European United Left–Nordic Green Left

The European United Left/Nordic Green Left (French: Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE/NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament established in 1995.[9]

The group comprises political parties of socialist and communist orientation.[10][11]

European United
Left/Nordic Green Left
European parliamentary group
GUE-NGL logo
NameEuropean United Left/Nordic Green Left
English abbr.GUE/NGL[1]
French abbr.GUE/NGL[2][3]
Formal nameConfederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left[2][4][5]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism (majority)[6]
Communism (minority)[6]
Soft Euroscepticism[7]
European partiesParty of the European Left
Maintenant le Peuple
Associated organisationsNordic Green Left Alliance
From6 January 1995[8]
Preceded byEuropean United Left
Chaired byAlonso José Puerta (1999–2004)[5]
Francis Wurtz (2004–2009)
Lothar Bisky (2009–2012)
Gabriele Zimmer (2012–present)
MEP(s)
51 / 751
Websiteguengl.eu

History

In 1995, the enlargement of the European Union led to the creation of the Nordic Green Left group of parties. The Nordic Green Left (NGL) merged with the Confederal Group of the European United Left (GUE) on 6 January 1995,[8] forming the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.[2][4][5] The NGL suffix was added to the name of the expanded group on insistence of Swedish and Finnish MEPs.[12] The group initially consisted of MEPs from the Finnish Left Alliance, the Swedish Left Party, the Danish Socialist People's Party, the United Left of Spain (including the Spanish Communist Party), the Synaspismos of Greece, the French Communist Party, the Portuguese Communist Party, the Communist Party of Greece and the Communist Refoundation Party of Italy.

In 1999, the German Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) and the Greek Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) joined as full members while the five MEPs elected from the list of the French Trotskyist alliance LOLCR joined as associate members.

In 2002, four MEPs from the French Citizen and Republican Movement also joined the group.

In 2004, no MEPs were elected from LO–LCR and DIKKI—which was undergoing a dispute with its leader over the party constitution—did not put forward candidates. MEPs from the Portuguese Left Bloc, the both Irish and Northern Irish Sinn Féin, the Progressive Party of Working People of Cyprus and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia joined the group.

Position

According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present European Union political structure, but it is committed to integration.[13] That declaration sets out three aims for the construction of another European Union, namely the total change of institutions to make them fully democratic, breaking with neo-liberal monetarist policies, and a policy of co-development and equitable cooperation. The group wants to disband the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and strengthen the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

The group is ambiguous between reformism and revolution, leaving it up to each party to decide on the manner they deem best suited to achieve these aims. As such, it has simultaneously positioned itself as insiders within the European institutions, enabling it to influence the decisions made by co-decision; and as outsiders by its willingness to seek another Europe which would abolish the Maastricht Treaty.

Organisation

The GUE/NGL is a confederal group who is composed of MEPs from national parties. Those national parties must share common political objectives with the group as specified in the group's constituent declaration. Nevertheless, those national parties and not the group retain control of their MEPs, therefore the group may be divided on certain issues.

Members of the group meet regularly to prepare for meetings, debate on policies and vote on resolutions. The group also publishes reports on various topics.

Member parties

MEPs may be full or associate members.

  • Full members must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate members need not fully do so, but they may sit with the full members.

National parties may be full or associate members.

  • Full member parties must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate member parties may include parties that do not have MEPs (e.g. French Trotskyist parties which did not get elected in the 2004 European elections), are from states that are not part of the European Union, or do not wish to be full members.

