Croatia.

The minimum age to obtain a Croatian driving licence varies; for cars, it is 18 years, but the young drivers are only allowed to drive under a stricter regime until the age of 24; for some motorcycles it is 24, or 20 after two years of probation with another motorcycle licence.

Driving licence in Cyprus

The Cyprus driving licence is the official document issued in Cyprus to authorise its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on public roads.

Licences are issued by the Department of Transport which forms part of the Ministry of Communications and Works. Mopeds (less than 50cc) and cars can be driven on a learner's licence from the age of 17,5. Now you can obtain a full Cypriot driving licence from 18 years old. High capacity motorcycles and certain heavier vehicles can only be driven over the age of 21.

As of 2008, the cost is €59.80 (up to 60 years of age), € 25.63 (60 to 65 years of age) and for those over 65 it is free. Drivers over 70 years of age require a fitness to drive certificate from a medical doctor.

A Cyprus licence is valid in all EU member states. They are printed on paper, show the holder's photograph and have the standard EU vehicle categories.

Offenses such as speeding and drink driving are strictly policed and penalty points can be imposed on driving licences when caught. In certain serious cases or in repeat offenses accumulating enough points a driving licence is revoked on a temporary or permanent basis.

Driving licences only apply for use of vehicles on public roads. Any vehicle can be driven on one's own land (or another person's, with the owner's permission) without a licence.

Driving licence in Finland

In Finland, the car driver's license can be obtained either in a private driving school or given by a near relative who has a driver's licence. It requires that the driver has a car with a passenger brake pedal. The initial license expires after two years and is revoked if the new driver gets more than two fines.

Driving licence in Germany

In Germany the driving licence "Führerschein" is a governmental privilege given to those who request a licence for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of motorised vehicle with the exception of the smallest mopeds below 50 cm³, with a speed limit of 25 km/h, as well as motorised bicycles. (Even for these, there is a minimum age of 15 years and a small mandatory driving school course).

The types of licences one may obtain are the same in all the European Economic Area. See European driving licence.

The minimum age to obtain a driving licence is: 16 years for a restricted motorcycle up to 125 cm³, 17 years for a car with a legal guardian, 18 years for unrestricted car and 21 years for buses and cargo vehicles.

Driving licence in Greece

In Greece the driving licence is a governmental right given to those who request a licence for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of motorized vehicle. The minimum age to obtain a driving licence is: 16 years for a motorcycle, 18 years for a car, and 21 years for buses and cargo vehicles .

Driving licence in Iceland

An Icelandic driving licence is a permit issued by the Icelandic Ministry of Transport authorizing its holder to operate a motorized vehicle.

Driving licence in Israel

Driving licences in Israel come in twelve types, similar to the European driving licence (although small differences exist). In order to receive a licence, each applicant must pass a medical and eye checkup, and a theoretical test, before taking a number of practical lessons culminating in the practical test.

Driving licence in Poland

A driving licence in Poland (prawo jazdy) is a document issued by the relevant government agency, regional or local government, confirming the rights of the holder to drive motor vehicles.

Driving licence in Russia

The Russian Empire was one of the first countries to create a driving licence. Russia's first licences were issued in 1900 by Saint Petersburg authorities, and Russia joined an international convention in 1909. However, due to relatively small number of cars, the attempts to create a standardised Russian licence were rather sporadic and limited to major urban areas. No comprehensive system of driver licensing was present until 1936, when the Soviet government organised and standardised traffic and driving regulations, with the state-wide system regulated by specialised police authorities.

Since March 2011 there are 9 categories that require a driving licence:

A: any type of motorbike

B: motorised vehicle under 3.5 tons (optionally with light trailer)

C: motorised vehicle over 3.5 tons (optionally with light trailer, up to 750 kg)

D: bus (has more than 8 passenger seats) (optionally with light trailer, up to 750 kg)

BE: motorised vehicle under 3.5 tons with heavy trailer

CE: motorised vehicle over 3.5 tons with heavy trailer

DE: bus with heavy trailer

M: moped, assigned automatically if you have any other category open

Tram: tram

Trolleybus: trolleybusCurrently Russia employs a system of driver's licences very similar to the EU standard with two additional categories:

A1 similar to European A limited, as A does not limit the specs of motorbikes

Bikes with engine displacements lower than 50 cc and speeds lower than 50 km/h are considered mopeds and require M licence to drive

B1 for tricycles and quadracycles.The current licence style, introduced in 2011, is a laminated plastic card similar to the European driving licence card in dimensions and outward appearance, with the bearer's photo and name (in Latin and Cyrillic scripts), place/date of issue, allowed categories, and signature. The reverse of the card features a detailed list of allowed categories. This new style is fully compliant with the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, and therefore is acceptable in all its signatory states and countries. Older credit-card-style and booklet-style licenses are also occasionally seen although they are no longer issued and are increasingly rare as a result. The Russian driving licence is also sometimes supplemented by a special card called "временное разрешение" (temporary permission), which serves for registering offense points and as a temporary licence if the primary licence has been seized by the authorities for serious traffic offences. This supplement has been abolished and reinstated a countless number of times as the views of the traffic police change.

