European People's Party

The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative[6] and Christian democratic[6] European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.[7][8][9][10]

The EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is also by far the largest party in the current European Commission. The President of the European Council, President of the European Commission and the President of the European Parliament are all from the EPP. Many of the Founding fathers of the European Union were also from parties that later formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party also controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. The EPP has alternated with its centre-left rival the Party of European Socialists (PES) as the largest European political party and parliamentary group.

The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the Union of Germany (CDU/CSU), The Republicans of France, CD&V of Belgium, KDU-ČSL of the Czech Republic, Fine Gael of Ireland, New Democracy (Greece) of Greece, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party (PP) of Spain, the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, the Civic Platform of Poland but also Fidesz of Hungary (a party critizised for its authoritarianism and its nationalist views).[11]

European People's Party
LeaderDonald Tusk PEC (PL)
Jean-Claude Juncker PEC (LU)
PresidentJoseph Daul MEP (FR)
Group leaderManfred Weber MEP (DE)
Secretary-GeneralAntonio López-Istúriz White MEP (ES)
Founded8 July 1976
HeadquartersRue du Commerce/Handelsstraat 10, 1000 — Brussels, Belgium
Think tankWilfried Martens Centre for European Studies
Student wingEuropean Democrat Students
Youth wingYouth of the European People's Party
Women's wingWomen of the European People's Party
IdeologyConservatism[1]
Liberal conservatism[2]
Christian democracy[2]
Pro-Europeanism[3]
Political positionCentre-right[1]
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International,[4]
International Democrat Union[5]
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party
Colours     Blue
European Parliament
218 / 751
European Council
8 / 28
European Lower Houses
2,199 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
569 / 2,714
Website
www.epp.eu

History

EPP logo
Logo of European People's Party from 1999 to 2015
Tindemans, Bukman, Santer
From left to right:Tindemans, Bukman and Santer; former presidents of the EPP

According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, and [which] has pioneered the European project from its inception".[12]

The EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger; Leo Tindemans, then Prime Minister of Belgium, who became the first President of the EPP; and Wilfried Martens, who later became both President of the EPP and Prime Minister of Belgium. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925,[13] the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946[14] (or 1948),[13] and the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965.[14]

In the late 1990s the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union (EDU), of which he was President, into the EPP. In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year.

The EPP has had five Presidents:

No. Image Name Tenure Member state
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F050938-0028, Bonn, Tagung CDU-Bundesausschuss, Tindemans Leo Tindemans 1976–1985 Belgium Belgium
2 Piet Bukman 1980 (1) Piet Bukman 1985–1987 Netherlands Netherlands
3 Jacques Santer Jacques Santer 1987–1990 Luxembourg Luxembourg
4 Wilfried Martens Wilfried Martens 1990–2013 Belgium Belgium
5 2016-12-06 Joseph Daul CDU Parteitag by Olaf Kosinsky-10 Joseph Daul 2013–present France France

Platform and manifesto

Niinistö and Katainen
Sauli Niinistö and Jyrki Katainen at an EPP summit in Helsinki

Political manifesto and platform

During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012 the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years (since its Congress in Athens in 1992) and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies.

The manifesto highlights:

  • Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility
  • Respect for traditions and associations
  • Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should also make an effort to improve their situation
  • Ensuring solid public finances
  • Preserving a healthy environment
  • Subsidiarity
  • Pluralist democracy and a Social Market Economy

The manifesto also describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including:

  • European Political Union
  • Direct election of the President of the European Commission
  • Completion of the European Single Market
  • Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health
  • Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, and integrating immigrants
  • Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU
  • Defining a true common EU energy policy
  • Strengthening European political parties

Electoral manifesto

As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009 the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year. The manifesto called for:

  • Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, and employment in order to create opportunities for everyone.
  • Avoidance of protectionism, and coordination of fiscal and monetary policies.
  • Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets.
  • Making Europe the market leader in green technology.
  • Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 per cent of the energy mix by 2020.;.
  • Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave.
  • A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe’s economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven.
Flickr - europeanpeoplesparty - EPP Congress Warsaw (869)
At its Congress in Warsaw in 2009 the EPP endorsed Barroso for a second term as President of the Commission.

The Fidesz-crisis

The dispute about the right-wing politics of the Hungarian Fidesz-leader Viktor Orbán has produced a split in the EPP in the run-up of the 2019 European Parliament election.[15] On the one hand the EPP over years was reluctant to address the stance against the rule of law of Fidesz, expressed by the Article 7 proceedings of the European Parliament, on the other hand European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, a prominent EPP-member, stated “I believe his [Fidesz’s] place is not in the European People’s Party”.[16] Orbán’s campaigns targeting billionaire George Soros[17] and Jean-Claude Juncker[18] carried wide reverberations for Europe questioning the EPP’s effort to install its lead candidate Manfred Weber as the next Commission president.[19]

Governance

The EPP operates as an international non-profit association under Belgian law according to its by-laws, the Statutes of the European People's Party (Statuts du Parti Populaire Européen), originally adopted 29 April 1976.

