The French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Canada. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France. She was born circa 1620, to Pierre Desportes (born Lisieux, Normandie, France) and Françoise Langlois.
In the 2016 census, the largest European ancestry groups originated from the British Isles (11,211,850 including 6,320,085 English, 4,799,005 Scottish and 4,627,000 Irish), French (4,680,820), German (3,322,405), Italian (1,587,965). However, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" (accounting for 11,135,965 of the population). Since 1996, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry, which likely caused English Canadians, British Canadians and French Canadians to become severely underrepresented. The grouping is similar to that of "American" in neighbouring United States and is most commonly espoused by European Canadians whose ancestors have been some of the earliest European settlers of what is now Canada, to the point where they no longer feel a connection to their countries of origin. In the 2011 National Household Survey Profile, 10,563,805 people (32.1%) chose "Canadian" as their ethnic group, making it the single largest group in the country.
53% of the total Canadian population (2016 Census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|All areas of Canada|
less prevelant in the North
|Predominantly English • French|
Historically Scottish Gaelic • Irish were spoken in certain regions
|Predominantly Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|European diaspora, Europeans, European Americans, European Australians, European New Zealanders, British (English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster-Scots), Irish, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Ukrainian, Polish, Portuguese|
An additional 11,135,965 people chose "Canadian" as their ethnic group in the Census.
|Year||Population||% of Canada||Ref(s)||Year||Population||% of Canada||Ref(s)|
|^1 Census of 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911, 1921.|
The table shows the European-Canadian population showing a gradual increase from the 1871 Census, however, their proportion of the total Canadian population has been decreasing gradually since the mid-twentieth century to the most recent census in 2016. Canada enumerated its population by race between 1871 and 1971 and ethnic origins.
European Canadians are still the largest ethnic group in Canada. Elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States.
The top ten cities as per population of European Canadians (not members of a visible minority and no Aboriginal status) are as follows (2016 Census):
The top ten such Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) are as follows:
The culture of the Canadians of European descent, European-Canadian culture, is the main culture of Canada. From their earliest presence in North America, European Canadians have contributed literature, art, architecture, cinema and theater, religion and philosophy, ethics, agricultural skills, foods, medicine, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, business, economics, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to Canadian culture. European-Canadian culture derived its earliest influences from English, French, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of Canadian culture. The overall Canadian culture reflects European-Canadian culture, also known as White Canadian culture. The culture has been developing since long before Canada formed a separate country. Much of Canadian culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.
Another area of cultural influence are Canadian Patriotic songs:
|Czech and Slovak||-||-||63,959|
|^1 First census of the Canadian federation. The figures for 1871 are for the four original provinces only. |
^2 Includes Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish.^3 Canada 1951 Census2006 Canada Census
^4 Canada 2011 Census National Household Survey: Data tables An extra 32% or 10,563,805 people identified as "Canadian" as their ethnic group, many
are of European origins.
Most of the heritage that all twenty-three Canadian Prime Ministers come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Ulster Scot or Welsh) ancestry. Later Canadian Prime Ministers' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.
Example of White Canadian being used
Example of Euro-Canadian being used
Belgian Canadians (French: Canadiens belges) are Canadian citizens of Belgian ancestry or Belgium-born people who reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census there were 176,615 Canadians who claimed full or partial Belgian ancestry.Captives in American Indian Wars
Treatment applied to European captives taken in wars or raids in the present-day United States and Canada varied according to the culture of each tribe. Before the arrival of Europeans, Native American and First Nation peoples all across the US and Canada had developed customs for dealing with captives. Depending on the cultural region, captives could be killed, kept alive and assimilated into the tribe, or enslaved. When Native American and the First Nations peoples came into contact with European settlers, they applied longstanding customary traditions for dealing with Native captives to the European newcomers. American and Canadian histories, particularly in the colonial period, includes many examples of captives, and their associated treatment; the American Indian Wars and migrations of the 19th century also resulted in many captives being taken.
Captivity narratives were often written by European Americans and European Canadians who were ransomed or escaped from captivity.Croatian Canadians
Croatian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Croatian descent. The community exists in major cities including the Greater Toronto Area, Hamilton, Ottawa, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Windsor, and Montreal.
