European Union free trade agreements

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs)[1] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.[2]

EU FTAs
EU Free trade agreements
  European Union
  Agreement in force
  Agreement (in part) provisionally applied
  Agreement signed, but not applied
  Agreement initialed, not signed
  Agreement being negotiated

Trade agreements in force

State Signed Provisional
Application
In Force Notes Relations
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia 2003 2004[3] Customs union
 Albania 2006 2006[a] 2009[4] SAA Candidate for EU accession
 Algeria 2002 2005[5] Euro-mediterranean AA
 Andorra 1990 1991[6] Customs union Andorra–EU relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008 2008[a] 2015[7] SAA Potential candidate for EU accession
 Chile 2002 2003 2005[8] AA[9]
 Egypt 2001 2004[10] Euro-mediterranean AA
 Faroe Islands 1996 1997[11] Autonomous entity of Denmark Faroe Islands-EU relations
 Georgia 2014 2014 2016[12] AA incl DCFTA Georgia–EU relations
Bailiwick of Guernsey 1972 1973[13] Customs union
 Iceland 1992 1994[14] EEA Iceland–EU relations
 Isle of Man 1972 1973[13] Customs union
 Israel 1995 1996[a][15] 2000[16] Euro-Mediterranean AA Israel–EU relations
 Japan 2018[17] No 2019[18] Economic Partnership Agreement [19] Japan-EU relations
Bailiwick of Jersey 1972 1973[13] Customs union
 Jordan 1997 2002[20] Euro-Mediterranean AA Jordan–EU relations
 Kosovo 2015 2016[21] SAA Kosovo–EU relations
 Lebanon 2002 2006[22] Euro-Mediterranean AA Lebanon–EU relations
 Liechtenstein 1992 1995[14] EEA Liechtenstein–EU relations
 Republic of Macedonia 2001 2001[a] 2004[23] SAA Candidate for EU accession
 Mexico 1997 2000[24] FTA[25][26] Mexico–EU relations
 Moldova 2014 2014 2016[27] AA incl DCFTA Moldova–EU relations
 Monaco 1958 Franco-Monegasque Treaty (customs union)
 Montenegro 2007 2008[a] 2010[28] SAA Negotiating for EU accession
 Morocco 1996 2000[29] Euro-Mediterranean AA Morocco–EU relations
 Norway 1992 1994[14] EEA Norway–EU relations
 EU's Overseas Countries and Territories 2001 2001[30][31] Association of the OCTs with the EU
 Palestinian Authority 1997 1997[32] Euro-Mediterranean AA Palestine–EU relations
 San Marino 1991 1992[b] 2002[33] Customs union San Marino–EU relations
 Serbia 2008 2010[a] 2013[34] SAA Negotiating for EU accession
 South Africa 1999 2000[35] 2004[36] ATDC[c] South Africa–EU relations
 South Korea 2010 2011 2015[37] FTA[38] South Korea–EU relations
  Switzerland 1972 1973[39] Trade agreement Switzerland–EU relations
 Tunisia 1995 1998[40] Euro-Mediterranean AA
 Turkey 1995[d] 1995[41] Customs union Negotiating for EU accession
 Ukraine 2014 2016 2017[42][43] AA incl DCFTA Ukraine–EU relations

Agreements provisionally applied

State Signed Provisional
Application
Ratification Notes Relations
CARIFORUM States 2008 2008
34 / 44
[44]
EPA - Croatia acceded to the agreement on 28 November 2017
Eastern and Southern Africa States
 Comoros
 Madagascar
 Mauritius
 Seychelles
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe
2009 2012, 2019
4 / 34
[45]
Interim Agreement for establishing a framework for an EPA
Central America
 Costa Rica
 Guatemala
 Honduras
 Nicaragua
 Panama
 El Salvador
2012 2013
30 / 34
[46]
AA
 Côte d'Ivoire 2009 2016
20 / 30
[47]
Stepping Stone EPA
 Colombia
 Peru
2012[48] 2013
27 / 30
[49]
FTA[50]
 Cameroon 2009 2014
19 / 30
[51]
Interim agreement with a view to an EPA
Pacific States
 Fiji
 Papua New Guinea
 Samoa
2009 2009,2014,2018
3 / 4
[52]
Interim Partnership Agreement
South African Development Community members
 Botswana
 Lesotho
 Mozambique
 Namibia
 South Africa
 Swaziland
2016 2016
14 / 35
[53]
Economic Partnership Agreement
 Ghana 2016 2016[54]
4 / 30
[54]
Stepping Stone EPA
 Ecuador 2016[55] 2017[56]
21 / 32
[57]
Accession to EU-Peru-Colombia Free Trade Agreement[58]
 Canada 2016 2017[59]
12 / 30
[60]
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement[61]