Presidency

The Presidency is the executive body of the party. It decides on the general political guidelines of the EPP and presides over its Political Assembly. The Presidency is composed of the President, ten Vice-Presidents, the Honorary Presidents, the Secretary General and the Treasurer. The Chairperson of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the Presidents of the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, and the High Representative (if they are a member of an EPP member party) are all ex officio Vice-Presidents.

Joseph Daul
President of the EPP Joseph Daul

As of 2015 the Presidency[20] of the EPP comprised:

Political Assembly

The Political Assembly defines the political positions of the EPP between Congresses, and decides on membership applications, political guidelines and the budget. The Political Assembly is composed of designated delegates from EPP member parties, associated parties, member associations and other affiliated groups. The Political Assembly meets at least three times a year.

Congress

The Congress is the highest decision-making body of the EPP. It is composed of delegates from member parties, EPP associations, EPP Group MEPs, the EPP Presidency, national heads of party and government, and European Commissioners who belong to a member party, with the numbers of delegates being weighted according to the EPP's share of MEPs, and individual delegates being elected by member parties according to member parties' rules.[21]

Under the EPP's statutes the Congress must meet once every three years, but it also meets normally during the years of elections for the European Parliament (every five years), and extraordinary Congresses have also been summoned. The Congress elects the EPP Presidency every three years, decides on the main policy documents and electoral programmes, and provides a platform for the EPP's heads of government and party leaders.

Activities within the party

Summit

EPP leaders meet for the EPP Summit a few hours before each meeting of the European Council in order to formulate common positions. Invitations are sent by the EPP President and attendees include, besides the members of the EPP's Presidency, all Presidents and Prime Ministers who are members of the European Council and belong to the EPP; the Presidents of the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council, as well as the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, provided that they belong to the EPP; Deputy Prime Ministers or other ministers in those cases where the Prime Minister of a country does not belong to an EPP member party; and, where no EPP member party is part of a government, the leaders of the main EPP opposition party.

EPP Summit March 2011 (65)
Reunion Picture at 2011 Summit

Ministerial meetings

Following the pattern of the EPP Summit the party also organises regular EPP Ministerial meetings before each meeting of the Council of the European Union, with ministers, deputy ministers, secretaries of state and MEPs in the specific policy field attending:

  • General Affairs
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Economy and Finance
  • Home Affairs
  • Justice
  • Defence
  • Employment and Social Affairs
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Energy
  • Environment[22]

Other activities

The EPP also organises working groups on different issues and on an ad hoc basis, as well as meetings with its affiliated members in the European Commission. It also invites individual Commissioners to the EPP Summit meetings and to EPP Ministerial meetings.

Following amendments to the EU Regulation that governs Europarties in 2007, the EPP, like the other "Europarties", is responsible for organising a pan-European campaign for the European elections every five years. According to the Lisbon Treaty, the parties must present candidates for President of the European Commission, but the EPP had already done this by endorsing Jose Manuel Barroso for a second term in April 2009.

The year 2014 saw the first fully fledged campaign of the EPP ahead of the European elections of that year. The party nominated former Luxembourgish Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for President of the European Commission and led a pan-European campaign in coordination with the national campaigns of all its member parties.

Activities within European institutions

The EPP holds the Presidencies of two of the three main EU institutions: the European Commission, led by President Jean-Claude Juncker (CSV), and the European Council, led by Donald Tusk (PO), who has been nominated by the EPP and took office 1 December 2014.

Overview of the European institutions

Organisation Institution Number of seats
 European Union European Parliament
215 / 751
 European Union Committee of the Regions
125 / 350
 European Union European Commission
14 / 28
 European Union European Council
(Heads of Government)
8 / 28
 European Union Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
17 / 28

European Commission

In 2014 the EPP nominated Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for election as Commission President if it won the elections for the European Parliament that year. Because the EPP won Jean-Claude Juncker's nomination was endorsed by the European Council and he was elected by an absolute majority in the European Parliament.

On 1 November 2014 Jean-Claude Juncker Commission officially took office. Juncker's Commission includes 14 EPP Commissioners out of 28.

State Commissioner Portfolio Political party Photo
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Jean-Claude Juncker President CSV Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014
Finland
Finland
Jyrki Katainen Vice-President European Commissioner for Industry and Entrepreneurship KO Jyrki Katainen in June 2013 (cropped)
Poland
Poland
Elżbieta Bieńkowska Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs PO Elżbieta Bieńkowska Kancelaria Senatu
Latvia
Latvia
Valdis Dombrovskis European Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro Unity Valdis Dombrovskis 2009
Belgium
Belgium
Marianne Thyssen European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility CD&V MarianeThyssen
Hungary
Hungary
Tibor Navracsics European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport Fidesz Navracsics Tibor Portrait
Spain
Spain
Miguel Arias Cañete European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy PP Miguel Arias Cañete (cropped) (2)
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Kristalina Georgieva Vice-President European Commissioner for the Budget and Human Resources GERB Kristalina Georgieva (7)
Germany
Germany
Günther Oettinger European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society CDU Guenther h oettinger 2007
Austria
Austria
Johannes Hahn European Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations ÖVP JohannesHahnPortrait
Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Phil Hogan European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development FG Phil Hogan (37485195082)
Portugal
Portugal
Carlos Moedas European Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation PPD-PSD Carlos Moedas (cropped)
Cyprus
Cyprus
Christos Stylianides European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management DISY Christos Stylianides Commissioner
Greece
Greece
Dimitris Avramopoulos European Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship New Democracy D Avramopoulos at the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs

European Parliament

The EPP has the largest group in the European Parliament: the EPP Group. As of 2015 it has 216 Members of the European Parliament and its chairman is the German MEP Manfred Weber.

