European Neighbourhood Policy

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union. The ENP does not apply to neighbours of the EU's outermost regions, specifically France's territories in South America, but only to those countries close to EU member states' territories in mainland Europe.

The countries covered include Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia in the South and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine in the East. Russia has a special status with the EU-Russia Common Spaces instead of ENP participation.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. The ENP does not cover countries which are in the current EU enlargement agenda, the European Free Trade Association or the western European microstates.

The EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in a country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc.), and financial or technical assistance.

EU European Neighbourhood Policy states
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)      EU member states      EU enlargement agenda      Eastern Partnership ENP countries      Other ENP countries (all but Libya are UfM members)      UfM members, which are not an ENP country, part of the EU or its enlargement agenda)

History

The European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) aims at bringing Europe and its neighbours closer. It was conceived after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union with 10 new member countries, in order to avoid creating new borders in Europe. It is also designed to prevent the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours. The vision is that of a ring of countries, drawn into further integration, but without necessarily becoming full members of the European Union. The policy was first outlined by the European Commission in March 2003.

The countries covered include Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, State of Palestine, Syria, Tunisia in the South and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine in the East.[1] Russia has a special status with the EU-Russia Common Spaces instead of ENP participation.

On 25 May 2011, the European Commission launched what it described as a new and ambitious European Neighbourhood Policy, backed by more than €1.2 billion in new funding, bringing the total to almost €7 billion. The main priorities and directions of a revitalised ENP strategy are set out in the Joint Communication by the European Commission and the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, titled "A new response to a changing Neighbourhood". It seeks to strengthen individual and regional relationships between the EU and countries in its neighbourhood through a "more funds for more reform" approach – making more additional funds available, but with more mutual accountability.

In the South the first comprehensive policy for the region was the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (or Barcelona Process) a wide framework of political, economic and social relations between member states of the EU and countries of the Southern Mediterranean. It was initiated on 27–28 November 1995 through a conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, held in Barcelona. Besides the 28 member states of the European Union, the remaining "Mediterranean Partners" are all other Mediterranean countries including Libya (which had 'observer status' from 1999 to 2012).

In the East the Eastern Partnership (EaP) is a policy initiative launched at the Prague Summit in May 2009 that aims to bring the 6 Eastern neighbours - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine - closer to the EU. It represents the Eastern dimension of the ENP and strengthens bilateral relations between the EU and its partners.

In March 2015 the European Commission launched a review of the principles on which the policy is based as well as its scope and how its instruments should be used. The consultation [2] follows four priorities: differentiation; focus; flexibility; ownership and visibility. A Communication setting out proposals for the future direction of the ENP will follow in autumn.

Funding the policy: from ENPI to ENI

Giving incentives and rewarding best performers, as well as offering funds in a faster and more flexible manner, are the two main principles underlying the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) that came into force in 2014.[3] It has a budget of €15.4 billion and provides the bulk of funding through a number of programmes. The ENI, effective from 2014 to 2020, replaces the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument – known as the ENPI. This cooperation instrument continues to be managed by DG Development and Cooperation - EuropeAid, which turns decisions taken on a political level into actions on the ground. ENPI funding approved for the period 2007-2013 was €11.2 billion.

Kazakhstan's Foreign Ministry has expressed interest in the ENP[4] and some MEPs have also discussed Kazakhstan's inclusion in the ENP.[5]

The EU Neighbourhood Info Centre was launched in January 2009 by the European Commission to make more known the relationship between the EU and its Neighbours.

Agreements

In recent history, such agreements are signed as part of two EU policies: Stabilisation and Association process (SAp) and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The countries of the Mediterranean and the East European EU neighbours (including South Caucasus, but excluding Russia that insists on creating four EU-Russia Common Spaces) are covered by ENP through the External Relations directorate-general. In the ENP Association Agreements (as in similar AAs signed with Mexico and other states) there is no mention of EU membership—this is a concern only to the European ENP states, because for the Mediterranean they cannot join the union in its current form because they are not located in Europe. The ENP AAs are similar to the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements signed with CIS states in the 1990s and to the multiple other AAs governing the relations between the EU and other third countries. The ENP stipulates that after signing of AA with a particular country the EU will make a Country Report and then the two sides will agree on an Action Plan drafted by the EU (including particular reforms, actions and also aid by the EU) for the next three to five years.