Agreements signed (awaiting application)

State Negotiations Concluded Signed Provisional
Application
Ratification Notes
 Singapore 17 October 2014 19 October 2018 [62] No
0 / 2
[63]
EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement [62]

Agreements finalised (negotiations concluded, but not signed)

State Negotiations Concluded Signed Provisional
Application
Ratification Notes
West Africa
 Benin
 Burkina Faso
 Cape Verde
 Ivory Coast
 Gambia
 Ghana
 Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
 Liberia
 Mali
 Mauritania
 Niger
 Nigeria
 Senegal
 Sierra Leone
 Togo
6 February 2014 Signed by 15 out of 16 West African partner countries and the EU[64] Economic Partnership Agreement[65][66]
Eastern African Community members
 Burundi
 Kenya
 Rwanda
 Tanzania
 Uganda
16 October 2014 Signed by 2 out of 5 East African partner countries and the EU[67] Ratified by  Rwanda and  Kenya Economic Partnership Agreement[68]
 Vietnam[69] 2 December 2015 No Free Trade Agreement[70]
 Solomon Islands 23 October 2018 Not Required / Accession [71] Interim Partnership Agreement between the European Community and the Pacific States

Negotiating

Competence

The European court of Justice has held that investor-state Arbitration provisions (including a dedicated tribunal planned by some free trade agreements) falls under  competency shared between European Union and its member states and that for this reason, their ratification should be approved by the EU as well as by each of the 28 states.[78]

Impact

One study found that the trade agreements that the EU implemented over the period 1993-2013 "lowered quality-adjusted prices by close to 7%."[79]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Entry into force of Interim Agreement
  2. ^ Interim Agreement
  3. ^ Agreement on Trade, Development and Cooperation
  4. ^ Decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council