In every election for the European Parliament candidates elected on lists of member parties of the EPP are obliged to join the EPP Group in the European Parliament.

The EPP Group holds six of the fourteen vice-presidencies of the European Parliament.

European Council

The EPP has 8 out of the 28 heads of state or government attending the EPP summits in preparation for the European Council (as of 1 July 2018):

Member state Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Photo
 Austria Sebastian Kurz Chancellor ÖVP 17 December 2017 Sebastian Kurz crop-edit
 Bulgaria Boyko Borissov Prime Minister GERB 7 November 2014 Boyko Borisov EPP 2014
 Croatia Andrej Plenković Prime Minister HDZ 19 October 2016 Andrej Plenković 2017
 Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades President DISY 28 February 2013 ANASTASIADES Nicos
 Germany Angela Merkel Chancellor CDU 22 November 2005 Angela Merkel Juli 2010 - 3zu4
 Hungary Viktor Orbán Prime Minister Fidesz 29 May 2010 OrbanViktor 2011-01-07
Republic of Ireland Ireland Leo Varadkar Taoiseach[a 1] Fine Gael 22 June 2017 Leo Varadkar 2016
 Romania Klaus Iohannis President PNL 21 December 2014 Klaus Iohannis Senate of Poland 2015 02 (cropped 2)

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally take part in the European Council or EPP summits since that responsibility belongs to the other leaders of their countries: János Áder (Hungary, Fidesz), Sauli Niinistö (Finland, KOK).

National legislatures

Country Institution Number of seats
 Austria National Council
Lower house
50 / 183
Federal Council
Upper house
22 / 62
 Belgium Chamber of Representatives
Lower house
27 / 150
Senate
Upper house
12 / 60
 Bulgaria National Assembly
95 / 240
 Croatia Sabor
55 / 151
 Cyprus House of Representatives
18 / 56
 Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
17 / 200
Senate
Upper house
27 / 81
 Denmark The Folketing
6 / 179
 Estonia Riigikogu
12 / 101
 Finland Parliament
38 / 200
 France National Assembly
Lower house
100 / 577
Senate
Upper house
142 / 348
 Germany Bundestag
310 / 630
 Greece Parliament
76 / 300
 Hungary Országgyűlés
131 / 199
 Ireland Dáil
Lower house
50 / 166
Seanad
Upper house
19 / 60
 Italy Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
106 / 630
Senate
Upper house
65 / 315
 Latvia Saeima
8 / 100
 Lithuania Seimas
31 / 141
 Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
23 / 60
 Malta House of Representatives
28 / 69
 Netherlands House of Representatives
Lower house
19 / 150
Senate
Upper house
12 / 75
 Poland Sejm
Lower house
152 / 460
Senate
Upper house
33 / 100
 Portugal Assembly of the Republic
107 / 230
 Romania Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
108 / 329
Senate
Upper house
47 / 136
 Slovakia National Council
11 / 150
 Slovenia National Assembly
25 / 90
 Spain Congress of Deputies
Lower house
134 / 350
Senate
Upper house
149 / 266
 Sweden Riksdagen
99 / 349
 United Kingdom House of Commons
Lower house
0 / 650
House of Lords
Upper house
0 / 793

Activities beyond the European Union

In third countries

Through its associate and observer parties the EPP has one head of state or government in non-EU countries:

State Representatives Title Political party In power since Photo
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Šefik Džaferović Bosniak Member of the Presidency SDA 20 November 2018 Sefik Dzaferovic
 Norway Erna Solberg Prime Minister Høyre 16 October 2013 31.08.2013, Erna Solberg.2

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally attend the meetings, since the other leaders of their countries attend instead. They include Prime Minister Denis Zvizdić (Bosnia-Herzegovina, SDA) and President Gjorge Ivanov (Republic of North Macedonia, VMRO-DPMNE).

In the Council of Europe

The Group of the EPP in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe defends freedom of expression and information, as well as freedom of movement of ideas and religious tolerance. It promotes the principle of subsidiarity and local autonomy, as well as the defence of national, social and other minorities. The EPP/CD Group is led by Pedro Agramunt, a member of the Spanish Popular Party.

The EPP/CD group also includes members from parties that are not related to the EPP itself, including members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Progressive Citizens' Party (Liechtenstein), the National and Democratic Union (Monaco) and the Serbian Progressive Party.[23]

In the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The "EPP and like-minded Group" in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the most active political group in that body. The Group meets on a regular basis and promotes the EPP's positions. The members of the EPP Group also participate in the election-monitoring missions of the OSCE.

