European art cinema

European art cinema is a branch of cinema that was popular in the latter half of the 20th Century. It is based on a rejection of the tenets and techniques of classical Hollywood cinema.

History

European art cinema gained popularity in the 1950s down to the 1970s, with notable filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Michelangelo Antonioni, and Ingmar Bergman. At this time it was new to the even broader field of art cinema. [1]

Differences from classical

The continuity editing system is not necessarily abandoned but instead is not needed. The cause and effect driven narrative, as well as the goal-oriented protagonist[2] are also not needed. Instead, we may have the protagonist wander around aimlessly for the whole movie, with nothing of real importance happening to drive him from one activity to the other.

Classical Hollywood cinema has a narrative transitivity, in which there is "a sequence of events in which each unit follows the one preceding it according to a chain of causation; this chain is usually psychological".[3] The 'tale over teller' mantra of the classical Hollywood cinema is closely linked to the editing form that classical Hollywood cinema takes, and the rules they impose. For example, the 180 degree rule is followed since crossing the 180 degree line will cause a disturbance or a jarring effect on the viewer, thus calling attention away from story and to the teller. Jump cuts are avoided, since they can cause an ellipsis of the spatial or temporal kind. It is the job of classical Hollywood cinema to get the audience lost and absorbed into the story of the film, so that the film is pleasurable. In contrast the task of European art cinema is to be ambiguous, utilizing an open-ended (and sometimes intertextual) plot, causing the audience to ask questions themselves whilst introducing an element of subjectivity.[4]

Another way they differ in terms of ‘realism’ is that Hollywood classical cinema has characters in full make up all the time, even when just coming out of bed; whereas European art cinema strives for a representation of the 'truth' and may not have characters in costume or make up.[5]

Notable selected films

[6] [7]

References

  1. ^ Screening Modernism: European Art Cinema, 1950-1980, Kovács
  2. ^ Kuhn, A. (1985). The Classic Narrative System. The Cinema Book, 212. London: British Film Institute.
  3. ^ Wollen, P. (1982). Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d'est, 80. Semiotic Counter-Strategies: Readings and Writings London: Verso
  4. ^ Wollen, P. (1982). Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d'est, 85. Semiotic Counter-Strategies: Readings and Writings London: Verso
  5. ^ Wollen, P. (1982). Godard and Counter-Cinema: Vent d'est, 89. Semiotic Counter-Strategies: Readings and Writings London: Verso
  6. ^ 30 Must-See Masterpieces of 1960s European Art Cinema « Taste of Cinema
  7. ^ 10 Masterpieces of European Art Cinema Every Movie Fan Should See « Taste of Cinema

Literature

  • Dobi, Stephen J., Cinema 16: America's Largest Film Society. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, New York University, 1984
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Woody Allen

Heywood "Woody" Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is an American director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades. He began his career as a comedy writer in the 1950s, writing jokes and scripts for television and publishing several books of short humor pieces. In the early 1960s, Allen began performing as a stand-up comedian, emphasizing monologues rather than traditional jokes. As a comedian, he developed the persona of an insecure, intellectual, fretful nebbish, which he maintains is quite different from his real-life personality. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Allen fourth on a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comedians, while a UK survey ranked Allen as the third-greatest comedian.By the mid-1960s, Allen was writing and directing films, first specializing in slapstick comedies before moving into dramatic material influenced by European art cinema during the 1970s, and alternating between comedies and dramas to the present. He is often identified as part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmakers of the mid-1960s to late 1970s. Allen often stars in his films, typically in the persona he developed as a standup. Some of the best-known of his over 50 films are Annie Hall (1977), Manhattan (1979), Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), and Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989). In 2007 he said Stardust Memories (1980), The Purple Rose of Cairo (1985), and Match Point (2005) were his best films. Critic Roger Ebert described Allen as "a treasure of the cinema".Allen has received many accolades and honors throughout his career. He has won four Academy Awards: three for Best Original Screenplay and one for Best Director. He also garnered nine British Academy Film Awards. His screenplay for Annie Hall was named the funniest screenplay by the Writers Guild of America in its list of the "101 Funniest Screenplays". In 2011, PBS televised the film biography Woody Allen: A Documentary on the American Masters TV series.In 1992 Dylan Farrow accused Allen of molesting her, an accusation he has repeatedly denied. The accusation gained new life with the rise of the Me Too movement. In 2019 Amazon canceled the release of his film A Rainy Day in New York, which was filmed in 2017. Allen is suing Amazon for breach of contract for $68 million. As of May 2019 the film has been picked up by European distributors and will be released overseas this year. He is currently shooting a new film in Spain.

Woody Allen filmography

Woody Allen is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian. He contributed to many films as either actor, director, writer or sometimes both. Allen wrote four plays for the stage, and has written sketches for the Broadway revue From A to Z, and the Broadway productions Don't Drink the Water (1966) and Play It Again, Sam (1969).His first film was the 1965 comedy What's New Pussycat?, which featured him as both writer and performer. Allen felt that his New Yorker humor was mismatched with the director Clive Donner's British sensibility, and decided he wished to direct all future films from his material. He was unable to prevent the production of films by other directors from previous stage plays of his to which he had already sold the film rights, notably 1972's successful film Play it Again, Sam from the 1969 play of the same name directed by Herbert Ross.

His directorial debut was the 1966 film What's Up, Tiger Lily?, in which a dramatic Japanese spy movie was re-dubbed in English with completely new, comic dialog. He continued to write, direct, and star in comedic slapstick films, such as Bananas (1971) and Sleeper (1973), before he found widespread critical acclaim for his romantic comedies Annie Hall (1977) and Manhattan (1979); he won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for the former.

Allen is influenced by European art cinema and ventured into more dramatic territory, with Interiors (1978) and Another Woman (1988) being prime examples of this transition. Despite this, he continued to direct several comedies.

In addition to works of fiction, Allen appeared as himself in many documentaries and other works of non-fiction, including Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, Wild Man Blues and The Concert for New York City. He has also been the subject of and appeared in three documentaries about himself, including To Woody Allen, From Europe with Love in 1980, Woody Allen: A Life in Film in 2001 and the 2011 PBS American Masters documentary, Woody Allen: a Documentary (directed by Robert B. Weide). He also wrote for and contributed to a number of television series early in his career, including The Tonight Show as guest host.

According to Box Office Mojo, Allen's films have grossed a total of more than $575 million, with an average of $14 million per film (domestic gross figures as a director.) Currently, all of the films he directed for American International Pictures, United Artists and Orion Pictures between 1965 and 1992 are owned by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, which acquired all the studios in separate transactions. The films he directed by ABC Pictures are now property of American Broadcasting Company, who in turn licensed their home video rights to MGM.

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