Both the SAA and ENP AP are based mostly on the EU's acquis communautaire and its promulgation in the cooperating states legislation. Of course the depth of the harmonisation is less than for full EU members and some policy areas may not be covered (depending on the particular state).

According to EUobserver the ENP countries may be divided into two groups—European states with explicitly stated EU membership possibility for the long term and Mediterranean states with no such statement in the Action Plans. This division is obvious in the two groups for multilateral activities that are meant to supplement the bilateral ENP Action Plans—the Eastern Partnership and the Union for the Mediterranean.[6]

Association Agreements have to be ratified by all the EU member states. AA signed with the Mediterranean states also include a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and the third country. For the East European EU neighbours covered by the ENP such provisions are expected for some of the next Action Plan periods.

Criticism

Although the Eastern Partnership was inaugurated on 7 May 2009, academic research critically analysing the policy became available by early 2010 (see Elena Korosteleva#Building Research Excellence in Russian and East European Studies at the Universities of Tartu, Uppsala and Kent). Research findings from a UK ESRC research project examining the EU's relations with three Eastern Partnership member states—namely, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova—notes both conceptual and empirical dilemmas.[7] First, conceptually the EU has limited uniform awareness of what it is trying to promote in its eastern neighbourhood under the aegis of "shared values", "collective norms", and "joint ownership". Secondly, empirically, the EU seems to favour a "top-down" governance approach (based on rule/norm transfer and conditionality) in its relations with outsiders, which is clearly at odds with a voluntary idea of "partnership", and explicitly limits the input of "the other" in the process of reform.[8] This has led critics to argue that the neighbourhood policies are subordinated to the EU's interests —and values—, whereas the role of the "partners" is at best secondary. [9]

The Arab Spring in North Africa has shed light on the close personal and business ties between governing elites in EU member states and their Mediterranean counterparts. For example, French Foreign Minister Michèle Alliot-Marie was forced to resign due to public outrage over her links to the ousted Ben Ali regime in Tunisia.[10] In 2008, the EU tried to negotiate an association agreement with Libya and earmarked €60 million in ENPI funds to the country over the 2011–2013 period.[11]

Status

ENP partner EU Agreement FTA provisions Country Report Action Plan Adoption by the EU Adoption by the ENP partner AP duration CFSP invitation[12] EU aspiration[13] Sub-group
Morocco AA, March 2000 Yes May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 27 July 2005 3–5 years No No South
Algeria AA, September 2005 Yes Under development No No South
Tunisia AA, March 1998 Yes May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 4 July 2005 3–5 years No No South
Libya Negotiations on Framework Agreement with Libya started in November 2008[14] No No South
Egypt AA, June 2004 Yes March 2005 End 2006 5 March 2007 6 March 2007 3–5 years No No South
Jordan AA, May 2002 Yes May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 11 January 2005 3–5 years Yes[15] No South
Lebanon AA, April 2006 Yes March 2005 Autumn 2006 17 October 2006 19 January 2007 5 years No No South
Syria CA, November 1978 Updated AA initialed in December 2008,[14] signature by the EU Council and ratification pending. Syria delayed signature in 2009. The EU expects full cooperation with the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. South
Israel AA, June 2000 Yes May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 11 April 2005 3+[16] years No No South
Palestinian Authority Interim AA, July 1997 Yes May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 4 May 2005 3–5 years No No South
Moldova AA, June 2014 DCFTA May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 22 February 2005 3 years Yes Yes East
Ukraine AA, June 2014 DCFTA May 2004 End 2004 21 February 2005 21 February 2005 3 years Yes[17] Yes East
Belarus EU considers the Belarus authorities too undemocratic; PCA ratification procedure suspended since 1997.[18][19][20] No No East
Georgia AA, June 2014 DCFTA March 2005 Autumn 2006 13 November 2006 14 November 2006 5 years Yes Yes East
Armenia PCA, July 1999 Negotiations[22] March 2005 Autumn 2006 13 November 2006 14 November 2006 5 years Yes Yes East
Azerbaijan PCA, July 1999 Not yet[24] March 2005 Autumn 2006 13 November 2006 14 November 2006 5 years Yes Yes East
Other regional partners
Mauritania As one of the ACP countries Mauritania is in the process of negotiating the West African Economic Partnership Agreement, but notwithstanding this it is a full member of the Union for the Mediterranean. No No NONE
Russia PCA, December 1997 No Opted to cooperate through the formation of EU-Russia Common Spaces instead of the ENP. Roadmap (Action Plan substitute) adopted in May 2005[25] No No NONE
Kazakhstan PCA, July 1999 No The Kazakh Foreign Ministry has expressed interest in the ENP.[4] Some MEPs also discussed Kazakhstan's inclusion in the ENP.[5] No No NONE