The Group is chaired by Walburga Habsburg Douglas (Sweden), and its Vice-Presidents are Consiglio Di Nino (Canada), Vilija Aleknaitė Abramikiene (Lithuania), Laura Allegrini (Italy) and George Tsereteli (Georgia).

The Group also includes members of parties not related to the EPP, accounting for the "like-minded" part of its name. Among them are members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Union for the Principality (Monaco), the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

In the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The EPP is also present and active in the Parliamentary Assembly of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and forms the "EPP and Associated Members" Group there. It is led by the German CDU politician Karl Lamers, who is also the current President of the Assembly. The Group also includes members of the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

Flickr - europeanpeoplesparty - EPP in the USA (26)
From left to right: López-Istúriz, McCain & Martens

Relations with the United States

The EPP has close relations with the International Republican Institute (IRI), an organisation funded by the U.S. government specially to promote democracy and democratisation. The EPP and the IRI cooperate within the framework of the European Partnership Initiative.[24]

The EPP's late President, Wilfried Martens, endorsed Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee for president, in the presidential election in 2008[25] McCain is also Chairman of the IRI. In 2011 Martens and McCain made joint press statements expressing their concern about the state of democracy in Ukraine.[26][27]

Global networks

The EPP is the European wing of two global centre-right organisations, the International Democrat Union (IDU) and the Christian Democrat International (CDI).

Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies

Following the revision in 2007 of the EU Regulation that governs European political parties, allowing the creation of European foundations affiliated to Europarties, the EPP established in the same year its official foundation/think tank, the Centre for European Studies (CES). The CES includes as members all the major national think tanks and foundations affiliated to EPP member parties: the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (CDU), the Hanns Seidel Foundation (CSU), the Foundation for Analysis and Social Studies (PP), the Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy (ND), the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation (MOD), the Political Academy of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and others. During the European Parliament election campaign in 2009 the CES launched a web-based campaign module, tellbarroso.eu, to support Jose Manuel Barroso, the EPP's candidate for re-election as Commission President.

In 2014, to honour Wilfried Martens - the late President of the EPP who was also President of the CES - the CES changed its name to Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies or Martens Centre.

The current President of the Martens Centre is former Slovak Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda.

The Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute and the Luxembourg-based Robert Schuman Foundation are also affiliated with the European People's Party.

EPP associations

The EPP is linked to several specific associations that focus on specific groups and organise seminars, forums, publications and other activities.

Small and Medium Entrepreneurs Europe (SME Europe)

SME Europe is the official business organisation of the EPP, and serves as a network for pro-business politicians and political organisations. Its main objective is to shape EU policy in a more SME-friendly way in close cooperation with the SME Circle of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the DG Enterprise and the pro-business organisations of the EPP's member parties. Its top priorities are to reform the legal framework for SMEs all over Europe, and to promote and support the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises. SME Europe was founded in May 2012 by three Members of the European Parliament, Paul Rübig, Nadezhda Neynsky and Bendt Bendtsen.

European Democrat Students

European Democrat Students (EDS) is now the official students’ organisation of the EPP, though it was founded in 1961, 15 years before the EPP itself. Led by Virgilio Falco, EDS has 40 member organisations, representing nearly 1,600,000 students and young people[28] in 31 countries, including Belarus and Georgia. Every year EDS hosts Summer and Winter "universities", and several seminars. It also regularly publishes a magazine, Bullseye, and organises topical campaigns.

European Senior Union

Founded in Madrid in 1995 and led by Ann Hermans of the CD&V, the European Senior Union (ESU) is the largest political senior citizens’ organisation in Europe. The ESCU is represented in 26 states with 45 organisations and about 500,000 members.

European Union of Christian Democratic Workers

The European Union of Christian Democratic Workers (EUCDW) is the labour organisation of the EPP, with 24 member organisations in 18 different countries. As the officially recognised EPP association of workers, the EUCDW is led by Elmar Brok, MEP. It aims at the political unification of a democratic Europe, the development of the EPP on the basis of Christian social teaching, and the defence of workers' interests in European policy-making.

Women of the European People’s Party

The Women of the European People’s Party (EPP Women) is recognised by the EPP as the official association of women from all like-minded political parties of Europe. EPP Women has more than 40 member organisations from countries of the European Union and beyond. All of them are women‘s organisations of political parties that are members of the EPP. EPP Women is led by Doris Pack.

Youth of the European People’s Party

The Youth of the European People’s Party (YEPP), led by Andrianos Giannou, is the EPP‘s official youth organisation. It has 64 member organisations, bringing together between one and two million young people in 40 countries.

Membership

Within the EPP there are three kinds of member organisations: full members, associate members and observers.

Full members are parties from EU states. They have absolute rights to vote in all the EPP's organs and on all matters.

Associate members have the same voting rights as full members except for matters concerning the EU's structure or policies. These associate membres are parties from EU candidate countries and EFTA countries.

Observer parties can participate in all the activities of the EPP, and attend the Congresses and Political Assemblies, but they do not have any voting rights.