References

  1. ^ "Free trade agreements". European Commission. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Agreements". European Commission. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  3. ^ Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the European Union is founded - Protocol No 3 on the sovereign base areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Cyprus
  4. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Albania, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement between the European Community and its Members States, of the one part, and the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  6. ^ "Agreement in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the European Economic Community and the Principality of Andorra". Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  8. ^ "Agreement establishing an Association between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Chile, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  9. ^ "Chile - Trade - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  10. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement between the European Communities and its Member States and the Arab Republic of Egypt". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Agreement between the European Community, of the one part, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Government of the Faroe Islands, of the other part". Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and Georgia, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  13. ^ a b c Documents concerning the accession to the European Communities of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Protocol No 3 on the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
  14. ^ a b c "Agreement on the European Economic Area". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  15. ^ "Interim Agreement on trade and trade-related matters between the European Community and the European Coal and Steel Community, of the one part, and the State of Israel, on the other part". Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  16. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Agreement establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the State of Israel, of the other part". Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  17. ^ "EU and Japan sign Economic Partnership Agreement". Trade - European Commission. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
  18. ^ "EU-Japan trade agreement will enter into force on 1 February 2019". 2018-12-21. Today, the EU and Japan notified each other of the completion of their respective ratification procedures.
  19. ^ "Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Union and Japan". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union.
  20. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Agreement establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  21. ^ "Information relating to the entry into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, of the one part, and Kosovo (*), of the other part". Europa.eu. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  22. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Agreement establishing an Association between the European Community and its Members States, of the one part, and the Republic of Lebanon, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  23. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  24. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  25. ^ "Mexico - Trade - European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  26. ^ "Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation Agreement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one part, and the United Mexican States, of the other part". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  27. ^ "Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and Moldova, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  28. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States of the one part, and the Republic of Montenegro, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  29. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  30. ^ "Council Decision 2013/755/EU of 25 November 2013 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union". EUR-Lex. 19 December 2013.
  31. ^ "Council Decision 2001/822/EC of 27 November 2001 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community". EUR-Lex. 27 November 2001.
  32. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Interim Association Agreement on Trade and Cooperation between the European Community, of the one part, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) for the benefit of the Palestinian Authority of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  33. ^ "Agreement on Cooperation and Customs Union between the European Economic Community and the Republic of San Marino". Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  34. ^ "Stabilisation and Association Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Serbia, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  35. ^ "Agreement in the form of an Exchange of Letters between the Community and South Africa, which provides for the provisional application of a portion of the Agreement on Trade, Development and Cooperation between the European Community and its Member States, on the one part, and the Republic of South Africa, on the other part". Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  36. ^ "Agreement on Trade, Development and Cooperation between the European Community and its Member States, on the one part, and the Republic of South Africa, on the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  38. ^ "EUR-Lex - L:2011:127:TOC - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  39. ^ "Trade agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  40. ^ "Euro-Mediterranean Agreement establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Tunisia, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  41. ^ Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the Customs Union
  42. ^ "Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and Ukraine, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  43. ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/documents-publications/treaties-agreements/agreement/?id=2014045
  44. ^ "Economic Partnership Agreement between the CARIFORUM States, of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  45. ^ "Interim Agreement establishing a framework for an Economic Partnership Agreement between the Eastern and Southern Africa States, on the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, on the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  46. ^ "Agreement establishing an Association between the European Union and its Member States, on the one hand, and Central America on the other". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  47. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  48. ^ [1] EU signs FTA
  49. ^ "Trade Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and Colombia and Peru, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  50. ^ [2] EU FTA agreements with Colombia and Central America became effective August first
  51. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  52. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  53. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  54. ^ a b "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  55. ^ "Ecuador joins EU trade agreement with Colombia and Peru".
  56. ^ "Notice concerning the provisional application". EUR-Lex. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  57. ^ "Agreement details". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  58. ^ "EU Trade Policy with the Andean Community".
  59. ^ "Canada, EU to provisionally apply CETA in September". CBC News. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  60. ^ "Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada, of the one part, and the European Union and its Member States, of the other part". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union.
  61. ^ "In Focus: EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement".
  62. ^ a b "Singapore, EU ink landmark free trade agreement". www.channelnewsasia.com. Retrieved 2018-12-21. [...] the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) was signed by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong with European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker, European Council president Donald Tusk and Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz. [...] The leaders also witnessed the signing of the EU-Singapore Investment Protection Agreement (EUSIPA) – a pact that will replace 12 existing bilateral investment treaties between Singapore and EU member states to offer better investment protection – and the EU-Singapore Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (ESPCA).
  63. ^ "Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Singapore". Agreements Database, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  64. ^ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEX-18-5867_en.htm
  65. ^ http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/september/tradoc_144912.pdf
  66. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/regions/west-africa/
  67. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/trade/itemdetail.cfm?item_id=34138&newsletter=230
  68. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/regions/eac/
  69. ^ "European Union- Vietnam Free Trade Agreement Vietnam Tariff Tables". Asiapedia. Dezan Shira and Associates.
  70. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/countries/vietnam/
  71. ^ http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/september/tradoc_144912.pdf
  72. ^ European Union Seeks Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Intervention to Resume Trade Talks
  73. ^ EU keen to restart FTA negotiations with India
  74. ^ EU Keen to Resume Negotiations on Stalled BTIA With India
  75. ^ "European Union- Vietnam Free Trade Agreement Chapter 1 to 7". Asiapedia. Dezan Shira and Associates.
  76. ^ EU and Australia launch talks for a broad trade agreement, EC Press Release Database. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  77. ^ "EU and New Zealand launch trade negotiations". Scoop New Zeeland. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  78. ^ http://www.ouest-france.fr/economie/ue-pas-de-traite-commercial-sans-l-accord-des-parlements-nationaux-4994855
  79. ^ Berlingieri, Giuseppe; Breinlich, Holger; Dhingra, Swati (2018-03-12). "The consumer benefits of trade agreements: Evidence from the EU trade policy". VoxEU.org. Retrieved 2018-03-12.

External links

Common Commercial Policy (EU)

The European Union's (EU) Common Commercial Policy or EU Trade Policy is the policy whereby EU member states delegate authority to the European Commission to negotiate their external trade relations, with the aim of increasing trade amongst themselves and their bargaining power vis-à-vis the rest of the world. The Common Commercial Policy is logically necessitated by the existence of the Customs Union, which in turn is also the foundation upon which the Single Market and Monetary Union were later established.

Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement

The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is a free-trade agreement between Canada, the European Union and its member states. It has been provisionally applied, so the treaty has eliminated 98% of the tariffs between Canada and the EU.