sources: [5], [6], ENP official page [7]

Statistics

State (18)[26] GNI[27] GDP[28] GNI PPP[29] GDP PPP[30] HDI[31] life exp.[32] CPI[33] press freedom[34] internet users[35] WTO[36] VWP[37]
 Algeria 3,620 4,922 7,640 6,927 0.748 72.4 3.2 36.63 10.4 obs 20.3
 Armenia 2,640 3,400 5,900 5,436 0.777 72.1 2.9 28.43 5.8 WTO 53.3
 Azerbaijan 2,550 6,142 6,260 8,958 0.758 67.5 1.9 58.41 18.3 obs 14.0
 Belarus 4,220 6,058 10,740 12,344 0.817 69.0 2.0 47.98 29.0 obs 21.1
 Egypt 1,580 2,108 5,400 5,904 0.716 71.3 2.8 50.17 12.9 WTO 35.3
 Georgia 2,120 3,060 4,770 5,001 0.763 71.0 3.9 27.7 7.8 WTO 46.6
 Israel 21,900 26,535 25,930 28,245 0.930 80.7 6.0 32.09 n/d WTO 3.0
 Jordan 2,850 3,266 5,160 5,171 0.769 72.5 5.1 42.07 n/d WTO 43.2
 Kazakhstan 5,060 9,075 9,700 11,563 0.807 67.2 2.2 53.46 12.4 WTO 11.7
 Lebanon 5,770 7,375 10,050 12,063 0.796 72.0 3.0 31.81 n/d obs 27.9
 Libya 9,010 17,468 14,710 14,593 0.840 74.0 2.6 45.99 4.2 obs 27.1
 Moldova 1,260 1,830 2,930 3,153 0.719 68.9 2.9 27.85 16.2 WTO 36.7
 Morocco 2,250 2,901 3,990 4,432 0.646 71.2 3.5 39.19 19.2 WTO 24.0
 Palestine n/d n/d n/d n/d 0.731 73.4 n/d 41.01 n/d X 55.6
 Russia 7,560 12,578 14,400 16,160 0.806 65.5 2.1 44.97 27.0 WTO 7.5
 Syria 1,760 2,237 4,370 4,668 0.736 74.1 2.1 77.29 n/d obs 33.1
 Tunisia 4,351 4,032 9,060 9,550 0.762 73.9 4.4 38.68 27.0 WTO 23.9
 Ukraine 2,550 4,318 6,810 7,633 0.786 67.9 2.5 39.1 14.6 WTO 30.9

