European art cinema gained popularity in the 1950s down to the 1970s, with notable filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Michelangelo Antonioni, and Ingmar Bergman. At this time it was new to the even broader field of art cinema. 
The continuity editing system is not necessarily abandoned but instead is not needed. The cause and effect driven narrative, as well as the goal-oriented protagonist are also not needed. Instead, we may have the protagonist wander around aimlessly for the whole movie, with nothing of real importance happening to drive him from one activity to the other.
Classical Hollywood cinema has a narrative transitivity, in which there is "a sequence of events in which each unit follows the one preceding it according to a chain of causation; this chain is usually psychological". The 'tale over teller' mantra of the classical Hollywood cinema is closely linked to the editing form that classical Hollywood cinema takes, and the rules they impose. For example, the 180 degree rule is followed since crossing the 180 degree line will cause a disturbance or a jarring effect on the viewer, thus calling attention away from story and to the teller. Jump cuts are avoided, since they can cause an ellipsis of the spatial or temporal kind. It is the job of classical Hollywood cinema to get the audience lost and absorbed into the story of the film, so that the film is pleasurable. In contrast the task of European art cinema is to be ambiguous, utilizing an open-ended (and sometimes intertextual) plot, causing the audience to ask questions themselves whilst introducing an element of subjectivity.
Another way they differ in terms of ‘realism’ is that Hollywood classical cinema has characters in full make up all the time, even when just coming out of bed; whereas European art cinema strives for a representation of the 'truth' and may not have characters in costume or make up.
Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".Art film
An art film is typically a serious, independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. It is "intended to be a serious, artistic work, often experimental and not designed for mass appeal", "made primarily for aesthetic reasons rather than commercial profit", and contains "unconventional or highly symbolic content".Film critics and film studies scholars typically define an art film as possessing "formal qualities that mark them as different from mainstream Hollywood films". These qualities can include (among other elements): a sense of social realism; an emphasis on the authorial expressiveness of the director; and a focus on the thoughts, dreams, or motivations of characters, as opposed to the unfolding of a clear, goal-driven story. Film scholar David Bordwell describes art cinema as "a film genre, with its own distinct conventions".Art film producers usually present their films at special theaters (repertory cinemas or, in the U.S., art-house cinemas) and at film festivals. The term art film is much more widely used in North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia, compared to the mainland Europe, where the terms auteur films and national cinema (e.g. German national cinema) are used instead. Since they are aimed at small, niche-market audiences, art films rarely acquire the financial backing that would permit large production budgets associated with widely released blockbuster films. Art film directors make up for these constraints by creating a different type of film, one that typically uses lesser-known film actors (or even amateur actors), and modest sets to make films that focus much more on developing ideas, exploring new narrative techniques, and attempting new film-making conventions.
A certain degree of experience and knowledge is generally required to fully understand or appreciate such films. Film critic Roger Ebert called Chungking Express, a critically acclaimed 1994 art film, "largely a cerebral experience" that one enjoys "because of what you know about film". This contrasts sharply with mainstream blockbuster films, which are geared more towards escapism and pure entertainment. For promotion, art films rely on the publicity generated from film critics' reviews; discussion of the film by arts columnists, commentators, and bloggers; and word-of-mouth promotion by audience members. Since art films have small initial investment costs, they only need to appeal to a small portion of mainstream audiences to become financially viable.Devil's Roundup
Devil's Roundup (Spanish:El cerco del diablo) is a 1952 Spanish drama film directed by Antonio del Amo, Enrique Gómez, Edgar Neville, José Antonio Nieves Conde and Arturo Ruiz Castillo.French New Wave
New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) is a French film movement which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. It is a form of European art cinema, and is often referred to as one of the most influential movements in the history of cinema. New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of the traditional film conventions then dominating France, and by a spirit of iconoclasm. Common features of the New Wave included radical experimentation with editing, visual style, and narrative, as well as engagement with the social and political upheavals of the era.The term was first used by a group of French film critics and cinephiles associated with the magazine Cahiers du cinéma in the late 1950s and 1960s, who rejected the Tradition de qualité ("Tradition of Quality") of mainstream French cinema, which "emphasized craft over innovation, privileged established directors over new directors, and preferred the great works of the past to experimentation." This was apparent in a manifesto-like essay written by François Truffaut in 1954, Une certaine tendance du cinéma français, where he denounced the adaptation of safe literary works into unimaginative films.Using portable equipment and requiring little or no set up time, the New Wave way of filmmaking presented a documentary style. The films exhibited direct sounds on film stock that required less light. Filming techniques included fragmented, discontinuous editing, and long takes. The combination of objective realism, subjective realism, and authorial commentary created a narrative ambiguity in the sense that questions that arise in a film are not answered in the end.If You Won a Hundred Million