A special status of "supporting member" is granted by the Presidency to individuals and associations. Although they do not have voting rights, they can be invited by the President to attend meetings of certain organs of the party. Three EU Commissioners, Dacian Cioloș, Kristalina Georgieva and Andris Piebalgs, are members of the EPP even though they do not belong to any national member party.

Full member parties

Country Party Name Abbr. Legislature Lower House Seats Legislature Upper House Seats Status
 Austria Austrian People's Party ÖVP
62 / 183
22 / 61
Government
 Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish CD&V
18 / 150
8 / 60
Government
Humanist Democratic Centre cdH
9 / 150
4 / 60
Opposition
 Bulgaria Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria GERB
95 / 240
Government
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria DSB
0 / 240
No Status
Union of Democratic Forces SDS
0 / 240
No Status
Democratic Party DP
0 / 240
No Status
Movement "Bulgaria of the Citizens" BCM
0 / 240
No Status
 Croatia Croatian Democratic Union HDZ
55 / 151
Government
 Cyprus Democratic Rally DISY
18 / 56
Government
 Czech Republic TOP 09
7 / 200
2 / 81
Opposition
Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party KDU–ČSL
10 / 200
16 / 81
Opposition
 Denmark Conservative People's Party C
6 / 179
Government
Christian Democrats KD
0 / 179
No Status
 Estonia Pro Patria I
12 / 101
Government
 Finland National Coalition Party KOK
38 / 200
Government
 France The Republicans LR
112 / 577
144 / 348
Opposition
 Germany Christian Democratic Union CDU
200 / 709
Government
Christian Social Union in Bavaria CSU
46 / 709
Government
 Greece New Democracy ND
76 / 300
Opposition
 Hungary Christian Democratic People's Party KDNP
16 / 199
Government
 Ireland Fine Gael
50 / 158
19 / 60
Government
 Italy Forza Italia FI
104 / 630
61 / 315
Opposition
Popular Alternative AP
2 / 630
1 / 315
Opposition
Union of the Centre UdC
0 / 630
3 / 315
Opposition
Populars for Italy PpI
0 / 630
0 / 315
No Status
 Latvia New Unity JV
8 / 100
 Lithuania Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats TS-LKD
31 / 141
Opposition
 Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party CSV/PSC
23 / 60
 Malta Nationalist Party
28 / 67
Opposition
 Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal CDA
19 / 150
12 / 75
Government
 Poland Civic Platform PO
136 / 460
33 / 100
Opposition
Polish People's Party PSL
15 / 460
0 / 100
Opposition
 Portugal Social Democratic Party PSD
89 / 230
Opposition
Democratic and Social Centre - People's Party CDS-PP
18 / 230
Opposition
 Romania National Liberal Party PNL
69 / 329
30 / 136
Opposition
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania UDMR
21 / 329
9 / 136
Opposition (Gov't Support)
People's Movement Party PMP
18 / 329
8 / 136
Opposition
 Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement KDH
0 / 150
No Status
Most–Híd
15 / 150
Government
Party of the Hungarian Community SMK/MKP
0 / 150
No Status
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party SDS
25 / 90
Opposition
Slovenian People's Party SLS
0 / 90
No Status
New Slovenia NSi
7 / 90
Opposition
 Spain People's Party PP
134 / 350
148 / 265
Opposition
 Sweden Moderate Party
70 / 349
Christian Democrats
22 / 349

Suspended members

 Hungary

Associate members

 Albania

 North Macedonia

 Norway

 Serbia

  Switzerland

Observer members

 Armenia

 Belarus

 Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Finland

 Georgia

 Italy

 Moldova

 Norway

 San Marino

 Kosovo

 Ukraine

Former members

 Belarus

 France

 Italy

 Romania

 Slovakia

 Spain

 Turkey

 Ukraine

Notes

  1. ^ The Irish Prime Minister is commonly referred to as the Taoiseach in both Irish and English. See: Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland.