See also

References

  1. ^ "European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)". European External Action Service. 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  2. ^ "Consultation: "Towards a new European Neighbourhood Policy". European Commission. Retrieved 27 May 2015". Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  3. ^ Establishing a European Neighbourhood Instrument
  4. ^ a b [1]
  5. ^ a b "Kazakhstan". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  6. ^ "Berlin in plans to split EU neighbourhood states". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  7. ^ 'Moldova most EU-friendly Eastern country, survey reveals', Euractive, 2010-06-14
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Castan Pinos, J. (2014) ‘The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects’, Journal of Borderlands Studies 29 (2): 139.
  10. ^ "French Foreign Minister Alliot-Marie quits over Tunisia". 27 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  11. ^ "redirect" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  12. ^ The EU may invite the ENP partner to align itself with EU declarations in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy on a case-by-case basis. Currently, in addition to ENP partners the EU invites for alignment the candidate countries, SAp and EFTA states. Each states decides on a case-by-case basis if to align itself with the particular declaration it is invited to.
  13. ^ The EU takes note of expressed European aspirations by the ENP partner.
  14. ^ a b "redirect" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  15. ^ Not envisioned in the Action Plan, but invitation was sent. Jordan has not yet taken a decision.
  16. ^ Extended in April 2008
  17. ^ Not envisioned in the Action Plan, but invitations sent and accepted by Ukraine.
  18. ^ White, S., Korosteleva, E.A. and Löwenhardt, J. (Eds.),(2005), "Postcommunist Belarus", N.Y. & Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
  19. ^ Korosteleva E.A., Marsh, R. and Lawson, C., (eds.) (2003) Contemporary Belarus: Between Democracy and Dictatorship, London : RoutledgeCurzon
  20. ^ Lewis, A. (ed.)(2002) The EU and Belarus: Between Moscow and Brussels, London : Kogan Page
  21. ^ "EU and Armenia to start negotiations for a new agreement". European External Action Service. 2015-12-07. Retrieved 2016-01-03.
  22. ^ Negotiations over an Association Agreement without free trade provisions started in Dec 2015.[21]
  23. ^ "Press - Consilium" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  24. ^ Current Association Agreement negotiations conducted without a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area. DCFTA negotiations possible after Azerbaijan obtains WTO membership.[23]
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ Only sovereign states are listed
  27. ^ GNI (nominal) per capita 2007, World Development Indicators database contentMDK:20399244~menuPK:1504474~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html, World Bank, revised 17 October 2008 [3], Atlas method
  28. ^ GDP per capita for year 2008 from IMF World Economic Outlook Database 2008 October Edition
  29. ^ GNI PPP per capita 2007, World Development Indicators database contentMDK:20399244~menuPK:1504474~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html, World Bank, revised 17 October 2008 [4]
  30. ^ GDP PPP per capita for year 2008 from IMF World Economic Outlook Database 2008 October Edition
  31. ^ The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing, or an under-developed country, and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.
  32. ^ life expectancy United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision – Table A.17 for 2005–2010
  33. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians". Transparency International defines corruption as "the abuse of public office for private gain".
  34. ^ RWB Worldwide press freedom index (2015) compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Malta, and Andorra, are excluded from this report.
  35. ^ Source; InternetWorldStats for countries of Europe, Asia updated for 31 December 2008
  36. ^ WTOMembers and Observers Archived 17 January 2010 at WebCite
  37. ^ VWP is a program of the United States of America which allows citizens of countries with visa refusal rate less than 3% and some specific countries 10% to travel to the US for tourism or business for up to 90 days without having to obtain a visa. All countries participating in the program have high HDI and most are regarded as developed countries; Adjusted Visa Refusal Rate Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine year 2006 Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2007 Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, 2008 Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Academic policy papers

Books

  • Korosteleva, E.A, (2012), The European Union and its Eastern Neighbours: Towards a more ambitious partnership? London: BASEES/Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies, ISBN 0-415-61261-6
  • Korosteleva E.A, (Ed.) (2011), Eastern Partnership: A New Opportunity for the Neighbours?, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-67607-X
  • Korosteleva, E.A, (2011), The Eastern Partnership: Problems and Perspectives, (in Russian), Minsk: Belarusian State University

Book chapters

  • Wolfgang Tiede und Jakob Schirmer: „The EU’s Eastern Partnership – Objectives and Legal Basis", in: "The European Legal Forum" (EuLF) 3/2009, pp. 168–174.

