The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; French: Union Européenne de Radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 117 member organisations in 56 countries, and 34 associate members from a further 21 countries. It is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the European Union itself.
|European Broadcasting Union|
Union européenne de radio-télévision
Countries with one or more members are in dark blue. Associated members in light blue.
|Predecessor||International Broadcasting Union|
|Formation||12 February 1950|
|Type||Union of broadcasting organisations|
EBU Members are public service broadcasters whose output is made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. PSM broadcasters are often established by law but are non-partisan, independent and run for the benefit of society as a whole.
EBU Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, and almost every nation from geographical Europe in between. Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Japan, Mexico, India and Hong Kong. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, CPB, NPR, APM and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music radio WFMT.
Membership is for media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area (EBA), as defined by the International Telecommunication Union, or who are members of the Council of Europe.
Members benefit from:
The EBU's highest profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest. The EBU also organises the Eurovision Dance Contest, the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, the Eurovision Young Dancers competition, and other competitions which are modelled along similar lines.
Radio collaborations include Euroclassic Notturno – an overnight classical music stream, produced by BBC Radio 3 and broadcast in the United Kingdom as Through the Night – and special theme days, such as the annual Christmas music relays from around Europe. The EBU is a member of the International Music Council.
Most EBU broadcasters have group deals to carry major sporting events including the FIFA World Cup and the inaugural European Championships. Another annually recurring event which is broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Year's Concert.
Eurovision Media Services is the business arm of the EBU and provides first class media services for many media organisations and sport federations around the world.
The theme music played before EBU broadcasts is Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Prelude to Te Deum. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest and other important events.
The EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union (IBU) that was founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated technical disputes between members that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues. It was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War and when the conflict ended in the eyes of the Allies it was a compromised organisation that they could not trust.
In the spring of 1946, representatives of the Soviet radio committee proposed forming a new organisation; however, at the same time preparations were being made for an inter-governmental “European Broadcasting Conference” (EBC) in Copenhagen in 1948 to draw up a new plan for frequency use in the European Broadcasting Area (EBA). It was considered necessary to have an organisation that could implement the “Copenhagen Wavelength Plan” but there was disagreement among broadcasters and particularly a fear expressed by the BBC that a new association might be dominated by the USSR and its proposal to give each of its constituent states one vote. France proposed that it would have four votes with the inclusion of its North African colonies. Great Britain felt it would have little influence with just one vote.
On 27 June 1946, the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation (IBO) was founded with 26 members and without British participation. The following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt was made to dissolve it but failed; though 18 of its 28 members left to join the IBO. For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither. The BBC attempted but failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels and employed its staff. The BBC then proposed a new solution based on the IBO changing its constitution so there will be only one member per ITU country, thus ensuring a Western majority over the USSR and its satellite states. In August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, the Levant and North Africa.
After Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London. Meetings in Paris on 31 October and 1 November 1949 sealed the fate of the IBU and IBO, but it was decided not to allow West Germany to be a founder of the new organisation. On 13 February 1950 the European Broadcasting Union had its first meeting with 23 members from the ITU defined European Broadcasting Area at the Imperial Hotel in Torquay, England. The first president was Ian Jacob of the BBC who remained at the helm for 10 years while its operation was largely dominated by the BBC due to its financial, technical and staff input. The most important difference between the EBU and its predecessors was that EBU membership was for broadcasters and not governments. Early delegates said EBU meetings were cordial and professional and very different from the abrupt tone of its predecessors. West Germany was admitted in 1951 and a working relationship forged with the USSR’s Organisation for International Radio and TV (OIRT) which existed in parallel with the EBU until its merger in 1993. (Source: Diffusion, Journal of the EBU, ‘50 years of the EBU’, Winter 1999/2000).
The objective of the EBU's technical activities is simply to assist EBU Members (see below) in this period of unprecedented technological changes. This includes provision of technical information to Members via conferences and workshops, as well as in written form (such as the EBU Technical Review, and the EBU tech-i magazine).
The EBU also encourages active collaboration between its Members on the basis that they can freely share their knowledge and experience, thus achieving considerably more than individual Members could achieve by themselves. Much of this collaboration is achieved through Project Groups which study specific technical issues of common interest: for example, EBU Members have long been preparing for the revision of the 1961 Stockholm Plan.
The EBU places great emphasis on the use of open standards. Widespread use of open standards (such as MPEG-2, DAB, DVB, etc.) ensures interoperability between products from different vendors, as well as facilitating the exchange of programme material between EBU Members and promoting "horizontal markets" for the benefit of all consumers.
EBU Members and the EBU Technical Department have long played an important role in the development of many systems used in radio and television broadcasting, such as:
The EBU has also actively encouraged the development and implementation of:
On 11 June 2013, the Greek government shut down the state broadcaster ERT, at short notice, citing government spending concerns related to the Euro crisis. In response, the European Broadcasting Union set up a makeshift studio on the same day, near the former ERT offices in Athens, in order to continue providing EBU Members with the news-gathering and broadcast relay services which had formerly been provided by ERT.
The EBU put out a statement expressing its "profound dismay" at the shutdown, urged the Greek Prime Minister "to use all his powers to immediately reverse this decision" and offered the "advice, assistance and expertise necessary for ERT to be preserved".