References

  1. ^ a b Maushagen, Peter (4 September 2018). "German conservative seeks to front center-right in EU elections". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  3. ^ Macron, Merkel say ready to change EU treaties if needed
  4. ^ https://idc-cdi.com/en/organizacion/
  5. ^ https://www.idu.org/members/
  6. ^ a b Slomp, Hans (26 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  7. ^ José María Magone (2006). The New World Architecture: The Role of the European Union in the Making of Global Governance. New York: Transaction Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7658-0279-8.
  8. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. London: Ashgate Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3.
  9. ^ Josep Maria Colomer (2008). "The European Union: A Federal Democratic Empire?". In Josep Maria Colomer. Comparative European Politics. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-415-43755-4.
  10. ^ Karl Magnus Johansson (2009). "The Emergence of Political Parties at European Level: Integration Unaccomplished". In Sverker Gustavsson; Lars Oxelheim; Lars Pehrson. How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy. Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-3-540-95855-0.
  11. ^ Fidesz at heart of crisis for Europe’s center right Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  12. ^ administrator. "EPP | European People's Party". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  13. ^ a b "On the Road Towards Transnational Party Cooperation in Europe" by Steven van Hecke in "European View", Volume 3, 2006, from the Centre for European Studies Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ a b Claey, P. H.; Loeb-Mayer, N. (1979). "Trans-European Party Groupings: Emergence of New and Alignment of Old Parties in the Light of the Direct Elections to the European Parliament". Government and Opposition. 14 (4): 455. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1979.tb00257.x.
  15. ^ List of European conservative parties showing defections, wavering or coming out against Viktor Orbán Retrieved 5 March 2019
  16. ^ Orbán vs Juncker for the EPP’s future Retrieved 5 March 2019
  17. ^ Orbán's campaign against George Soros Retrieved 5 March 2019
  18. ^ Juncker: Hungary's ruling Fidesz doesn't belong in EPP Retrieved 5 March 2019
  19. ^ The end of Germany's Orbán affair Retrieved 5 March 2019
  20. ^ "Presidency". EPP - European People's Party. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
  21. ^ Jansen & Van Hecke 2011, p. 109.
  22. ^ "EPP website". Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  23. ^ "PACE website". Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  24. ^ "European Partnership Initiative | International Republican Institute". IRI. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  25. ^ "Financial Times Article Wilfried Martens". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  26. ^ "United States Senator John McCain:: Press Office:". Mccain.senate.gov. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  27. ^ "Senator McCain and President Martens urge for the release of Yulia Tymoshenko". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  28. ^ Students on the Right Way: European Democrat Students 1961-2011 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. thinkingeurope.eu. Retrieved on 2013-09-07.
  29. ^ "European center right suspends Hungarian PM Orbán". Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  30. ^ The MFF is admitted to the EPP. http://pyx.by. Retrieved on 2019-01-15.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas Jansen; Steven Van Hecke (2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 51. ISBN 978-3-642-19414-6.

Bibliography

  • Jansen, Thomas (1998). The European People's Party: Origins and Development. MacMillans.
  • Jansen, Thomas; Van Hecke, Steven (2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19414-6. ISBN 978-3-642-19413-9. LCCN 2011927265.
  • Kaiser, Wolfram (2004). Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, eds. Transnational Christian Democracy: From the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales to the European People's Party. Christian Democracy in Europe since 1945. Routledge. pp. 194–208. ISBN 0-7146-5662-3.

External links

2004 European Parliament election in France

Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004. The opposition Socialist Party made substantial gains, although this was mainly at the expense of minor parties. The governing Union for a Popular Movement and Union for French Democracy also made gains.

Austrian People's Party

The Austrian People's Party (German: Österreichische Volkspartei; ÖVP) is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Austria. A successor to the Christian Social Party of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was founded immediately following the reestablishment of the Republic of Austria in 1945 and since then has been one of the two largest Austrian political parties with the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ). In federal governance, the ÖVP has spent most of the postwar era in a grand coalition with the SPÖ. Most recently, it has been junior partner in a coalition government with the SPÖ since 2007. However, the ÖVP won the 2017 election, having the greatest number of seats and formed a coalition with the far-right Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). Its chairman Sebastian Kurz is the youngest Chancellor in Austrian history.

Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams

Christian Democratic and Flemish (Dutch: Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams listen , CD&V) is a Christian democratic Flemish political party in Belgium. The party has historical ties to both trade unionism (ACV) and trade associations (UNIZO) and the Farmer's League. Until 2001, the party was named the Christian People's Party (Christelijke Volkspartij, CVP).

It was traditionally the largest political party of Flanders, until it was overtaken by the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) in the 2010s. CD&V participated in most governments and has generally the largest number of mayors. Most Prime Ministers of Belgium and Ministers-President of Flanders have been CD&V politicians. Herman Van Rompuy, the president of the European Council from 2009 to 2014, is one of the leading politicians of CD&V.

CD&V is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and Centrist Democrat International.

Christian Democratic Movement

The Christian Democratic Movement (Slovak: Kresťanskodemokratické hnutie, KDH) is a Christian-democratic political party in Slovakia. KDH is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and observer of the Centrist Democrat International.

Christian Social People's Party

The Christian Social People's Party (Luxembourgish: Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei, French: Parti populaire chrétien social, German: Christlich Soziale Volkspartei), abbreviated to CSV or PCS, is the largest political party in Luxembourg. The party follows a Christian-democratic ideology and, like most parties in Luxembourg, is strongly pro-European. The CSV is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and the Centrist Democrat International (CDI).

The CSV has been the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies since the party's formation, and currently holds 23 of 60 seats in the Chamber. Since the Second World War, every Prime Minister of Luxembourg has been a member of the CSV, with only two exceptions: Gaston Thorn (1974–1979), and Xavier Bettel (2013–). It holds three of Luxembourg's six seats in the European Parliament, as it has for 20 of the 30 years for which MEPs have been directly elected.

The party's President is Marc Spautz. However, the leading figure from the party is the former Prime Minister, Jean-Claude Juncker, who previously governed in coalition with the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP) until the 2013 general election.

