European Russia

European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, which is part of Eastern Europe. With a population of 110 million people, European Russia has about 77% of Russia's population, but covers less than 25% of Russia's territory. European Russia includes Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the two largest cities in Russia.

The boundaries between continents are almost exclusively determined by geography, with the one exception being that the eastern boundary of Europe is generally considered, by convention, to run along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains, the Turkish Straits. The southern part of European Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, and therefore are geographically in Asia; this territory includes the city of Sochi.

The other, eastern, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, and is known as North Asia, also called Asian Russia or Siberia. Europe also forms a subcontinent within Eurasia,[1] making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent.

Russia-Subdivisions with Crimea
Russia in Europe and Asia with current administrative divisions (de facto boundaries[note 1]).


Russia ethnic
Ethnic map of the European Russian Empire prior to the outbreak of World War I

Russia is not proportionately populated between its larger Asian portion, which contains about 23% of the country's population, and its smaller European portion, which contains about 77%. The European portion contains about 110 million people out of Russia's total population of about 144 million in an area covering nearly 4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi); (making it by far the largest European country) an average of 27.5 people per kilometre2 (70 per sq mi).[2]:6[2]:10

The eastern portion of Russia, mostly encompassing Siberia, is part of Asia and makes up more than 75% of the territory with 22% of the country's population at 2.5 people per kilometre2 (6.5 per sq mi).[2]:6


Some theories say that early Eastern Slavs arrived in modern-day western Russia (also in Ukraine and Belarus) sometime during the middle of the first millennium AD. [3] The population of European Russia is composed of Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Caucasian, Scandinavian, Baltic, Finnic, Khazarian, Hungarian and Norse peoples.[4] One of the first Rus' regions according to the Sofia First Chronicle was Veliky Novgorod in 859. In late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD the Rus' Khaganate was formed in todays western Russia. The region was a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates. From the late 9th to the mid-13th century a large section of today's European Russia was part of Kievan Rus'. Many sources say that Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev were destroyed by the Mongol invasion. After the Mongol invasion the Muscovite Rus' arose and formed over time today's Russia. Over all this time, western Russia and the various Rus' regions had strong cultural contacts with the Byzantine Empire, while the Slavic culture was cultivated all the time.[5] The elements of East Slavic paganism and Christianity overlapped each other and sometimes produced even double faith in Muscovite Rus'.[6] The synthesis of Orthodox faith and Slavic paganism is still part of Russian culture.

Alignment with administrative divisions

The administrative districts (on a large scale called federal districts) of the Russian Federation do not exactly line up with European Russia, but they are decent approximations, depending on exactly how Europe is defined. There are two major trends, one to use administrative divisions north of the mouth of the Ural River and one to draw a line of falseness from the Ural River, through the town of Yekaterinburg.

The following administrative districts are overwhelmingly European:

Name of district Area
2017 population
Population density Continent notes
Central Federal District 650,200 39,209,582[7] 59.658 Europe
North Caucasian Federal District 170,400 9,775,770[7] 56.58 Europe
Northwestern Federal District 1,687,000 13,899,310[7] 8.25 Europe
Southern Federal District[note 1] 447,900 16,428,458[7] 33.46 Europe
Volga Federal District 1,037,000 29,636,574[7] 28.63 Predominantly Europe
Ural Federal District 1,818,500 12,345,803[7] 6.86 Predominantly Asia
Sum of 6 Federal Districts[note 2] 3,992,500 108,949,694[7] 27.22 Predominantly Europe
  1. ^ a b Includes the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol which are de facto administrated by Russia but considered part of Ukraine by most other states.
  2. ^ Does not account for the following:
    Volga Federal District has 4 raions entirely in Asia, one raion mostly in Asia, one raion bisected between Europe and Asia, two cities bisected between Europe and Asia and one settlement fully in Asia, which amount to 280,000 people living in 30,000 km² in Asia (as defined as east of the Ural River).
    Ural Federal District has roughly 200,000 people living in 1,700 km² in Europe (west of the Ural River).
  1. ^ a b Includes the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol which are de facto administrated by Russia but considered part of Ukraine by most other states.
  2. ^ Does not account for the following:
    Volga Federal District has 4 raions entirely in Asia, one raion mostly in Asia, one raion bisected between Europe and Asia, two cities bisected between Europe and Asia and one settlement fully in Asia, which amount to 280,000 people living in 30,000 km² in Asia (as defined as east of the Ural River).
    Ural Federal District has roughly 200,000 people living in 1,700 km² in Europe (west of the Ural River).