Member parties

GUE NGL after 2014 elections
Member states with one MEP in GUE/NGL are in pink while with two or more members are in red
Country National electoral alliance National party European party MEPs
 Cyprus Progressive Party of Working People PEL (observer)
2 / 6
 Czech Republic Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia PEL (observer)
3 / 21
 Denmark People's Movement against the EU EUD
1 / 13
 Finland Left Alliance PEL/MLP/NGLA
1 / 13
 France Left Front French Communist Party PEL
2 / 74
Left Party
1 / 74
La France Insoumise MLP
1 / 74
Alliance of the Overseas Communist Party of Réunion
1 / 74
 Germany The Left PEL
7 / 96
Stefan Eck (independent)
1 / 96
 Greece Syriza (Coalition of the Radical Left) PEL
3 / 21
Popular Unity
1 / 21
Kostas Chrysogonos (independent)
1 / 21
Sofia Sakorafa (independent)
1 / 21
 Ireland Sinn Féin
3 / 11
Luke 'Ming' Flanagan (independent)
1 / 11
 Italy The Other Europe Italian Left PEL (observer)
1 / 73
Communist Refoundation Party PEL
1 / 73
Barbara Spinelli (independent)
1 / 73
 Netherlands Socialist Party
2 / 26
Party for the Animals (Partij voor de Dieren) Euro Animal 7
1 / 26
 Portugal Left Bloc PEL/MLP
1 / 21
Unitary Democratic Coalition Portuguese Communist Party
3 / 21
 Spain Plural Left United Left PEL
4 / 54
Anova-Nationalist Brotherhood
1 / 54
Podemos (We Can)[14] MLP
5 / 54
The Peoples Decide (Los Pueblos Deciden)
1 / 54
 Sweden Left Party MLP/NGLA
1 / 20
 United Kingdom Sinn Féin
1 / 73

European Parliament results

Election year No. of
overall seats won
+/–
1995
34 / 567
1999
42 / 626
8 Increase
2004
41 / 732
1 Decrease
2009
35 / 766
6 Decrease
2014
52 / 751
17 Increase
2019
0 / 705
TBD

See also

Sources

References

  1. ^ a b "Democracy in the European Parliament" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001-2006". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Political Groups of the European Parliament". Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 May 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  4. ^ a b c "Group names 1999". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d "European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  6. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  7. ^ "How Eurosceptic is the new European Parliament?". BBC. 1 July 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "EUL/NGL on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  9. ^ Andreas Staab (24 June 2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  10. ^ Alexander H. Trechsel (13 September 2013). Towards a Federal Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-317-99818-1.
  11. ^ Marlies Casier; Joost Jongerden (9 August 2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism and the Kurdish Issue. Taylor & Francis. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-203-84706-0.
  12. ^ Tapio Raunio; Teija Tiilikainen (5 September 2013). Finland in the European Union. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-135-76204-9.
  13. ^ a b "GUE/NGL Site". Guengl.eu. 14 July 1994. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  14. ^ "Podemos acuerda con Tsipras entrar en el grupo de la Izquierda Unitaria de la Eurocámara". Público (in Spanish). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
Anja Hazekamp

Anja Hazekamp (born 21 January 1968) is a Dutch politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Netherlands. She is a member of the Party for the Animals, part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left. Previously she was member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands in 2012 and member of the States of Groningen between 2007 and 2014.

She has been a Member of the European Parliament since July 2014.

Anova–Nationalist Brotherhood

Anova–Nationalist Brotherhood (Galician: ANOVA–Irmandade Nacionalista, Anova) is a political party of Galicia. Formed in 2012, under the guidance of historical leader Xosé Manuel Beiras, Anova was formed by Encontro Irmandiño (2012 split of the BNG), the FPG, Movemento pola Base (small 2009 split of the BNG), the Galician Workers Front (2012 split of the BNG) and independent militants. Anova defines itself as a Galician nationalist, socialist, feminist, Galician independentist, ecologist and internationalist organization. Its internal organization is run by assemblies.

Babis Angourakis

Charalambos 'Babis' Angourakis (19 January 1951 – 12 May 2014) was a Greek politician and MEP for the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). He was elected as an MP for the KKE in the Athens A constituency in 1997–2000 and represented the party in the European Parliament from 2009 till his death.

He was born Bucharest, Romania in 1951. His father G. Angourakis (Psiloreitis) was likewise a member of KKE. In 1968 he moved with his family to the German Democratic Republic.He graduated from Dresden University of Technology in 1971 with a Doctorate in Computer Science. He worked as an assistant there in the computer faculty in 1973-1978.

