European Environment Agency

The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) which provides independent information on the environment.

European Environment Agency
EEA agency logo
Agency overview
Formed30 October 1993
JurisdictionEuropean Union
HeadquartersCopenhagen, Denmark
55°40′52″N 12°35′12″E / 55.681208°N 12.586609°ECoordinates: 55°40′52″N 12°35′12″E / 55.681208°N 12.586609°E
Agency executives
  • Hans Bruyninckx, Executive Director
  • Elisabeth Freytag-Rigler, Chairwoman of Management Board
Key document
European Environment Agency is located in European Union
European Environment Agency (European Union)
European Environment Agency Building in Copenhagen at winter
European Environment Agency Building in Copenhagen in winter


The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) which provides independent information on the environment. Its goal is to help those involved in developing, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and to inform the general public.


The EEA was established by the European Economic Community (EEC) Regulation 1210/1990 (amended by EEC Regulation 933/1999 and EC Regulation 401/2009) and became operational in 1994, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark.

The agency is governed by a management board composed of representatives of the governments of its 33 member states, a European Commission representative and two scientists appointed by the European Parliament, assisted by a committee of scientists. The current Executive Director of the agency is Professor Hans Bruyninckx, who has been appointed for a five-year term. He is the successor of Professor Jacqueline McGlade.

Member countries

The member states of the union are members; however other states may become members of it by means of agreements concluded between them and the EU.

It was the first EU body to open its membership to the 13 candidate countries (pre-2004 enlargement).

The EEA has 33 member countries and six cooperating countries. The 33 member countries include the 28 EU Member States together with Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.

The six Balkans countries are cooperating countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99. These cooperation activities are integrated into Eionet and are supported by the EU under the "Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance".

The EEA is an active member of the EPA Network.[1]

The 33 member countries include the 28 European Union member states together with Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. The six Western Balkan countries are cooperating countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia as well as Kosovo under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99.[2]

EU Member countries non-EU Member countries Cooperating countries
 Austria  Iceland  Albania
 Belgium  Liechtenstein  Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria  Norway  Kosovo[3]
 Croatia   Switzerland  North Macedonia
 Czech Republic  Turkey  Montenegro
 Cyprus  Serbia
 United Kingdom


The European Environment Agency (EEA) reported in 2017 that climate-related extreme events accounted ca €400 billion ($430 billion) of economic losses in EEA area from 1980 to 2013, and were responsible for 85,000 deaths during 1980-2013.[4]

European environment information and observation network

The European environment information and observation network (Eionet) is a partnership network of the EEA and the countries. The EEA is responsible for developing the network and coordinating its activities. To do so, the EEA works closely together with national focal points (NFP´s), typically national environment agencies or environment ministries which are responsible for coordinating national networksof the National Reference Centres (NRCs) involving many institutions (about 350 in all).

Apart from the NFPs and NRCs, Eionet covers six European Topic Centres (ETCs) in the areas of air and climate change, biological diversity, climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, water, land use and spatial information and analysis and sustainable consumption and production.

Annual discharge process

In February 2012, the European Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control published a draft report, identifying areas of concern in the use of funds and its influence for the 2010 budget such as a 26% budget increase from 2009 to 2010 to €50 600 000.[5]:8 and questioned that maximum competition and value-for-money principles were honored in hiring, also possible fictitious employees.[5]:10

The EEA's Executive Director refuted allegations of irregularities in a public hearing.[6]

On 27 March 2012 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) voted on the report [7] and commended the cooperation between the Agency and NGOs working in the environmental area. On 23 October 2012, the European Parliament voted and granted the discharge to the European Environment Agency for its 2010 budget.