The negotiations were concluded in August 2014. All 28 European Union member states approved the final text of CETA for signature, with Belgium being the final country to give its approval. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, travelled to Brussels on 30 October 2016 to sign on behalf of Canada. The European Parliament approved the deal on 15 February 2017. The agreement is subject to ratification by the EU and national legislatures and can only enter into force if no adverse opinion is given by the European Court of Justice following a request for an opinion by Belgium. Until its formal entry into force, substantial parts are provisionally applied from 21 September 2017.The European Commission indicates the treaty will lead to savings of just over half a billion euros in taxes for EU exporters every year, mutual recognition in regulated professions such as architects, accountants and engineers, and easier transfers of company staff and other professionals between the EU and Canada. The European Commission claims CETA will create a more level playing field between Canada and the EU on intellectual property rights.Proponents of CETA emphasize that the agreement will boost trade between the EU and Canada and thus create new jobs, facilitate business operations by abolishing customs duties, goods checks, and various other levies, facilitate mutual recognition of diplomas and regulate investment disputes by creating a new system of courts. Opponents consider that CETA would weaken European consumer rights, including high EU standards concerning food safety, and criticize it as a boon only for big business and multinational corporations, while risking net-losses, unemployment, and environmental damage impacting individual citizens. The deal also includes a controversial investor-state dispute settlement mechanism which makes critics fear that multinational corporations could sue national governments for billions of dollars if they thought that the government policies had a bad impact on their business. A poll conducted by Angus Reid Institute in February 2017 concluded that 55 percent of Canadians support CETA, while only 10 percent oppose it. The support, however, has waned when compared to the poll conducted in 2014. In contrast, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has a 44 percent support rate among Canadians in February 2017. In contrast to Canada, the agreement has prompted protests in a number of European countries.

Dalia Grybauskaitė

Dalia Grybauskaitė (Lithuanian pronunciation: ​[dɐˈlʲɛ ɡʲrʲiːbɐʊsˈkɐ̂ˑɪtʲeː], born 1 March 1956) is a Lithuanian politician serving as the fifth and current President of Lithuania since 2009. She is the first woman to hold the position and became in 2014 the first President of Lithuania to be reelected for a second consecutive term.She was Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance, also European Commissioner for Financial Programming and the Budget from 2004 to 2009. She is often referred to as the "Iron Lady" or the "Steel Magnolia".

European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. The organization operates in parallel with the European Union (EU), and all four member states participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area. They are not, however, party to the European Union Customs Union.

EFTA was historically one of the two dominant western European trade blocs, but is now much smaller and closely associated with its historical competitor, the European Union. It was established on 3 May 1960 to serve as an alternative trade bloc for those European states that were unable or unwilling to join the then European Economic Community (EEC), which subsequently became the European Union. The Stockholm Convention, to establish the EFTA, was signed on 4 January 1960 in the Swedish capital by seven countries (known as the "outer seven").

Since 1995, only two founding members remain, namely Norway and Switzerland. The other five, Austria, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom, have joined the EU in the intervening years. The initial Stockholm Convention was superseded by the Vaduz Convention, which aimed to provide a successful framework for continuing the expansion and liberalization of trade, both among the organization's member states and with the rest of the world.

Whilst the EFTA is not a customs union and member states have full rights to enter into bilateral third-country trade arrangements, it does have a coordinated trade policy. As a result, its member states have jointly concluded free trade agreements with the EU and a number of other countries. To participate in the EU's single market, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway are parties to the Agreement on a European Economic Area (EEA), with compliances regulated by the EFTA Surveillance Authority and the EFTA Court. Switzerland has a set of bilateral agreements with the EU instead.

European Union Association Agreement

A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. Areas frequently covered by such agreements include the development of political, trade, social, cultural and security links. The legal base for the conclusion of the association agreements is provided by art. 217 TFEU (former art. 310 and art. 238 TEC).

Association Agreements are broad framework agreements between the EU (or its predecessors) and its member states, and an external state which governs their bilateral relations. The provision for an association agreement was included in the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, as a means to enable co-operation of the Community with the United Kingdom, which had retreated from the treaty negotiations at the Messina Conference of 1955. According to the European External Action Service, for an agreement to be classified as an AA, it must meet several criteria:

1. The legal basis for their conclusion is Article 217 TFEU (former art. 310 and art. 238 TEC)2. Intention to establish close economic and political cooperation (more than simple cooperation);

3. Creation of paritary bodies for the management of the cooperation, competent to take decisions that bind the contracting parties;

4. Offering Most Favoured Nation treatment;

5. Providing for a privileged relationship between the EC and its partner;

6. Since 1995 the clause on the respect of human rights and democratic principles is systematically included and constitutes an essential element of the agreement;

7. In a large number of cases, the association agreement replaces a cooperation agreement thereby intensifying the relations between the partners.

The EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in a country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance. Most recently signed AAs also include a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the EU and the third country.