The legal driving age within the Russian Federation is 18 years (16 for motorcycles and 20 for buses) and to obtain a licence one must be physically fit to drive (including certificates of mental fitness and no record of substance abuse). One must also pass a test administered at a local traffic police authority and pay a fee. Tests are divided into theory and practice. The theory test is usually a computerized multiple-choice test on various traffic rules. Twenty multiple-choice questions are asked, only one incorrect answer allowed in two different test topics (for a total of two incorrect answers) for a passing grade, after the main part of the test is finished, five additional questions are added for every incorrect answer, bringing a total maximum of questions to 30. Practice part of the test is divided into two parts: basic skills test conducted in an isolated area (steering, slope starting, backing-up, parallel parking and an obstacle course) and a road test conducted on public roads. Four minor errors are allowed for the road driving examination. The number of retries is virtually unlimited, but there is a mandatory grace period of one week for the first three tries and a month for any subsequent ones.

Driving licence in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on roads to which the public have access. Since 29 October 2013, they are issued by the National Driver Licence Service (NDLS). Based on the European driving licence standards, all the categories of licence available and the physical licence meet the 2006 EU standards.

Driving licence in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate motor vehicles on highways and other public roads. It is administered in England, Scotland and Wales by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and in Northern Ireland by the Driver & Vehicle Agency (DVA). A driving licence is required in England, Scotland, and Wales for any person driving a vehicle on any highway or other "road", as defined in s.192 Road Traffic Act 1988, irrespective of the ownership of the land over which the road passes. Similar requirements apply in Northern Ireland under the Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Order 1981.

As long as Great Britain and Northern Ireland remains within the European Union, a UK driving licence is a European driving licence.

As UK nationals do not normally have identity cards, a photographic driving licence can serve many of the purposes of an identity card in non-driving contexts, such as proof of identity (e.g. when opening a bank account) or of age (e.g. when buying age-restricted goods such as alcohol or tobacco).

European Commissioner for Transport

The Commissioner for Transport is the member of the European Commission. The current commissioner is Violeta Bulc.

The portfolio is responsible for the development of transport infrastructure in the European Union such as road and rail networks but also navigation systems such as the Galileo positioning system.

Honda 500 twins

The Honda 500 twins are a series of straight-twin motorcycles made by Honda since 2013. They are the CB500F standard/naked bike, the CBR500R sport bike, and the CB500X adventure touring bike. Their introduction coincided with new European licensing regulations establishing a mid-range class of motorcycles of limited power. The new 500 twins are similar to the earlier CB500 parallel-twins discontinued in 2003, but with new engines, frames, and other parts. They are made in Thailand, where Honda had previously only made smaller displacement motorcycles.All three models used the same 471 cc (28.7 cu in) 180° crank twin-cylinder, parallel, transversely mounted engine whose power output and cubic capacity were below the European driving licence A2 upper limits.All models also shared the same six-speed gearbox and the majority of cycle parts. The CB500X had a larger fuel tank and longer front suspension travel making it slightly taller.

On its release, the CBR500R was the one-design model the European Junior Cup in 2013 and 2014.

Since 2014, Honda has partnered with local organisers to promote national CBR500R Cup events in Brazil and France; raced over various circuits, the competitions are open to amateurs from 13-years upwards.

Large goods vehicle

A heavy goods vehicle (HGV), also large goods vehicle (LGV) or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb). Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) and 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) and N3 for all goods vehicles over 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles".Commercial carrier vehicles of up to 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are referred to as light commercial vehicles and come into category N1. Confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as "large goods vehicles" (also abbreviated "LGV"), with the term LGV" appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term "HGV" or "LGV" for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes.

HGV/LGVs must not exceed 44 tonnes' laden weight or 18.75 metres (61.5 ft) in length to cross boundaries in the EU, but longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) known as Gigaliner, EuroCombi, EcoLiner, innovative commercial vehicle, mega-truck, etc., typically 25.25 metres (82.8 ft) long and weighing up to 70 tonnes are used in some countries, and the implications of allowing them to cross borders was being considered.

List of countries by minimum driving age

The minimum driving age is the minimum age at which a person may obtain a driver's licence to lawfully drive a motor vehicle on public roads. That age is determined by and for each jurisdiction and is most commonly set at 18 years of age, but learner drivers may be permitted on the road at an earlier age under supervision. Before reaching the minimum age for a driver's licence or anytime afterwards, the person wanting the licence would normally be tested for driving ability and knowledge of road rules before being issued with a licence, provided he or she is above the minimum driving age. Countries with the lowest driving ages (17 and below) are Canada, El Salvador, Iceland, Israel, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, the United Kingdom (mainland), United States and Zimbabwe. In several jurisdictions in the United States and Canada, drivers can be as young as 14 (with parental supervision).

Most jurisdictions recognise driver's licences issued by another jurisdiction, which may result in a young person who obtains a licence in a jurisdiction with a low minimum driving age being permitted to drive in a jurisdiction which normally has a higher driving age.

The minimum age may vary depending on vehicle type. This list refers to the minimum driving age for a motor vehicle with a maximum authorized mass not exceeding 3,500 kg and designed and constructed for the carriage of no more than eight passengers in addition to the driver (not including a trailer).

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

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