In April 2013, the MEPs voted and granted the discharge to the EEA for its 2011 budget.[8]

Executive directors

Name Nationality Term(s)
Domingo Jiménez-Beltrán Spain Spain 1994 – 2003
Jacqueline McGlade United Kingdom United Kingdom 2003 – 2013
Hans Bruyninckx Belgium Belgium 2013 –

International cooperation

In addition to its 33 members and six Balkan cooperating countries, the EEA also cooperates and fosters partnerships with its neighbours and other countries and regions, mostly in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy:[9]

  • EaP states: Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
  • UfM states: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia
  • other ENPI states: Russia
  • Central Asia states: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

Additionally the EEA cooperates with multiple international organizations and the corresponding agencies of the following countries:

Official languages

The 26 official languages used by the EEA are: Bulgarian, Czech, Croatian, Danish, German, Greek, English, Spanish, Estonian, Finnish, French, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Malti, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish and Turkish.

See also


  1. ^ European Network of the Heads of Environment Protection Agencies.
  2. ^ Countries and Eionet, European Environment Agency, Retrieved on 24 July 2013.
  3. ^ (under the UN Security Council Resolution 1244/99)
  4. ^ Nina Chestney South, southeast face Europe's most adverse climate change impact: agency Reuters, January 25, 2017
  5. ^ a b Draft Report on discharge on the implementation of the budget of the European Environment Agency for the financial year 2010 14 pages, 6 February 2012
  6. ^ Valentina Pop EU agencies rebuked over spending 2 March 2012. EU Observer website.
  7. ^ Agenda for March 27, 2011 meeting of the Committee on Budgetary Control.
  8. ^ European Parliament. (2013). 2011 discharge: European Environment Agency (P7_TA(2013)0144). Retrieved from
  9. ^ "International Cooperation". European Environment Agency. July 22, 2016. Retrieved April 23, 2017. (scroll down to "European Neighborhood Project")
  10. ^ EU-OSHA.

External links

Balkan mixed forests

The Balkan mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome and the Palearctic ecozone.

Bulgarian Energy Holding

Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD (BEH EAD) is a state owned energy holding company in Bulgaria. It was incorporated on 18 September 2008 after renaming Bulgargaz Holding EAD. In November 2009, the Bulgarian Government decided to list the company at the Bulgarian Stock Exchange – Sofia.It is the owner of the Maritsa Iztok-2 power station. This power station was ranked as the industrial facility that is causing the highest damage costs to health and the environment in Bulgaria and the entire European Union in November 2014 by the European Environment Agency.

Common Database on Designated Areas

The Common Database on Designated Areas or CDDA is a data bank for officially designated protected areas such as nature reserves, protected landscapes, national parks etc. in Europe.The data bank, which went live in 1999, is a community project of the European Environment Agency (EEA) of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).The data bank is divided into a national area and an international area. The national area is for member states of the EU or EEA about the European Environment Information and Observation Network or EIONET. Data cleansing for the national area of non-EEA members and the international area is carried out by UNEP-WCMC systems.

The data bank follows the system of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the standards of the United Nations in order to ensure compatibility with similar data banks worldwide, especially the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA).

The data bank can be accessed from the Internet using the website of the European Nature Information System (EUNIS).To date, true marine protected areas such as the Marine Protected Areas in the Atlantic Arc (MAIA) have not been included in the data bank. This is being pursued.

Coordination of Information on the Environment

Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) is a European programme initiated in 1985 by the European Commission, aimed at gathering information relating to the environment on certain priority topics for the European Union (air, water, soil, land cover, coastal erosion, biotopes, etc.). Since 1994, the European Environment Agency (EEA) integrated CORINE in its work programme. EEA is responsible for providing objective, timely and targeted information on Europe's environment.


DPSIR (drivers, pressures, state, impact and response model of intervention) is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment: Human impact on the environment and vice versa because of the interdependence of the components.

Dinaric Mountains mixed forests

The Dinaric Mountains mixed forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of the Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests Biome in Southeastern Europe, according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It also is in the Palearctic ecozone.