Association Agreements have to be accepted by the European Union and need to be ratified by all the EU member states and the state concerned.

European Union–Singapore Free Trade Agreement

The EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, acronym EUSFTA, is a signed and ratified free trade and bilateral investment treaty between the European Union and Singapore. EUSFTA has been negotiated since March 2010 and its text has been publicly accessible since June 2015. The negotiations on goods and services were completed in 2012, on investment protection on October 17, 2014.The agreement is expected to be the first free trade agreement with a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the third agreement with an Asian country after South Korea and Japan from an EU perspective.

In October 19, 2018, three agreements were signed between the parties, the EU-Singapore Trade Agreement, the EU-Singapore Investment Protection Agreement and the Framework Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation.

Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union

Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union (FTA EU-MX), is a trade agreement between the European Union and Mexico. It was signed on December 8, 1997, in the city of Brussels, under the designation "Agreement of Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation between the United Mexican States and the European Community and its members". On October 1, 2000 the agreement came into force, and taxes applying to a large quantity of importing goods were eliminated or reduced.

The goal of this trade agreement is to establish a framework to encourage the development of trade in goods and services and their bilateral and preferential, progressive and reciprocal, taking into account the sensitivity of certain products and services sectors, and in accordance with relevant WTO rules. The Joint Council is responsible for deciding the arrangements and timetable for the liberalization of duties and non-duties barriers to trade in goods, in accordance with the relevant WTO rules. The decision shall include the following subjects:

Customs duties on imports and exports and charges having equivalent effect.

Quantitative restrictions on imports and exports and measures having equivalent effect.

Anti-dumping/countervailing measurements.

Safeguards and monitoring measurements.

Origin regime and customs co-operation.

Customs valuation.

Standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary legislation, mutual recognition of conformity assessment, certification.

General exceptions justified on grounds of public morality, public order or public security, protection of life or health of humans, animals or plants, protection of industrial property, intellectual and commercial.

Restrictions in case of difficulties in the balance of payments.

Free trade areas in Europe

At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history. Note that there are also a number of bilateral free trade agreements between states and between trade blocks; and that some states participate in more than one free trade area.

List of the largest trading partners of the European Union

According to the European Commission Directorate-General for Trade. The 10 largest trading partners of the European Union with their total trade (sum of imports and exports) in millions of euro for calendar year 2017 are as follows.These figures do not include foreign direct investment or trade in services, but only trade in goods.

Third-country economic relationships with the European Union

The European Union has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union's official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries, sharing EU's democratic ideals and joining them in further integration without necessarily becoming full member states.

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. According to Karel de Gucht, European Commissioner for Trade between 2010 and 2014, the TTIP is the largest bilateral trade initiative ever negotiated, not only because it involves the two largest economies in the world but also "because of its potential global reach in setting an example for future partners and agreements".Negotiations were halted by President Donald Trump, who then initiated a trade conflict with the EU. Trump and the EU declared a truce of sorts in July 2018, resuming talks that appeared similar to TTIP.The reports on the ongoing negotiations and the contents of the negotiated TTIP proposals are classified from the public, and can be accessed only by authorised persons. Multiple leaks of proposed TTIP contents into the public caused controversy.The European Commission says that the TTIP would boost the EU's economy by €120 billion, the US economy by €90 billion and the rest of the world by €100 billion. According to Anu Bradford, law professor at Columbia Law School, and Thomas J. Bollyky of the Council on Foreign Relations, TTIP aims to "liberalise one-third of global trade" and could create millions of new jobs. A Guardian article by Dean Baker of the US thinktank Center for Economic and Policy Research argued that the economic benefits per household would be relatively small. According to a European Parliament report, impacts on labour conditions range from job gains to job losses, depending on economic model and assumptions used for predictions.The agreement has been criticized and opposed by some unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists, particularly in Europe. The Independent describes common criticisms of TTIP as "reducing the regulatory barriers to trade for big business, things like food safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations", or more critically as an "assault on European and US societies by transnational corporations". The Guardian noted the criticism of TTIP's "undemocratic nature of the closed-door talks", "influence of powerful lobbyists", TTIP's potential ability to "undermine the democratic authority of local government", and described it as "the most controversial trade deal the EU has ever negotiated". German economist Max Otte argued that by putting European workers into direct competition with Americans (and in effect because of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexicans), TTIP would negatively impact the European social models. An EU direct democracy mechanism, the European Citizens' Initiative, which enables EU citizens to call directly on the European Commission to propose a legal act, acquired over 3.2 million signatures against TTIP and CETA within a year.

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