Popular events celebrated in the Croatian-Canadian community include the Canadian-Croatian Folklore Festival (held in eastern and western Canada) and the Croatian-North American Soccer Tournament.Czech Canadians
Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada. It also includes people descended from, the territory of the historic Czech lands, constituting the Kingdom of Bohemia (consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia), or successor states, now known as the Czech Republic the Czechs' nation state. In the 19th century, they were frequently called Bohemians. According to the 2006 Canadian census, there were 98,090 Canadians of full or partial Czech descent.Dutch Canadians
Dutch Canadians are any Canadian citizens of Dutch ancestry. According to the Canada 2006 Census, there are 1,035,965 Canadians of Dutch descent, including those of full or partial ancestry.Hungarian Canadians
Hungarian Canadians (Hungarian: Kanadai magyarok) are persons in Canada of Hungarian ancestry. According to the Canada 2011 Census, there are 316,765 Canadians of Hungarian ancestry. The Hungarian minority is the 23rd largest ethnic group of Canada. The bulk of Hungarian immigration occurred after World War II, with the wave peaking after the 1956 Hungarian revolution against communist rule, when over 100,000 Hungarian refugees went to Canada. The Hungarian-Canadian community is among the country's multiple ethnicities; Canada is one of the top five countries of the Hungarian diaspora.Luxembourgian Canadians
Luxembourgian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Luxembourger descent or Luxembourg-born people who reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census there were 3,790 Canadians who claimed full or partial Luxembourgian ancestry.Luxembourgian immigration to Canada has not been as significant as those from other parts of Europe but there is a considerable community from Luxembourg in Canada. Despite this, the North American country is home to one of the largest Luxembourgian communities in the world and the fourth largest in the Americas, only behind the United States, Brazil and Argentina.Montenegrin Canadians
Montenegrin Canadians (Montenegrin: Kanadski Crnogorci) are Canadian citizens of Montenegrin descent or Montenegro-born people who reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census, 2,970 Canadians claimed full or partial Montenegrin ancestry, compared to 2,370 in 2006.Old Stock Canadians
Old Stock Canadians is a term referring to European Canadians whose family has lived in Canada for several generations. It is used by some to refer exclusively to anglophone Canadians with British immigrant ancestors, but it usually refers to either anglophone or francophone Canadians as parallel old stock groups. Francophone Canadians descended from early French immigrants in New France (prior to the loss of Quebec to the British in 1763) are sometimes referred to as Québécois Pure laine, often translated as "dyed in the wool", but with the same connotation as old stock.Parkwoods
Parkwoods or sometimes referred to as Parkwoods-Donalda, is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is a geographically large neighbourhood located just south of Ontario Highway 401, West of Victoria Park Avenue, North of Lawrence Avenue East and east of the Don Valley Parkway.Port Essington, British Columbia
Port Essington was a cannery town on the south bank of the Skeena River estuary in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, between Prince Rupert and Terrace, and at the confluence of the Skeena and Ecstall Rivers. It was founded in 1871 by Robert Cunningham and Thomas Hankin (father of the interpreter Constance Cox) and was for a time the largest settlement in the region. During its heyday it was home to an ethnic mix of European-Canadians, Japanese-Canadians, and members of First Nations from throughout the region, especially Tsimshians from the Kitselas and Kitsumkalum tribes. In the Tsimshian language, the site of Port Essington is called Spaksuut or, in English spelling, "Spokeshute", which means "autumn camping place". This also became the Tsimshian name for the town of Port Essington, and was conferred on Spokeshute Mountain, which stands above and behind the community. It sits on the traditional territory of the Gitzaxłaał tribe, one of the nine Tsimshian tribes based at Lax Kw'alaams. In 1888, the anthropologist Franz Boas visited Port Essington, interviewing Haida and Tsimshian individuals and establishing a working relationship with Odille Morison, the Tsimshian linguist, who lived in Port Essington.Portuguese Canadians
Portuguese Canadians (Portuguese: luso-canadianos) are Canadian citizens of full or partial Portuguese heritage or people who migrated from Portugal and reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census, there were 429,850 Canadians who claimed full or partial Portuguese ancestry, an increase compared to 410,850 in 2006 (1.3% of the nation's total population). Most Portuguese Canadians live in Ontario - 282,865 (69%), followed by Quebec 57,445 (14%) and British Columbia 34,660 (8%).As with other European Canadians, some Portuguese surnames have been changed to align with more Canadian sounding names, for example Rodrigues to Rogers, Oliveira to Oliver, Martins to Martin, Silva to Silver, Carneiro to Carney, Pereira to Perry, Madeira to Wood and Morais to Morris.Russell, Manitoba
Russell is an unincorporated urban community in the Municipality of Russell – Binscarth within the Canadian province of Manitoba that held town status prior to January 1, 2015 when it and the nearby Village of Binscarth amalgamated with the Rural Municipality of Russell. It is located along PTH 16 and PTH 83, and is at the western terminus of PTH 45. Russell is approximately 15 km (9 mi) from the Saskatchewan border and 340 km (211 mi) northwest of Winnipeg. The community is home to 1,611 people (2011 census).