If You Won a Hundred Million (Italian: Se vincessi cento milioni) is a 1953 Italian comedy film directed by Carlo Campogalliani and Carlo Moscovini and starring Tino Scotti, Nerio Bernardi and Anna Carena. It is an anthology film split into several different episodes.Jofroi
Jofroi is a 1934 French drama film directed by Marcel Pagnol and starring Vincent Scotto. It tells the story of a man who has sold his orchard. When the new owner wants to cut the trees down, the former owner threatens with suicide. The film is based on the short story "Jofroi de la Maussan" by Jean Giono, which appears in the collection of his short stories The Solitude of Compassion.L.A. Rebellion
The L.A. Rebellion film movement, sometimes referred to as the "Los Angeles School of Black Filmmakers", or the UCLA Rebellion, refers to the new generation of young African and African-American filmmakers who studied at the UCLA Film School in the late-1960s to the late-1980s and have created a quality Black Cinema that provides an alternative to classical Hollywood cinema.Laura Morante
Laura Morante (born 21 August 1956) is an Italian film actress.List of apocalyptic films
This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.Meat pie Western
Meat pie western, also known as a kangaroo western is a category of Western-style films or TV series set in the Australian outback. The names are a play on the term Spaghetti Western. The category is important to differentiate more Americanised Australian films from those with a more historical basis, such as ones about bushrangers (also sometimes called bushranger films).New York Film Festival
The New York Film Festival (NYFF) is an annual film festival held every autumn in New York City, presented by the Film Society of Lincoln Center (FSLC). Founded in 1963 by Richard Roud and Amos Vogel with the support of Lincoln Center president William Schuman, it is one of the longest-running and most prestigious film festivals in the United States. The non-competitive festival is centered around a “Main Slate” of typically 20-30 feature films, with sidebars for experimental cinema and retrospectives, and recently introduced documentary and trans-media sections. Programming is led by a rotating Selection Committee, chaired by the Director of the New York Film Festival, with many committee members remaining from year to year. Separate committees and individuals program the short film, experimental, and trans-media sections.
Kent Jones has been the festival Director since 2013. As of 2018, the main Selection Committee included Jones (chair); Dennis Lim, FSLC Director of Programming; and Florence Almozini, FSLC Associate Director of Programming.The 56th New York Film Festival took place from September 28 to October 14, 2018.No Mercy, No Future
No Mercy, No Future (German: Die Berührte) is a 1981 West German drama film directed by Helma Sanders-Brahms.Opera film
An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.Romanian New Wave
The Romanian New Wave (Romanian: Noul val românesc) is a genre of realist and often minimalist films made in Romania since the mid-aughts, starting with two award-winning shorts by two Romanian directors, namely Cristi Puiu's Cigarettes and Coffee, which won the Short Film Golden Bear at the 2004 Berlin International Film Festival, and Cătălin Mitulescu's Trafic, which won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival later that same year.Tang Shu Shuen
Tang Shu Shuen (Chinese: 唐書璇; pinyin: Táng Shūxuán; born 1941), also known as Cecile Tang Shu Shuen, is a former Hong Kong film director. Though her film career was brief, she was a trailblazer for socially critical art cinema in Hong Kong's populist film industry, as well as its first noted woman director.
Tang was born in Yunnan province, China. She graduated from the University of Southern California.
Tang's best-known films are her first two, The Arch (1970) and China Behind (1974). The first film looks at the subjugation of women and their sexuality in a traditional village through the story of a widow's unconsummated passion for a male houseguest. The second follows the harrowing journey of a group of college students trying to cross illegally into Hong Kong from a China torn by the Cultural Revolution.
The bleak portrait in China Behind of both communist China and capitalist Hong Kong brought upon it a thirteen-year ban by the British colonial authorities. In addition to their provocative themes, both films used stylistic devices, such as freeze-frames and expressionistic color, possibly inspired by the European art cinema of the 1960s.
Tang made two more, less noted, films, Sup Sap Bup Dup (1975) and The Hong Kong Tycoon (1979). She also launched the territory's first serious film journal, Close-Up, in 1976. It stopped publishing in 1979 (Bordwell, 2000).
She ceased filmmaking and emigrated to the United States in 1979, becoming a respected restaurateur in Los Angeles. Many critics, however, see her influence in the so-called Hong Kong New Wave of edgy, groundbreaking young filmmakers in the late '70s and early '80s.Tomás Gutiérrez Alea
Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈlea]; December 11, 1928 – April 16, 1996) was a Cuban filmmaker. He wrote and directed more than 20 features, documentaries, and short films, which are known for his sharp insight into post-Revolutionary Cuba, and possess a delicate balance between dedication to the revolution and criticism of the social, economic, and political conditions of the country.