English Lowlands beech forests

The English Lowlands beech forests are a terrestrial ecoregion in Northern Europe, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the European Environment Agency (EEA). Part of the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome in the Palaearctic ecozone, it covers 45,600 km2 (17,600 sq mi) of Southern England, approximately as far as the border with Devon and South Wales in the west, into the Severn valley in the north-west, into the East Midlands in the north, and up to the border of Norfolk in the north-east of its range. The WWF code for this ecoregion is PA0421.

Environment of the European Union

Environment of the European Union:

Bonn Agreement

European Climate Change Programme

Coordination of Information on the Environment

Directorate-General for the Environment (European Commission)

European Environment Agency

European Commissioner for the Environment

Protected areas of the European Union

European Nature Information System

The European Nature Information System (EUNIS) provides access to the publicly available data in the EUNIS database for species, habitat types and protected sites across Europe. It is part of the European Biodiversity data centre (BDC), and is maintained by the European Environment Agency (EEA).

The database contains data

on species, habitat types and designated sites from the framework of Natura 2000,

from material compiled by the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity

mentioned in relevant international conventions and in the IUCN Red Lists,

collected in the framework of the EEA's reporting activities.

Flora of North Macedonia

The flora of the Republic of North Macedonia is represented with around 210 families, 920 genera, and around 3,700 plant species. The most abundant group are the flowering plants with around 3,200 species, which is followed by mosses (350 species) and ferns (42).

Phytogeographically, North Macedonia belongs to the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of the Republic can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Pindus Mountains mixed forests, Balkan mixed forests, Rhodopes mixed forests and Aegean sclerophyllous and mixed forests.

Illyrian deciduous forests

The Illyrian deciduous forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs to the biome of Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, and to the Palearctic ecozone.

The Illyrian deciduous forests stretch along the eastern coast of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas (including the islands) and occupy 40,600 km2 (15,700 sq mi) in Northern Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Northern Italy near Trieste.

The ecoregion is surrounded by the Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests (in Greece), Pindus Mountains mixed forests (in Greece and Albania), Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (in Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Italy) and Po Basin mixed forests (in Italy).

The climate of the ecoregion is mostly of Köppen's Mediterranean type with hot summers (Csa) to humid subtropical with wet winters (Cfa).

Due to the wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion the highest elevations (above 1,000 m) are covered with conifer forests, with a mixed broadleaf vegetation and maquis shrubland occurring lower. The conifer zone is dominated by the Norway spruce, silver fir and European black pine with the admixture of the European beech. The dominant species of the lower zones include various deciduous oaks (Quercus frainetto, Q. pubescens, Q. cerris), Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus with Cotinus coggygria, Paliurus spina-christi, Cercis siliquastrum. Evergreen trees and maquis shrubs (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia terebinthus, P. lentiscus, Juniperus oxycedrus, J. macrocarpa, Arbutus unedo, A. andrachne, Nerium oleander) become predominant near the coast.

Phytogeographically, the ecoregion is shared between the Adriatic and East Mediterranean provinces of the Mediterranean Region within the Holarctic Kingdom (according to Armen Takhtajan's delineation).

Jacqueline McGlade

Jacqueline Myriam McGlade (born May 30, 1955) is a British-born Canadian marine biologist and environmental informatics professor. Her research concerns the spatial and nonlinear dynamics of ecosystems, climate change and scenario development. She is currently Professor of Resilience and Sustainable Development at the University College London Institute for Global Prosperity and Faculty of Engineering, and Professor and Director of the Sekenani Research Centre of the Maasai Mara University, Kenya.

She was Executive Director of the European Environment Agency from 2003-2013, where she was on leave from her post as Professor of Environmental Informatics at University College London.

Between 2014 and 2017 she was Chief Scientist and Director of the Science Division of the United Nations Environment Programme based in Nairobi.

Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection is a particular mapping from a sphere to a disk (that is, a region bounded by a circle). It accurately represents area in all regions of the sphere, but it does not accurately represent angles. It is named for the Swiss mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert, who announced it in 1772. "Zenithal" being synonymous with "azimuthal", the projection is also known as the Lambert zenithal equal-area projection.The Lambert azimuthal projection is used as a map projection in cartography. For example, the National Atlas of the US uses a Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection to display information in the online Map Maker application, and the European Environment Agency recommends its usage for European mapping for statistical analysis and display. It is also used in scientific disciplines such as geology for plotting the orientations of lines in three-dimensional space. This plotting is aided by a special kind of graph paper called a Schmidt net.

List of Special Areas of Conservation in the Republic of Ireland

The following is a list of Special Areas of Conservation in the Republic of Ireland, as listed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). Since 2011 the NPWS has operated under the aegis of the Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. The Special Areas of Conservation are part of the European Union's Natura 2000 network of sites with special flora or fauna.

Nováky Power Plant

The lignite fired Nováky Power Plant is located in Zemianske Kostoľany near the Novácke uhoľné bane coal mines in the District of Prievidza, Slovakia. In addition to electricity generation and supply, Nováky Power Plant provides for hot water supplies for heating of the towns of Prievidza, Nováky, Zemianske Kostoľany as well as for industrial and other organisations and steam for heat supplies to surrounding industrial enterprises. It has a 150m tall chimney, built in 1963 and a 300-metre tall chimney, built in 1976. Nováky Power plant is pixeled on Google Maps.

The power station operates in the Slovak power system under basic and semi-peak modes. With its installed capacity of 266 MWe it accounts for some 6% of Slovenské elektrárne, a.s. installed capacity.

The power plant was ranked by the European Environment Agency as the industrial facility that is causing the highest damage costs to health and the environment in Slovakia and the 18th worst in the entire European Union. It was calculated that the total cost to health and environment of the Nováky Power Plant was between 1.814 and 5.003 billion euro over the 5-year period of 2008 and 2012.


Ooslamaa is a small islet in the Baltic Sea belonging to the country of Estonia.

Ooslamaa has a surface area of 241.60 hectares, with fragmented vegetation. Trees do not grow on the islet.

It is administered by Salme Parish, Saare County and has been designated as a Habitat/species management area of Nature Reserve and been under protection by the government since 1965.


SAFE AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions Above Inhomogeneous Regions) is an advanced atmospheric pollution dispersion model for calculating concentrations of atmospheric pollutants emitted both continuously or intermittently from point, line, volume and area sources. It adopts an integrated Gaussian puff modeling system.

SAFE AIR consists of three main parts: the meteorological pre-processor WINDS (Wind-field Interpolation by Non Divergent Schemes) to calculate wind fields, the meteorological pre-processor ABLE (Acquisition of Boundary Layer parameters) to calculate atmospheric parameters and a lagrangian multisource model named P6 (Program Plotting Paths of Pollutant Puffs and Plumes) to calculate pollutant dispersion.

SAFE AIR is included in the online Model Documentation System (MDS) of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and of the .Italian Agency for the Protection of the Environment (APAT).

Wümme Depression

The Wümme Depression (German: Wümmeniederung) is a bog, geest and forest landscape within the Elbe-Weser Triangle in the German state of Lower Saxony. It belongs mainly to the district of Rotenburg and is part of the Stade Geest. To the south it borders on the Achim-Verden Geest. It has no sharply defined boundary with the Lüneburg Heath; as a result many places are seen as belonging to both regions. Typical of the gently undulating terrain are the many small rivers, streams and lakes. These include the rivers Wümme, Wieste, Fintau, Rodau, Wiedau and Vissel, as well as the twin lakes known in German as the Bullenseen. In this ancient landscape Low German is commonly spoken.

The Wümme Depression is designated by the European Environment Agency (EEA) as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), no. DE2723331, within their Natura 2000 ecological network.

The SAC has an area of 8,578.95 hectares (33.1235 sq mi).The villages and towns of the Wümme Depression are:

Rotenburg (Wümme)











Zemianske Kostoľany

Zemianske Kostoľany (Hungarian: Nemeskosztolány) is a village and municipality in Prievidza District in the Trenčín Region of western Slovakia.

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