See also


  1. ^ Compare: Hans Slomp (2011). Europe: A Political Profile. Retrieved 2014-09-10. Russia occupies the eastern parts of the European subcontinent and the northern part of Asia.
  2. ^ a b c Vishnevsky, Anatoly (15 August 2000). "Replacement Migration: Is it a solution for Russia?" (PDF). EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON POLICY RESPONSES TO POPULATION AGEING AND POPULATION DECLINE /UN/POP/PRA/2000/14. United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. pp. 6, 10. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  3. ^ "Early East Slavic Tribes in Russia". Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  4. ^ "Khazar | people". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  5. ^ Orthodox Russia : belief and practice under the tsars. Kivelson, Valerie A. (Valerie Ann), Greene, Robert H., 1975-. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. 2003. ISBN 027102349X. OCLC 50960735.
  6. ^ Orthodox Russia : belief and practice under the tsars. Kivelson, Valerie A. (Valerie Ann), Greene, Robert H., 1975-. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. 2003. p. 146. ISBN 027102349X. OCLC 50960735.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Population 1 January 2015 Estimate – Federal State Statistics Service Russia". Federal State Statistics Service Russia.

Coordinates: 55°N 40°E / 55°N 40°E

Amderma Airport

Amderma Airport (IATA: AMV, ICAO: ULDD) is a former interceptor base in Arctic Russia, near Novaya Zemlya, located 4 km west of Amderma (Амдерма). It is a simple airfield built on a spit along the ocean, with some tarmac space. Nordavia operates twice-monthly flights to Arkhangelsk via Naryan-Mar using Antonov An-24 aircraft.The facility's prime purpose was to defend the northern approaches to European Russia. Amderma's significance was driven home during the Cold War years when on 1 June 1960 a MiG-19 from Amderma shot down a Boeing RB-47H that was crossing Cape Kanin Nos. Since the 1960s the airfield has been home to the 72 Gv IAP (72 Guards Interceptor Aviation Regiment) of the 10th OA PVO, which was operating at least 31 MiG-31 aircraft during the 1991-94 period. The Tupolev Tu-128 and MiG-19 were stationed here in the 1960s.

Belomorian Province

The Belomorian Province (also known as Belomorian Terrane and Belomorian Domain) is an area of the Fennoscandian Shield spanning the parts of the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk Oblast in Russia. The province is named after the russian name of the White Sea. The main rock types are orthogneiss (derived from the Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite association), greenstone and paragneiss. Although these rocks formed in the Mesoarchean and Neoarchean, they were disturbed by tectonic movements and heat 1900–1800 million years ago in the Paleoproterozoic. Located between the Kola and Karelian domains the collision of these two blocks would have caused the disturbance. According to one view the Belomorian Province could just be a more metamorphosed part of the Karelian Province to the west.

Central Russia

Central Russia is, broadly, the various areas in European Russia. Historically, the area of Central Russia varied based on the purpose for which it is being used. It may, for example, refer to European Russia, except the North Caucasus (according to the definition of Europe accepted in Russia, the Caucasus is not a part of Europe), or to the whole of European Russia.

There is also a Central economic region of the Russian Federation, and a Central Federal District of the Russian Federation.

Central Russian Upland

The Central Russian Upland (also Central Upland and East European Upland) is an upland area of the East European Plain and is an undulating plateau with an average elevation of 230–250 m (750–820 ft). It highest peak is measured at 293 m (961 ft). The southeastern portion of the upland known as the Kalach Upland. The Central Upland is built of Precambrian deposits of the crystalline Voronezh Massif.