Gutiérrez's work is representative of a cinematic movement occurring in the 1960s and 1970s known collectively as the New Latin American Cinema. This collective movement, also referred to by various writers by specific names such as “Third Cinema”, “Cine Libre”, and “Imperfect Cinema,” was concerned largely with the problems of neocolonialism and cultural identity. The movement rejected both the commercial perfection of the Hollywood style, and the auteur-oriented European art cinema, for a cinema created as a tool for political and social change. Due not in a small part to the filmmakers’ lack of resources, aesthetic was of secondary importance to cinema's social function. The movement's main goal was to create films in which the viewer became an active, self-aware participant in the discourse of the film. Viewers were presented with an analysis of a current problem within society that as of that time had no clear solution, hoping to make the audience aware of the problem and to leave the theater willing to become actors of social change.Woody Allen
Heywood "Woody" Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is an American director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades. He began his career as a comedy writer in the 1950s, writing jokes and scripts for television and publishing several books of short humor pieces. In the early 1960s, Allen began performing as a stand-up comedian, emphasizing monologues rather than traditional jokes. As a comedian, he developed the persona of an insecure, intellectual, fretful nebbish, which he maintains is quite different from his real-life personality. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Allen fourth on a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comedians, while a UK survey ranked Allen as the third-greatest comedian.By the mid-1960s, Allen was writing and directing films, first specializing in slapstick comedies before moving into dramatic material influenced by European art cinema during the 1970s, and alternating between comedies and dramas to the present. He is often identified as part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmakers of the mid-1960s to late 1970s. Allen often stars in his films, typically in the persona he developed as a standup. Some of the best-known of his over 50 films are Annie Hall (1977), Manhattan (1979), Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), and Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989). In 2007 he said Stardust Memories (1980), The Purple Rose of Cairo (1985), and Match Point (2005) were his best films. Critic Roger Ebert described Allen as "a treasure of the cinema".Allen has received many accolades and honors throughout his career. He has won four Academy Awards: three for Best Original Screenplay and one for Best Director. He also garnered nine British Academy Film Awards. His screenplay for Annie Hall was named the funniest screenplay by the Writers Guild of America in its list of the "101 Funniest Screenplays". In 2011, PBS televised the film biography Woody Allen: A Documentary on the American Masters TV series.In 1992 Dylan Farrow accused Allen of molesting her, an accusation he has repeatedly denied. The accusation gained new life with the rise of the Me Too movement. In 2019 Amazon canceled the release of his film A Rainy Day in New York, which was filmed in 2017. Allen is suing Amazon for breach of contract for $68 million. As of May 2019 the film has been picked up by European distributors and will be released overseas this year. He is currently shooting a new film in Spain.Woody Allen filmography
Woody Allen is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian. He contributed to many films as either actor, director, writer or sometimes both. Allen wrote four plays for the stage, and has written sketches for the Broadway revue From A to Z, and the Broadway productions Don't Drink the Water (1966) and Play It Again, Sam (1969).His first film was the 1965 comedy What's New Pussycat?, which featured him as both writer and performer. Allen felt that his New Yorker humor was mismatched with the director Clive Donner's British sensibility, and decided he wished to direct all future films from his material. He was unable to prevent the production of films by other directors from previous stage plays of his to which he had already sold the film rights, notably 1972's successful film Play it Again, Sam from the 1969 play of the same name directed by Herbert Ross.
His directorial debut was the 1966 film What's Up, Tiger Lily?, in which a dramatic Japanese spy movie was re-dubbed in English with completely new, comic dialog. He continued to write, direct, and star in comedic slapstick films, such as Bananas (1971) and Sleeper (1973), before he found widespread critical acclaim for his romantic comedies Annie Hall (1977) and Manhattan (1979); he won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for the former.
Allen is influenced by European art cinema and ventured into more dramatic territory, with Interiors (1978) and Another Woman (1988) being prime examples of this transition. Despite this, he continued to direct several comedies.
In addition to works of fiction, Allen appeared as himself in many documentaries and other works of non-fiction, including Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, Wild Man Blues and The Concert for New York City. He has also been the subject of and appeared in three documentaries about himself, including To Woody Allen, From Europe with Love in 1980, Woody Allen: A Life in Film in 2001 and the 2011 PBS American Masters documentary, Woody Allen: a Documentary (directed by Robert B. Weide). He also wrote for and contributed to a number of television series early in his career, including The Tonight Show as guest host.
According to Box Office Mojo, Allen's films have grossed a total of more than $575 million, with an average of $14 million per film (domestic gross figures as a director.) Currently, all of the films he directed for American International Pictures, United Artists and Orion Pictures between 1965 and 1992 are owned by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, which acquired all the studios in separate transactions. The films he directed by ABC Pictures are now property of American Broadcasting Company, who in turn licensed their home video rights to MGM.
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