|Akrotiri and Dhekelia||2003||2004||Customs union|
|Albania||2006||2006[a]||2009||SAA||Candidate for EU accession|
|Andorra||1990||1991||Customs union||Andorra–EU relations|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2008||2008[a]||2015||SAA||Potential candidate for EU accession|
|Faroe Islands||1996||1997||Autonomous entity of Denmark||Faroe Islands-EU relations|
|Georgia||2014||2014||2016||AA incl DCFTA||Georgia–EU relations|
|Bailiwick of Guernsey||1972||1973||Customs union|
|Isle of Man||1972||1973||Customs union|
|Israel||1995||1996[a]||2000||Euro-Mediterranean AA||Israel–EU relations|
|Japan||2018||No||2019||Economic Partnership Agreement ||Japan-EU relations|
|Bailiwick of Jersey||1972||1973||Customs union|
|Jordan||1997||2002||Euro-Mediterranean AA||Jordan–EU relations|
|Lebanon||2002||2006||Euro-Mediterranean AA||Lebanon–EU relations|
|Republic of Macedonia||2001||2001[a]||2004||SAA||Candidate for EU accession|
|Moldova||2014||2014||2016||AA incl DCFTA||Moldova–EU relations|
|Monaco||1958||Franco-Monegasque Treaty (customs union)|
|Montenegro||2007||2008[a]||2010||SAA||Negotiating for EU accession|
|Morocco||1996||2000||Euro-Mediterranean AA||Morocco–EU relations|
|EU's Overseas Countries and Territories||2001||2001||Association of the OCTs with the EU|
|Palestinian Authority||1997||1997||Euro-Mediterranean AA||Palestine–EU relations|
|San Marino||1991||1992[b]||2002||Customs union||San Marino–EU relations|
|Serbia||2008||2010[a]||2013||SAA||Negotiating for EU accession|
|South Africa||1999||2000||2004||ATDC[c]||South Africa–EU relations|
|South Korea||2010||2011||2015||FTA||South Korea–EU relations|
|Switzerland||1972||1973||Trade agreement||Switzerland–EU relations|
|Turkey||1995[d]||1995||Customs union||Negotiating for EU accession|
|Ukraine||2014||2016||2017||AA incl DCFTA||Ukraine–EU relations|
34 / 44
|EPA - Croatia acceded to the agreement on 28 November 2017|
|Eastern and Southern Africa States
4 / 34
|Interim Agreement for establishing a framework for an EPA|
30 / 34
20 / 30
|Stepping Stone EPA|
27 / 30
19 / 30
|Interim agreement with a view to an EPA|
Papua New Guinea
3 / 4
|Interim Partnership Agreement|
|South African Development Community members
14 / 35
|Economic Partnership Agreement|
4 / 30
|Stepping Stone EPA|
21 / 32
|Accession to EU-Peru-Colombia Free Trade Agreement|
12 / 30
|Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement|
|Singapore||17 October 2014||19 October 2018 ||No||
0 / 2
|EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement |
|6 February 2014||Signed by 15 out of 16 West African partner countries and the EU||Economic Partnership Agreement|
|Eastern African Community members
|16 October 2014||Signed by 2 out of 5 East African partner countries and the EU||Ratified by Rwanda and Kenya||Economic Partnership Agreement|
|Vietnam||2 December 2015||No||Free Trade Agreement|
|Solomon Islands||23 October 2018||Not Required / Accession ||Interim Partnership Agreement between the European Community and the Pacific States|
The European court of Justice has held that investor-state Arbitration provisions (including a dedicated tribunal planned by some free trade agreements) falls under competency shared between European Union and its member states and that for this reason, their ratification should be approved by the EU as well as by each of the 28 states.
One study found that the trade agreements that the EU implemented over the period 1993-2013 "lowered quality-adjusted prices by close to 7%."
Today, the EU and Japan notified each other of the completion of their respective ratification procedures.
[...] the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) was signed by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong with European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker, European Council president Donald Tusk and Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz. [...] The leaders also witnessed the signing of the EU-Singapore Investment Protection Agreement (EUSIPA) – a pact that will replace 12 existing bilateral investment treaties between Singapore and EU member states to offer better investment protection – and the EU-Singapore Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (ESPCA).
The European Union's (EU) Common Commercial Policy or EU Trade Policy is the policy whereby EU member states delegate authority to the European Commission to negotiate their external trade relations, with the aim of increasing trade amongst themselves and their bargaining power vis-à-vis the rest of the world. The Common Commercial Policy is logically necessitated by the existence of the Customs Union, which in turn is also the foundation upon which the Single Market and Monetary Union were later established.Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement
The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is a free-trade agreement between Canada, the European Union and its member states. It has been provisionally applied, so the treaty has eliminated 98% of the tariffs between Canada and the EU.