Circassian cuisine

Circassian Cuisine is an ethnic cuisine, based on the cooking style and traditions of the Circassian people of the North Caucasus. This region lies between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, within European Russia.


ER-Telecom is a Russian telecommunication holding company. It was the first federal telecommunication company, whose evaluation impulse has been received out of the region. The company is specialised on rendering a wide range of services for individuals and corporations. The company is active mainly in the South and Central regions of the European Russia.


Energosuchus (meaning "active crocodile" in Greek) is an extinct genus of rauisuchian. Fossils are present from the upper Karyomayol and lower Synya Formations outcropping along the banks of the Bolshaya Synya River in the Timan-North Urals region in northern European Russia, as well as from the Bukobay Formation in the southern part of Bashkortostan in the southern Urals of European Russia. Both localities date back to the Ladinian stage of the Middle Triassic.

Ethnic groups in Russia

Russia is a multi-national state with over 186 ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions (e.g., Russians and Tatars) to under 10,000 (e.g., Samis and Kets).

Among the 85 subjects which constitute Russia, there are 21 national republics (meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority), 5 autonomous okrugs (usually with substantial or predominant ethnic minority) and 1 autonomous oblast.

Kursk Governorate

Kursk Governorate (Russian: Ку́рская губе́рния, tr. Kúrskaya gubérniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire, located in European Russia. It existed from 1796 to 1928; its seat was in the city of Kursk.

List of indigenous peoples

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear, and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

List of solar eclipses visible from Russia

This incomplete list of solar eclipses visible from Russia enumerates the solar eclipses that have been seen and will be seen in Russia.

Matvei Gedenschtrom

Matvei Matveyevich Gedenschtrom or in Swedish, since he has a Swedish name: Mattias Mattiasson Hedenström/von Hedenström 1 (Russian: Матвей Матвеевич Геденштром) (circa 1780 – 20 September 1845) was a Russian explorer of Northern Siberia, writer, and public servant.

Matvei Gedenschtrom attended University of Tartu. He did not finish his studies and left his alma mater in favor of work at Tallinn customs. Soon, however, he was arrested in connection with a smuggling affair, tried, and then banished to Siberia. In 1808, Gedenschtrom arrived in Irkutsk and received his first duty assignment, namely, the exploration of the coastline of the Arctic Ocean. Lacking necessary scientific background, Matvei Gedenschtrom had to study a lot in order to be able to reckon a latitude and longitude of a given location and use scientific equipment in general. Gedenschtrom led the cartographic expedition to explore the New Siberian Islands (together with Yakov Sannikov and land surveyors Pyotr Pshenitsyn and I.Kozhevin). The theory about the existence of Sannikov Land somewhere northwest of the Kotelny Island originated during this very expedition. Gedenschtrom established the presence of the Siberian polynya – patches of open water in sea ice at the edge of the drifting ice and continental fast ice. In 1809, Gedenschtrom visited the eastern shores of an island, discovered by merchants Semyon and Lev Syrovatsky three years earlier, and named it New Siberia (this name would be officially endorsed in 1810). Gedenschtrom charted the coastline between the mouths of the rivers Yana and Kolyma. He also made many trips across Yakutia and areas east of the Lake Baikal.