Academic journal articles

  • Esther Barbé and Elisabeth Johansson-Nogués: "The EU as a Modest 'Force for Good': The European Neighbourhood Policy", International Affairs, Vol. 84, no. 1 (Jan, 2008); pp. 81-96.
  • Elena Korosteleva: Belarusian Foreign Policy in a Time of Crisis’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Special Issue, 27(3–4) 2011, pp. 566–86
  • Elena Korosteleva:‘Change or Continuity: Is the Eastern Partnership an Adequate Tool for the European Neighbourhood’, International Relations, 25(2) 2011, pp. 243–62
  • Elena Korosteleva:‘Eastern Partnership: a New Opportunity for the Neighbours?’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Special Issue, 27(1) 2011, pp. 1–21
  • Wolfgang Tiede and Jakob Schirmer: „Strategische Notwendigkeit – Die Östliche Partnerschaft der Europäischen Union" („Strategic Necessity – The EU’s Eastern Partnership"), in „WeltTrends" (Zeitschrift für internationale Politik und vergleichende Studien), 71/2010, pp. 10–14.
  • Elena Korosteleva:‘Moldova’s European Choice: Between Two Stools’, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 62(8) 2010, p. 1267–89
  • Elena Korosteleva:‘The Limits of EU Governance: Belarus’ Response to the European Neighbourhood Policy’, Contemporary Politics, Vol. 15, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 229–45
  • Elena Korosteleva and Gisselle Bosse: “Changing Belarus ? The Limits of EU Governance in Eastern Europe ”, Conflict and Cooperation, Vol.44, No. 2 2009, pp. 143–65
  • Wolfgang Tiede and Jakob Schirmer: "Die Östliche Partnerschaft der Europäischen Union im Rahmen des Gemeinschaftsrechts" ("The European Union's Eastern Partnership under Community law") in Osteuropa-Recht (OER)) 2009 (German Law Journal), vol. 2, pp. 184–191
  • Jaume Castan Pinos: ‘The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects’, Journal of Borderlands Studies 29 (2) 2014, pp.  133-146.

External links

Benita Ferrero-Waldner

Benita Ferrero-Waldner (born 5 September 1948) is an Austrian diplomat and politician, and a member of the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). Ferrero-Waldner served as the Foreign Minister of Austria 2000–2004 and was the candidate of the Austrian People's Party in the Austrian presidential election, 2004, which she narrowly lost with 47.6% of the votes. She served as the European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy from 2004 to 2009, and as the European Commissioner for Trade and European Neighbourhood Policy from 2009 to 2010.

Centre for Eastern Studies

Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW, Polish: Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich) is a Warsaw-based think tank that undertakes independent research on the political, economic and social situation in Central and Eastern Europe, Balkans, Caucasus and Central Asia.

The Centre was founded in 1990 and is fully financed from the Polish state budget. In 2006 the Centre was named in honour of its founder Marek Karp.

The OSW is the largest of the European Union’s think tanks to focus its research on the part of Europe which until 1989 had been separated from the West by the Iron Curtain.

The Centre is particularly active in debates concerning the European Union's policy towards its Eastern neighbours (European Neighbourhood Policy, Eastern Partnership), challenges to energy security in Europe, as well as the political, social and economic transformation of countries neighbouring Poland.

Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations

The Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations is a Directorate-General of the European Commission. The body is responsible for the enlargement process of the European Union and for the European Neighbourhood Policy. The European Union over the years has expanded to 28 members from the first six Member States who signed the Treaty of Rome.