From 1975 to 1985 he was a member of the Greek Communist Youth Central Council, before joining the KKE in 1985.In 1997 he was elected as member of the Greek Parliament and was in office from 1997 to 2000.

Babis was married to Georgia and they had two children. He died on 12 May 2014 from an aortic dissection, after major heart surgery in the intensive care unit of Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center.

Barbara Spinelli

Barbara Spinelli (born 31 May 1946) is an Italian politician.

Barbara Spinelli is the daughter of communist political theorist Altiero Spinelli and Ursula Hirschmann, who was a German-Jewish anti-fascist activist.

Since July 2014, Spinelli has served as a Member of the European Parliament, representing Central Italy.Spinelli was elected to represent The Other Europe, but left the alliance in May 2015, after declaring it a "failed project". She is one of the founders of the newspaper La Repubblica.

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech: Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM) is a communist party in the Czech Republic. It has a membership of 42,994 (2016) and is a member party of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left bloc in the European Parliament.Along with the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova it is one of only two former ruling parties in post-communist Central Eastern Europe which has not dropped the communist title from its name, although it changed its party program to adhere to laws adopted after 1989. For most of the first two decades after the Velvet Revolution, the party was politically isolated and accused of extremism, but it has moved closer to the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD). After the 2012 regional elections, it began governing in coalition with the ČSSD in 10 regions. It has never been part of a governing coalition in the executive branch, but provides parliamentary support to Andrej Babiš' Second Cabinet.

The party's youth organisation was banned from 2006 to 2010, and there have been calls from other parties to outlaw the main party. Until 2013 it was the only political party in the Czech Republic printing its own newspaper, called Haló noviny.

Costas Droutsas

Costas Droutsas (Greek: Κώστας Δρούτσας, born on 5 December 1939 in Thessaloniki) is a Greek politician, a member of the Greek Communist Party. He was a member of the European Parliament from 3 June 2008 to 13 July 2009, representing Greece in the seat previously held by Diamanto Manolakou.

Diamanto Manolakou

Diamanto Manolakou (Greek: Διαμάντω Μανωλάκου; born 1 March 1959, Piraeus) is a Greek politician. She was elected as a Member of the European Parliament (MP) for the Communist Party of Greece in the 2004 European elections, an office she held until 5 June 2008, when she resigned in favor of Costas Droutsas. She sat with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left. She resigned in order to take a seat in the Hellenic Parliament, one previously held by Elpida Pantelaki. She was re-elected to the Hellenic Parliament in 2009, May and June 2012.

Francis Wurtz

Francis Wurtz (born 3 January 1948 in Strasbourg) was a French Member of the European Parliament from 1979 until 2009. Elected in the Île-de-France constituency on the French Communist Party (PCF) ticket, he sat with the European United Left - Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) group, and was its President. He was nominated by GUE/NGL as their candidate for President of the European Parliament in the 2004 election, where he received 51 votes.

A university graduate in literature (philosophy), he worked for a time as a State school teacher. He has been a member of the central committee of the PCF since 1979.

Gabriele Zimmer

Gabriele "Gabi" Zimmer (born 7 May 1955) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany. She is a member of The Left, part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left.

She has been a member of the East German communist party, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) and its successors, continuously since 1981. The party was renamed SED-PDS in 1989, PDS in 1990 and Die Linkspartei.PDS in 2005. In 2007 it merged with WASG to form Die Linke. She was chairwoman of then-PDS from 2000 to 2003. From 1990 to 1998, she was chairwoman of the PDS at the regional level in Thuringia. From October 1990 until July 2004 she served as a member of the Landtag of Thuringia.

Other political functions:

1990-1998 Chairperson of PDS in Thuringia

Since 1995 Member of the PDS Executive Board

1996–2000 Vice Chairwoman of PDS

1999–2000 Chairwoman of PDS in the Thuringian Parliament

2000–03 Chairwoman of PDS

2004- Member of the European Parliament

2012- Chair of Confederal Group of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left

Giorgos Toussas

Giorgos Toussas (Greek: Γιώργος Τούσσας) (born 8 September 1954) is a Greek politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Communist Party of Greece; part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left. He was born in Koilada.