The negotiations were concluded in August 2014. All 28 European Union member states approved the final text of CETA for signature, with Belgium being the final country to give its approval. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, travelled to Brussels on 30 October 2016 to sign on behalf of Canada. The European Parliament approved the deal on 15 February 2017. The agreement is subject to ratification by the EU and national legislatures and can only enter into force if no adverse opinion is given by the European Court of Justice following a request for an opinion by Belgium. Until its formal entry into force, substantial parts are provisionally applied from 21 September 2017.The European Commission indicates the treaty will lead to savings of just over half a billion euros in taxes for EU exporters every year, mutual recognition in regulated professions such as architects, accountants and engineers, and easier transfers of company staff and other professionals between the EU and Canada. The European Commission claims CETA will create a more level playing field between Canada and the EU on intellectual property rights.Proponents of CETA emphasize that the agreement will boost trade between the EU and Canada and thus create new jobs, facilitate business operations by abolishing customs duties, goods checks, and various other levies, facilitate mutual recognition of diplomas and regulate investment disputes by creating a new system of courts. Opponents consider that CETA would weaken European consumer rights, including high EU standards concerning food safety, and criticize it as a boon only for big business and multinational corporations, while risking net-losses, unemployment, and environmental damage impacting individual citizens. The deal also includes a controversial investor-state dispute settlement mechanism which makes critics fear that multinational corporations could sue national governments for billions of dollars if they thought that the government policies had a bad impact on their business. A poll conducted by Angus Reid Institute in February 2017 concluded that 55 percent of Canadians support CETA, while only 10 percent oppose it. The support, however, has waned when compared to the poll conducted in 2014. In contrast, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has a 44 percent support rate among Canadians in February 2017. In contrast to Canada, the agreement has prompted protests in a number of European countries.Dalia Grybauskaitė
Dalia Grybauskaitė (Lithuanian pronunciation: [dɐˈlʲɛ ɡʲrʲiːbɐʊsˈkɐ̂ˑɪtʲeː], born 1 March 1956) is a Lithuanian politician serving as the fifth and current President of Lithuania since 2009. She is the first woman to hold the position and became in 2014 the first President of Lithuania to be reelected for a second consecutive term.She was Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance, also European Commissioner for Financial Programming and the Budget from 2004 to 2009. She is often referred to as the "Iron Lady" or the "Steel Magnolia".European Free Trade Association
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. The organization operates in parallel with the European Union (EU), and all four member states participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area. They are not, however, party to the European Union Customs Union.
EFTA was historically one of the two dominant western European trade blocs, but is now much smaller and closely associated with its historical competitor, the European Union. It was established on 3 May 1960 to serve as an alternative trade bloc for those European states that were unable or unwilling to join the then European Economic Community (EEC), which subsequently became the European Union. The Stockholm Convention, to establish the EFTA, was signed on 4 January 1960 in the Swedish capital by seven countries (known as the "outer seven").
Since 1995, only two founding members remain, namely Norway and Switzerland. The other five, Austria, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom, have joined the EU in the intervening years. The initial Stockholm Convention was superseded by the Vaduz Convention, which aimed to provide a successful framework for continuing the expansion and liberalization of trade, both among the organization's member states and with the rest of the world.
Whilst the EFTA is not a customs union and member states have full rights to enter into bilateral third-country trade arrangements, it does have a coordinated trade policy. As a result, its member states have jointly concluded free trade agreements with the EU and a number of other countries. To participate in the EU's single market, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway are parties to the Agreement on a European Economic Area (EEA), with compliances regulated by the EFTA Surveillance Authority and the EFTA Court. Switzerland has a set of bilateral agreements with the EU instead.European Union Association Agreement
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. Areas frequently covered by such agreements include the development of political, trade, social, cultural and security links. The legal base for the conclusion of the association agreements is provided by art. 217 TFEU (former art. 310 and art. 238 TEC).
Association Agreements are broad framework agreements between the EU (or its predecessors) and its member states, and an external state which governs their bilateral relations. The provision for an association agreement was included in the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, as a means to enable co-operation of the Community with the United Kingdom, which had retreated from the treaty negotiations at the Messina Conference of 1955. According to the European External Action Service, for an agreement to be classified as an AA, it must meet several criteria:
1. The legal basis for their conclusion is Article 217 TFEU (former art. 310 and art. 238 TEC)2. Intention to establish close economic and political cooperation (more than simple cooperation);
3. Creation of paritary bodies for the management of the cooperation, competent to take decisions that bind the contracting parties;
4. Offering Most Favoured Nation treatment;
5. Providing for a privileged relationship between the EC and its partner;
6. Since 1995 the clause on the respect of human rights and democratic principles is systematically included and constitutes an essential element of the agreement;
7. In a large number of cases, the association agreement replaces a cooperation agreement thereby intensifying the relations between the partners.
The EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in a country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance. Most recently signed AAs also include a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the EU and the third country.
Association Agreements have to be accepted by the European Union and need to be ratified by all the EU member states and the state concerned.European Union–Singapore Free Trade Agreement
The EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, acronym EUSFTA, is a signed and ratified free trade and bilateral investment treaty between the European Union and Singapore. EUSFTA has been negotiated since March 2010 and its text has been publicly accessible since June 2015. The negotiations on goods and services were completed in 2012, on investment protection on October 17, 2014.The agreement is expected to be the first free trade agreement with a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the third agreement with an Asian country after South Korea and Japan from an EU perspective.
In October 19, 2018, three agreements were signed between the parties, the EU-Singapore Trade Agreement, the EU-Singapore Investment Protection Agreement and the Framework Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation.Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union
Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union (FTA EU-MX), is a trade agreement between the European Union and Mexico. It was signed on December 8, 1997, in the city of Brussels, under the designation "Agreement of Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and Cooperation between the United Mexican States and the European Community and its members". On October 1, 2000 the agreement came into force, and taxes applying to a large quantity of importing goods were eliminated or reduced.
The goal of this trade agreement is to establish a framework to encourage the development of trade in goods and services and their bilateral and preferential, progressive and reciprocal, taking into account the sensitivity of certain products and services sectors, and in accordance with relevant WTO rules. The Joint Council is responsible for deciding the arrangements and timetable for the liberalization of duties and non-duties barriers to trade in goods, in accordance with the relevant WTO rules. The decision shall include the following subjects:
Customs duties on imports and exports and charges having equivalent effect.
Quantitative restrictions on imports and exports and measures having equivalent effect.
Safeguards and monitoring measurements.
Origin regime and customs co-operation.
Standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary legislation, mutual recognition of conformity assessment, certification.
General exceptions justified on grounds of public morality, public order or public security, protection of life or health of humans, animals or plants, protection of industrial property, intellectual and commercial.
Restrictions in case of difficulties in the balance of payments.Free trade areas in Europe
At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history. Note that there are also a number of bilateral free trade agreements between states and between trade blocks; and that some states participate in more than one free trade area.List of the largest trading partners of the European Union
According to the European Commission Directorate-General for Trade. The 10 largest trading partners of the European Union with their total trade (sum of imports and exports) in millions of euro for calendar year 2017 are as follows.These figures do not include foreign direct investment or trade in services, but only trade in goods.Third-country economic relationships with the European Union
The European Union has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union's official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries, sharing EU's democratic ideals and joining them in further integration without necessarily becoming full member states.Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. According to Karel de Gucht, European Commissioner for Trade between 2010 and 2014, the TTIP is the largest bilateral trade initiative ever negotiated, not only because it involves the two largest economies in the world but also "because of its potential global reach in setting an example for future partners and agreements".Negotiations were halted by President Donald Trump, who then initiated a trade conflict with the EU. Trump and the EU declared a truce of sorts in July 2018, resuming talks that appeared similar to TTIP.The reports on the ongoing negotiations and the contents of the negotiated TTIP proposals are classified from the public, and can be accessed only by authorised persons. Multiple leaks of proposed TTIP contents into the public caused controversy.The European Commission says that the TTIP would boost the EU's economy by €120 billion, the US economy by €90 billion and the rest of the world by €100 billion. According to Anu Bradford, law professor at Columbia Law School, and Thomas J. Bollyky of the Council on Foreign Relations, TTIP aims to "liberalise one-third of global trade" and could create millions of new jobs. A Guardian article by Dean Baker of the US thinktank Center for Economic and Policy Research argued that the economic benefits per household would be relatively small. According to a European Parliament report, impacts on labour conditions range from job gains to job losses, depending on economic model and assumptions used for predictions.The agreement has been criticized and opposed by some unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists, particularly in Europe. The Independent describes common criticisms of TTIP as "reducing the regulatory barriers to trade for big business, things like food safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations", or more critically as an "assault on European and US societies by transnational corporations". The Guardian noted the criticism of TTIP's "undemocratic nature of the closed-door talks", "influence of powerful lobbyists", TTIP's potential ability to "undermine the democratic authority of local government", and described it as "the most controversial trade deal the EU has ever negotiated". German economist Max Otte argued that by putting European workers into direct competition with Americans (and in effect because of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexicans), TTIP would negatively impact the European social models. An EU direct democracy mechanism, the European Citizens' Initiative, which enables EU citizens to call directly on the European Commission to propose a legal act, acquired over 3.2 million signatures against TTIP and CETA within a year.