In 1813, Matvei Gedenschtrom was employed by the secretariat of Irkutsk governor. Later on, he was appointed head of district police (исправник) in Verkhne-Udinsk, which did not distract him from scientific research and compiling his mineralogical and botanic collection. Matvei Gedenschtrom was a smart, talented, educated, and kind man, who often helped local peasants with advice and money. However, he was also known to have been an immoral person and a squanderer. He was one of the closest associates of Nikolai Treskin (then-governor of Irkutsk) and made a sizeable fortune on bread purchases assigned to him by the governor’s office. In 1819, Mikhail Speransky (governor general of Siberia) paid a visit to Irkutsk as part of his Siberian tour and exposed many instances of official misconduct by local authorities. On 20 February 1820, Matvei Gedenschtrom was removed from his post for his autocratic style of management, embezzlement, extortion, and fraud. Speransky’s report on his findings was examined by a special committee, established on 28 July 1821. The committee divided all of the offenders into ten categories. Gedenschtrom found himself in the third category, which meant he could never again be admitted to hold any public posts and had to be banished to an inner guberniya (European Russia). However, it was soon decided not to send him away from Siberia and settle him in Tobolsk. Willing to take advantage of Matvei Gedenshtrom’s skills and experience, the administration of Western Siberia managed to obtain permission for him to join the public service. In 1827, Gedenshtrom was allowed to return to European Russia and then employed by the Medical Service Corps (Медицинский департамент) as a section chief. In the 1830s, Matvei Gedenshtrom was appointed a postmaster in Tomsk. Upon his retirement, he moved to a village of Kaidukovaya near Tomsk and spent the rest of his days drinking.

Matvei Gedenshtrom died in extreme poverty on 20 September 1845, at the age of 65. He was interred in Tomsk three days later.

North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (Russian: Се́верный Кавка́з, IPA: [ˈsʲevʲɪrnɨj kɐfˈkas]) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia. Geographically, the Northern Caucasus (territory north of the Greater Caucasus Range) includes the Russian republics and krais of the North Caucasus. As part of the Russian Federation, the Northern Caucasus region is included in the North Caucasian and Southern Federal Districts and consists of Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the constituent republics, approximately from west to east: the Republic of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia–Alania, Ingushetia, Chechnya, and the Republic of Dagestan.Geographically, the term North Caucasus also refers to the northern slope and western extremity of the Caucasus Major mountain range, as well as a part of its southern slope to the West (until the Psou River in Abkhazia). The Forecaucasus steppe area is often also encompassed under the notion of "Ciscaucasus", thus the northern boundary of the Forecaucasus steppe is generally considered to be the Manych River.


Nyctiphruretidae is an extinct family of hallucicranian parareptiles known from the late Early to the late Middle Permian of European Russia and south-central United States.Nyctiphruretidae was named by Michael S. Y. Lee (1997) together with the order Nyctiphruretia to include the type species Nyctiphruretus acudens known from several Middle Permian locations in European Russia. While the family was defined to be monotypic, the order was defined to include both nyctiphruretids and nycteroleterids. However, recent cladistic analyses suggest that nycteroleterids are more closely related to the Pareiasauria instead, thus making Nyctiphruretus the only genus of its order. In 2014, MacDougall & Reisz described and named a second genus of Nyctiphruretidae, Abyssomedon, from the middle Leonardian stage of the late Early Permian of Comanche County, Oklahoma, south-central United States. It contains a single species, A. williamsi, which represents the first nyctiphruretid known from North America, and the oldest species of the family.

Oka River

Oka (Russian: Ока́, IPA: [ɐˈka]) is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga. Its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Moscow

The Archdiocese of Moscow, also known as Archdiocese of Mother of God at Moscow (Latin: Moscovien(sis) Matris Dei, Russian: Архиепархия Матери Божией в Москве) is a Latin Rite archdiocese of the Catholic Church located in the city of Moscow, in Russia.

Russian Professional Football League

The Professional Football League (Russian: Первенство Профессиональной футбольной лиги), formerly the Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football.

Southern Russia

Southern Russia or the South of Russia (Russian: Юг России, Yug Rossii) is a colloquial term for the southernmost geographic portion of European Russia, generally covering the Southern Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District.The term does not conform to any official areas of the Russian Federation as designated by the Russian Classification on Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO).

Yekaterinoslav Governorate

The Yekaterinoslav Governorate (Russian: Екатеринославская губернія; translit.: Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya; Ukrainian: Катеринославська губернія) or Government of Yekaterinoslav was a governorate in the Russian Empire. Its capital was the city of Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipro). Its territory lies within what is now Ukraine.

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