List of communist parties represented in European Parliament

The following is a List of communist parties represented in European Parliament. This list does not contain communist parties previously represented in European Parliament. This article lists only those parties who officially call themselves communist ideologically. 8 communist parties have been elected to European Parliament in 7 different countries.

List of members of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left, 2009–14

This is a list of the members of the European Parliament group European United Left–Nordic Green Left (EUL/NGL) from 2009 until 2014.

Lynn Boylan

Lynn Maria Boylan (Irish: Lynn Ní Bhaoighealláin; born 29 November 1976) is an Irish politician who has served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Ireland since 2014. She is a member of Sinn Féin, part of European United Left–Nordic Green Left.

Matt Carthy

Matthew Carthy (born 19 July 1977) is an Irish politician who has served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Midlands–North-West constituency since 2014. He has been an activist in Irish republican party Sinn Féin since 1996. In the European Parliament, Sinn Féin is part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left political group.

MeRA25

The European Realistic Disobedience Front (Greek: Μέτωπο Ευρωπαϊκής Ρεαλιστικής Ανυπακοής), or MeRA25 (Greek: ΜέΡΑ25) is a left-wing Greek political party founded in 2017. Its founder and secretary is former Syriza MP and Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis. The party is represented in the European Parliament by one MEP, member of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left. MeRa25 is part of the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 (DiEM25), the European Spring and the Progressive International.

Pedro Guerreiro

Pedro Miguel Neves Guerreiro (born 25 February 1966, Lisbon) is a Portuguese politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Portuguese Communist Party, part of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group. He took his seat in the European Parliament on 13 January 2005, replacing Sérgio Ribeiro of the same party.

Rina Ronja Kari

Rina Ronja Kari (born 15 February 1985) is a Danish politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Denmark. She is a member of the People's Movement against the EU, part of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left.

She replaced Søren Søndergaard as MEP for the People's Movement against the EU and is associated member of GUE/NGL. She was elected to the European Parliament in May 2014.

Thanasis Pafilis

Thanasis Pafilis (Greek: Θανάσης Παφίλης) (born 8 November 1954 in Pitsio, Phthiotis) is a Greek politician and former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Communist Party of Greece.

He is a law graduate from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.He was elected to the Greek Parliament in June 1989 with Synaspismos for Phthiotida, and re-elected in November 1989 and April 1990. On 16 July 1991, he switched affiliation and joined the Communist Party of Greece (KKE).He is a member of the Central Committee of KKE from 1991. Between 1994 and 2000 he served as General Secretary of EEDYE, the Greek branch of the World Peace Council. Between 2002 and 2004 he was a local councillor of the Athens Prefecture.He was elected Member of the European Parliament for Greece in 2004 with KKE, and sat with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left. He was re-elected to the European Parliament in July 2009, but resigned on 13 October 2009 after being elected to the Greek Parliament with KKE. He was re-elected in May and June 2012.

The Greens (Denmark)

De Grønne was a Danish green party. It was founded in October 1983. It first participated in the 1985 local elections. It was a founding member of the European Green Party.

In 2008 the party was expelled from the EGP. The reason was that De Grønne intended to cooperate with the People's Movement against the EU in the upcoming elections which sits in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group instead of the European Greens–European Free Alliance-group.

In 2014 the party discussed the own future with among the options dissolution of the party or changing it into a foundation. The party was dissolved in December 2014. Some former members are trying to form a new Danish Green party - Det Grønne Parti i Danmark. In 2015 the official website appeared to be removed.

Parties
Party presidents
European Parliament
Group presidents
Heads of government
at the Council of the European Union
Other prominent figures
See also
European Union Pan-European political organisations
Political parties not
recognised by the EU
Other confederations
of national parties

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