Enpi

Enpi may refer to:

Enpi (elbow strike), a Japanese martial arts term meaning "elbow strike"

Enpi (kata), a kata found in Shotokan and other karate styles

ENPI, an acronym for European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, the funding instrument of the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy

Euro-Mediterranean free trade area

The European Union-Mediterranean Free Trade Area (EU-MED FTA, EMFTA), also called the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area or Euromed FTA, is based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The Barcelona Process, developed after the Barcelona Conference in successive annual meetings, is a set of goals designed to lead to a free trade area in the Mediterranean Region and the Middle East by 2010.

A Regional Convention on pan-Euro-Mediterranean preferential Rules of Origin was signed in June 2011 to allow identical rules of origin across the region.

The convention was in force from May 2012 and is the last step taken in the Barcelona Process so far.

European Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy

The Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy is the member of the European Commission in charge of overseeing the accession process of prospective new member states and relations with those bordering the European Union (EU). The present Commissioner, as of May 2015, is Johannes Hahn.

Currently there are six candidate countries and three who have either applied for membership or are preparing via the Stabilisation and Association Process countries. Most of them are located in the western Balkans except Iceland and Turkey. Neighbourhood Policy is directed towards those members along the EU's eastern border and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

European Commissioner for External Relations

This article is about a historic position in the European Commission, for the current foreign affairs position see High RepresentativeThe European Commissioner for External Relations was a member of the European Commission with responsibility over the Commissions external representation in the world and the European Union's (EU) Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The responsibility was shared though between other Commission posts (see below) and the High Representative.

As a result of the Treaty of Lisbon, on 1 December 2009, merged the positions of Commissioner and High Representative into a composite entity called the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The first Commissioner to hold the post was Jean Rey in 1958, who later became Commission President. The last Commissioner was Benita Ferrero-Waldner who served from 2004 to 2009 in the first Barroso Commission.

European Neighbourhood Instrument

The European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) came into force in 2014. It is the financial arm of the European Neighbourhood Policy, the EU’s foreign policy towards its neighbours to the East and to the South. It has a budget of €15.4 billion and provides the bulk of funding through a number of programmes.The six ENI targets are:

Promoting human rights and fundamental freedoms, the rule of law, equality, sustainable democracy, good governance and a thriving civil society;

Achieving progressive integration into the EU internal market and enhanced co-operation including through legislative approximation and regulatory convergence, institution building and investments;

Creating conditions for well managed mobility of people and promotion of people-to-people contacts;

Encouraging development, poverty reduction, internal economic, social and territorial cohesion, rural development, climate action and disaster resilience;

Promoting confidence building and other measures contributing to security and the prevention and settlement of conflicts;

Enhancing sub-regional, regional and Neighbourhood wide collaboration as well as Cross-Border Cooperation.The ENI, effective from 2014 to 2020, replaces the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument - known as the ENPI. This cooperation instrument continues to be managed by DG Development and Cooperation - EuropeAid, which turns decisions taken on a political level into actions on the ground. ENPI funding approved for the period 2007-2013 was €11.2 billion.

The 16 ENI partner countries are: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, in the South, and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine in the East.

With Russia, the EU has a separate Strategic Partnership.The EU Neighbourhood Info Centre was launched in January 2009 by the European Commission to make more known the relationship between the EU and its Neighbours as part of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

Eurosphere

The Eurosphere or the European Empire is a concept associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard, Oxford University academic Jan Zielonka, the European Union Director-General for Politico-Military Affairs Robert Cooper; and the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso.Over the past 50 years, the European Union has expanded from the 6 founding members to 28; additionally there are 8 candidate and potential candidate countries waiting to join. A number of Western European countries are integrated economically, as part of the Union's single market or using its single currency, the Euro. Through its High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the EU has the capability to speak with one voice on the world stage and has established association and free trade agreements with a large number of states. Furthermore, through the European Neighbourhood Policy and Union for the Mediterranean it is creating closer ties with countries on its borders; while developing ties with other former European colonies, the ACP countries.