Russell is the home of Manitoba's Beef and Barley Festival, which is held annually in October to celebrate the region's strong agricultural tradition. Grain farming and cattle ranching are extensive in the surrounding areas.Russian Canadians
Russian Canadians comprise Canadian citizens of Russian heritage or Russians who emigrated to and reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census, there were 550,520 Canadians who claimed full or partial Russian ancestry.Scandinavian Canadians
Scandinavian Canadians are Canadian citizens with ancestral roots in Scandinavia. They generally include:
Swedish CanadiansThe highest concentration of Scandinavian Canadians is in Western Canada, especially British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
There are nearly 1.2 million Canadians of Scandinavian descent, or 4% of the total population of the country.South Asian Canadians
South Asian Canadians are Canadians who were either born in or can trace their ancestry to South Asia, which includes nations such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal and Maldives. The term South Asian Canadian is a subgroup of Asian Canadian and, according to Statistics Canada, can further be divided by nationality, such as Indo-Canadian, Bangladeshi Canadian and Pakistani Canadian. South Asians are the second largest pan-ethnic group in Canada after European-Canadians.
As of 2016, 1,963,330 Canadians had South Asian geographical origins, constituting 5.6% of the Canadian population and 32% of Canada's Asian Canadian population. This makes them the largest visible minority group in Canada comprising 25.6% of the visible minority population, followed by East Asian and Black Canadians respectively. The largest communities from South Asia are found in Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta. Metropolitan areas with large communities from South Asia include Toronto (995,125), Vancouver (291,005), Calgary (122,515), Montréal (90,815) and Edmonton (91,595).67% percent of South Asian-Canadians in Canada live in Metro Vancouver and Greater Toronto as of 2016; together they make up nearly 30% of the combined populations of the cities.Swedish Canadians
Swedish Canadians (Swedish: Svenskkanadensare) are Canadian citizens of Swedish ancestry or Swedes who emigrated to and reside in Canada. The Swedish Canadian community in Canada numbers 330,000. The vast majority of them reside west of Lake Superior, primarily in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver. Toronto is the most popular settlement spot for newcomers. Despite having an influential presence and distinctive cultural bond, only 14,000 Canadian persons of Swedish descent speak Swedish.Ukrainian Americans
Ukrainian Americans (Ukrainian: Українські американці, romanized: Ukrayins'ki amerykantsi) are Americans who are of Ukrainian ancestry. According to U.S. census estimates, in 2006 there were 961,113 Americans of Ukrainian descent representing 0.33% of the American population. The Ukrainian population of the United States is thus the second largest outside the former Eastern Bloc; only Canada has a larger Ukrainian community under this definition. According to the 2000 U.S. census, the metropolitan areas with the largest numbers of Ukrainian Americans are: New York City with 160,000; Philadelphia with 60,000; Chicago with 46,000; Los Angeles with 34,000; Detroit with 33,000; Cleveland with 26,000; and Indianapolis with 19,000.Wakashan languages
Wakashan is a family of languages spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, and in the northwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
As is typical of the Northwest Coast, Wakashan languages have large consonant inventories—the consonants often occurring in complex clusters.