Christian Social Union in Bavaria

The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern , CSU) is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), operates in the other fifteen states of Germany. It differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party (BVP).At the federal level, the CSU forms a common faction in the Bundestag with the CDU, which is frequently referred to as the Union Faction (die Unionsfraktion). The CSU has had 46 seats in the Bundestag since the 2017 federal election, making it the smallest of the seven parties represented. Until the 2013 federal election, the CDU/CSU formed federal government in coalition with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). The CSU is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and the International Democrat Union. The CSU currently has three ministers in the cabinet of Germany of the federal government in Berlin, including party leader Horst Seehofer who is Federal Minister of the Interior while party member Markus Söder serves as Minister-President of Bavaria, a position that CSU representatives have held from 1946 to 1954 and again since 1957.

Conservative People's Party (Denmark)

The Conservative People's Party (Danish: Det Konservative Folkeparti, DKF), also known as the Conservatives (Konservative) is a conservative centre-right political party in Denmark. The party is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and International Democrat Union.

Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania

The Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (DAHR, Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség, RMDSZ; Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, UDMR) is a political party in Romania representing the Hungarian minority of Romania.Officially considering itself a federation of minority interests rather than a party, from the 1990 general elections onwards the UDMR has had parliamentary representation in the Romanian Senate and Chamber of Deputies. From 1996 onwards UDMR has been a junior coalition partner in several governments.

The party is a member of the European People's Party and Centrist Democrat International.

European Democrats

The European Democrats was a loose association of conservative political parties in Europe. It was a political group in the European Parliament from 1979 until 1992, when it became a subgroup of the European People's Party–European Democrats (EPP-ED) group. The European Democrats continued to exist as a political group in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) until 2014, when it became the European Conservatives Group.

European People's Party group

The European People's Party group (EPP Group) is the political group in the European Parliament consisting of deputies (MEPs) from the member parties of the European People's Party (EPP), other unaffiliated national parties and independent dupities. In this respect, there is a distinction between the European People's Party itself (a European-level party of centre-right national political parties from across Europe) and the EPP Group in the European Parliament, which is not limited to deputies that belong to EPP's member parties. The EPP mostly comprises politicians of Christian democratic, conservative and liberal-conservative orientation.The European People's Party was officially founded as a European political party in 1976. However, the European People's Party group in the European Parliament has existed in one form or another since June 1953, from the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, making it one of the oldest European level political groups. Its size has given it influence in all the EU's institutions. It has been the largest political group in the European Parliament since 1999. In the European Council, 9 out of 28 Heads of State and Government belong to the EPP family and in the European Commission, 13 out of 27 Commissioners come from EPP parties.

Fine Gael

Fine Gael ( FEE-nə GAYL; English: Family or Tribe of the Irish) is a liberal-conservative political party in Ireland. Fine Gael is currently the governing and largest party in Ireland in terms of members of the Oireachtas and Irish members of European Parliament. The party has a membership of 35,000, and is the senior partner governing in a minority coalition with several independent politicians, with party leader Leo Varadkar serving as Taoiseach. Varadkar succeeded Enda Kenny as party leader on 2 June 2017 and as Taoiseach on 14 June; Kenny had been leader since 2002, and Taoiseach since 2011.Fine Gael was founded on 8 September 1933 following the merger of its parent party Cumann na nGaedheal, the National Centre Party and the National Guard (popularly known as the "Blueshirts", a name still used colloquially to refer to the party). Its origins lie in the struggle for Irish independence and the pro-Treaty side in the Irish Civil War and Michael Collins, in particular, is often identified as the founder of the movement.Fine Gael is generally considered to be more of a proponent of market liberalism than its traditional rival, Fianna Fáil. However, apart from brief minority governments (as in 1987), Fine Gael has rarely governed Ireland without a coalition that also included the Labour Party, a social-democratic, centre-left party. Fine Gael describes itself as a "party of the progressive centre" which it defines as acting "in a way that is right for Ireland, regardless of dogma or ideology". It lists its core values as "equality of opportunity, free enterprise and reward, security, integrity and hope." It is strongly in favour of the European Union and opposed to physical force Irish republicanism. The party's youth wing, Young Fine Gael, was formed in 1977, and has approximately four thousand members. Fine Gael is a founding member of the European People's Party.

Forza Italia (2013)

Forza Italia (translated to "Forward Italy" or "Let's Go Italy", known also by its acronym FI) is a centre-right political party in Italy whose ideology includes elements of liberal conservatism, Christian democracy, and liberalism. Its leader is Silvio Berlusconi, former Prime Minister of Italy (1994–1995, 2001–2006, 2008–2011).

The party, formed out of the former People of Freedom (PdL), is a revival of the defunct Forza Italia (FI), active from 1994 to 2009, when it was merged with National Alliance (AN) and several minor parties to form the PdL. Forza Italia's leading members include Antonio Tajani (President of the European Parliament), Elisabetta Casellati (President of the Senate), Giovanni Toti (President of Liguria), Donato Toma (President of Molise), Renato Brunetta, Paolo Romani, Mariastella Gelmini, Anna Maria Bernini, Elisabetta Gardini, Maurizio Gasparri, Renato Schifani, Mara Carfagna and Stefania Prestigiacomo.