Countries seeking membership in the EU undergo a great deal of reform, for example the huge reforms seen in Turkey such as the abolition of capital punishment. The emergence of the Union's influence, and the draw of membership, has been the subject of a number of academic writings. Mark Leonard describes the area of EU influence as the "Eurosphere".

Georgia–European Union relations

Georgia and the European Union have maintained relations since 1996 in the INOGATE framework, and in 2006 a five-year "Action Plan" of rapprochement was implemented in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). A more comprehensive Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016.

A European Union Monitoring Mission was sent to Georgia in the wake of the 2008 South Ossetia war.

Georgia does not have any official status as a candidate for future enlargement of the European Union, but in 2011 Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili expressed a desire for his country to become a member state of the EU. This view has been explicitly expressed on several occasions as links to the United States, EU and NATO have been strengthened in an attempt to move away from the Russian sphere of influence.

Johannes Hahn

Johannes Hahn (born 2 December 1957) is an Austrian politician who has served as European Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations since November 2014. He previously served as European Commissioner for Regional Policy from 2010 to 2014 and as Austrian minister for science and research from 2007 to 2010.He is a member of the Austrian People's Party, part of the European People's Party.

Juncker Commission

The Juncker Commission is the European Commission in office since 1 November 2014 and is due to serve until 2019. Its president is Jean-Claude Juncker, who presides over 27 other commissioners (one from each of the states composing the European Union, except Luxembourg, which is Juncker's state). In July 2014, Juncker was officially elected to succeed José Manuel Barroso, who completed his second five-year term in that year.

MEFTA

MEFTA may refer to:

U.S.–Middle East Free Trade Area (US-MEFTA), started in 2003 to create a U.S. Middle East Free Trade Area by 2013

Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MEFTA), Euromed FTA, based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy

Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) in the Middle East region

Morocco–European Union relations

Morocco is a neighbouring and associated country of the European Union. The relations between the two are framed in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Union for the Mediterranean. Among the ENP countries, Morocco has been recognised an advanced status, opening up to high levels of political cooperation.

The main legal ties between Morocco and the EU are set by the 2000 Association Agreement. Several other agreement cover sectoral issues, including the 2006 EU-Morocco Fisheries Partnership Agreement and the 2006 Open Skies agreement.

Poland in the European Union

Poland has been a member state of the European Union since 1 May 2004, with the Treaty of Accession 2003 signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens as the legal basis for Poland's accession to the EU. The actual process of integrating Poland into the EU began with Poland's application for membership in Athens on 8 April 1994, and then the confirmation of the application by all member states in Essen from 9–10 December 1994. Poland's integration into the European Union is a dynamic and continuously ongoing process.

Privileged partnership

This article deals with cooperation between the European Union and non-member states. For the use of the term to describe Franco-German cooperation at and since the Treaty of Maastricht, see France–Germany relationsPrivileged partnership is a generic term for cooperation between the European Union and a non-EU country to advance common goals without using EU membership.

Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States

TACIS is an abbreviation of "Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States" programme, a foreign and technical assistance programme implemented by the European Commission to help members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (as well as Mongolia), in their transition to democratic market-oriented economies. TACIS is now subsumed in the EuropeAid programme.

Launched by the EC in 1991, the Tacis Programme provides grant-financed technical assistance to 12 countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Mongolia was also covered by the Tacis programme from 1991 to 2003, but is now covered by the ALA Programme.

From the 2007-2013 EU Financial Perspective, the Tacis Programme has been replaced for the countries of the European Neighbourhood Policy and Russia by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument. Nuclear safety projects are covered by the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation. However Tacis projects programmed from 2006 will continue to operate until 2012.

The European Union remains the single largest donor of foreign assistance in the world.

Third-country economic relationships with the European Union

The European Union has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union's official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries, sharing EU's democratic ideals and joining them in further integration without necessarily becoming full member states.

Štefan Füle

Štefan Füle (born 24 May 1962 in Sokolov) is a former Czech diplomat who served as the European Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy from February 2010 until October 2014.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.