On 11 September 2014 FI was admitted into the European People's Party (EPP), inheriting the PdL's membership.FI is a much smaller party than the original FI and the early PdL, due to the splits of Future and Freedom (2010), the Brothers of Italy (2012), the New Centre-Right (2013), the Conservative and Reformists (2015) and the Liberal Popular Alliance (2015). In the 2018 general election FI was overtaken by Lega Nord as the largest party of the centre-right coalition.

GERB

GERB (Bulgarian: ГЕРБ, Граждани за европейско развитие на България, "Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria") is a conservative, populist Bulgarian political party established on 13 March 2006. The initials of the party герб/gerb also translate as "coat of arms" in Bulgarian. It is Bulgaria's second-largest party by membership.

Manfred Weber

Manfred Weber (born 14 July 1972) is a German politician who has served as Leader of the European People's Party in the European Parliament since 2014. He has been a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany since 2004. He is a member of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria, part of the European People's Party.

In the Bavarian state elections in 2003, Weber became the state’s youngest parliamentarian at the age of 29. Currently heading the European People's Party Group, he is the youngest group leader in the current Parliament as well as the youngest-ever group leader of the EPP. Weber is known as a moderate politician and power broker in EU politics.On the 5th September 2018, Weber declared his intention to run for the position of President of the European Commission and was elected as the candidate of the EPP on November 8th.

People's Movement Party

The People's Movement Party (Romanian: Partidul Mișcarea Populară, PMP) is a centre-right political party in Romania.

Polish People's Party

The Polish People's Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, abbreviated to PSL (traditionally translated as Polish Peasants' Party), often shortened to ludowcy ('the populars') is an agrarian and Christian democratic political party in Poland. It has 14 members of the Sejm and four Members of the European Parliament. It was the junior partner in a coalition with Civic Platform. It is a member of the European People's Party and the European People's Party group in the European Parliament.

The party was formed in 1990 as a left-wing party. The PSL formed a coalition with the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) after winning 132 seats in the Sejm at the 1993 election, with PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak as Prime Minister until 1995. The party fell to 27 at the next election, and moved towards the centre at the end of the 1990s. In 2001, the party re-entered a coalition with the SLD, but withdrew in 2003. After the 2007 election, the PSL entered a coalition with the centrist liberal Civic Platform (PO).

The party's name traces its tradition to an agrarian party in Austro-Hungarian-controlled Galician Poland, which sent MPs to the parliament in Vienna. Until the 2014 local election, the PSL formed self-government coalition in fifteen to sixteen regional assemblies.

President of the European Council

The President of the European Council is the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council, as well as a principal representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage. This institution comprises the college of heads of state or government of EU member states as well as the President of the European Commission, and provides political direction to the European Union (EU).

From 1975 to 2009, the head of the European Council was an unofficial position (often referred to as the President-in-Office) held by the head of state or government of the member state holding the semiannually rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union at any given time. However, since the 2007 Treaty of Lisbon, article 15 of Treaty on European Union states that the European Council appoints a full-time president for a two-and-a-half-year term, with the possibility of renewal once. Appointments, as well as the removal of incumbents, require a double majority support in the European Council.

On 19 November 2009, the European Council agreed that its first president under the Lisbon Treaty would be Herman Van Rompuy (European People's Party, Belgium). Van Rompuy took office when the Lisbon Treaty came into force on 1 December 2009 with a term stretching until 31 May 2012. His term was later extended with a second period ending on 30 November 2014.

The second and current president is former Polish prime minister Donald Tusk. He was originally elected to serve a term from 1 December 2014 to 31 May 2017 and subsequently reelected on 9 March 2017 to a second term running from 1 June 2017 until 30 November 2019.

The Republicans (France)

The Republicans (French: Les Républicains; LR) is a centre-right, Gaullist, conservative political party in France.

The party was formed on 30 May 2015 by renaming the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party, which had been founded in 2002 under the leadership of former President of France Jacques Chirac. The party used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS), and, following the 2017 legislative election, it remains the second largest party in the National Assembly (behind President Macron's REM). LR is a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International, and the International Democrat Union.

UK European People's Party

The Alliance EPP: European People's Party UK, also known as UK EPP and the 4 Freedoms Party, is a pro-European Union, centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. It first contested an election at the 2014 European Parliament elections.The party is critical of the Conservative Party's departure from the European People's Party in 2009 and opposes calls for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union. It positions itself as a conservative, pro-European alternative to the Conservative Party and the UK Independence Party, who it condemns as "Britain's hard right". The party calls for EU reform and a greater focus on jobs and training. It expresses support for Franklin D. Roosevelt's Four Freedoms, in addition to the EU's Four Freedoms. The party leader is Dirk Hazell, who is a former Conservative councillor and has been a candidate for the Liberal Democrats. The UK EPP affiliates itself with the European People's Party.

In 2014, the party fielded candidates for the European election in the London constituency only. It polled 28,014 votes across the city and failed to win any seats.

European People's Party (EPP)
Parties
Party Presidents
European Parliament
Group Presidents
European Commissioners
Heads of government
at the European Council
European Union Pan-European political organisations
Political parties not
recognised by the EU
Other confederations
of national parties

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.