Starting on 4 May 2014, the New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television broadcaster began nationwide transmissions, taking over ERT's vacant active membership slot in the EBU. On 11th June 2015, two years after ERT's closure, Nerit SA renamed as ERT SA which reopened with a comprehensive program in all radio stations (with 19 regional, 2 world-Range and 5 Panhellenic range radio stations) and four TV channels ERT1, ERT2, ERT3 and ERT HD.
The Member list as of January 2019, comprises the following 73 broadcasting companies from 56 countries.
|Albania||Radio Televizioni Shqiptar||RTSH||1999|
|Algeria||Public Establishment of Television (Établissement public de télévision)||ENTV||1970|
|National Sound Broadcasting Company (Entreprise nationale de radiodiffusion sonore)||ENRS|
|Andorra||Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra||RTVA||2002|
|Armenia||Public Television of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրային Հեռուստաընկերություն, Hayastani Hanrayin Herrustaynkerut’yun)||ARMTV
|Public Radio of Armenia||ARMR|
|Belarus||National State Television and Radio Company of Belarus (Нацыянальная дзяржаўная тэлерадыёкампанія Рэспублікі Беларусь, Belteleradio)||BTRC||1993|
|Belgium||Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie||VRT||1950|
|Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté Française||RTBF|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Javni Radio Televizijski servis Bosne i Hercegovine||BHRT||1993|
|Bulgaria||Bâlgarsko Nacionalno Radio
Българско национално радио
|Bâlgarska Nacionalna Televiizija
Българска национална телевизия
|Cyprus||Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (Ραδιοφωνικό Ίδρυμα Κύπρου, Radiofonikó Ídryma Kýprou, Kıbrıs Radyo Yayın Kurumu)||CyBC
|Czech Republic||Český Rozhlas||ČR||1993|
|Egypt||Egyptian Radio and Television Union||ERTU||1985|
|France||Groupement des Radiodiffuseurs Français de l'UER:||GRF||1950|
|Georgia||Georgian Public Broadcasting (საქართველოს საზოგადოებრივი მაუწყებელი, sakartvelos sazogadoebrivi mauts'q'ebeli)||GPB
|Germany||Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen
Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (ARD):
|Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen||ZDF||1963|
|Greece||Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi)||ERT||1950–2013|
|Hungary||Hungarian Media Group:||HMG||2014|
|Ireland||Raidió Teilifís Éireann||RTÉ||1950|
|Israel||Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation (תאגיד השידור הישראלי, Ta'agid HaShidur HaYisra'eli)||Kan (כאן, literally "Here")||2017|
|Italy||RAI - Radiotelevisione Italiana||RAI||1950|
|Jordan||Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (مؤسسة الإذاعة والتلفزيون الأردني)||JRTV||1970|
|Lebanon||Télé Liban (تلفزيون لبنان)||TL||1950|
|Libya||Libya National Channel||LNC||2011|
|Lithuania||Lietuvos Radijas ir Televizija||LRT||1993|
|Établissement de Radiodiffusion Socioculturelle du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg||ERSL||1996|
|Malta||Public Broadcasting Services||PBS||1970|
|Moldova||Compania Națională "Teleradio-Moldova"||TRM||1993|
|Monaco||Groupement de Radiodiffusion monégasque:||GRMC||1950|
|Montenegro||Radio i televizija Crne Gore (Радио и телевизија Црне Горе)||RTCG
|Morocco||Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision||SNRT||1950|
|Netherlands||Nederlandse Publieke Omroep:||NPO||1950|
|North Macedonia||Makedonska radio televizija (Македонска Радио Телевизиjа)||MRT
|Portugal||Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal)||RTP||1950|
|Romania||Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune||ROR||1993|
|Russia||Channel One Russia (Первый канал, Perviy kanal)||C1R||1996|
|All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (Vserossiyskaya Gosudarstvennaya Televizionnaya i Radioveshchatelnaya Kompaniya, Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания)||VGTRK
|Radio Dom Ostankino:||RDO||1996|
|San Marino||San Marino RTV||SMRTV||1995|
|Serbia||Radiotelevizija Srbije (Радио-телевизија Србије)||RTS||2006|
|Slovakia||Radio and Television of Slovakia (Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska)||RTVS||2011|
|Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión||SER||1982|
|Radio Popular SA COPE||COPE||1998|
|Sweden||Sveriges Television och Radio Grupp:||STR||1950|
|Switzerland||Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR):||SRG SSR||1950|
|Tunisia||Établissement de la radiodiffusion-télévision tunisienne:
|Turkey||Türkiye Radyo-Televizyon Kurumu||TRT||1950|
|Ukraine||National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine (Національна суспільна телерадіокомпанія України, Natsionalna Suspilna Teleradiokompaniya Ukrayiny)||UA:PBC||1993|
|United Kingdom||British Broadcasting Corporation||BBC||1950|
|United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting:||UKIB||1960|
|Greece||New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television||NERIT||2014||2015|
|Israel||Israel Broadcasting Authority||IBA||1957||2017|
|Monaco Italy||Telemontecarlo (now La7)||TMC||1981||2001|
|Libya||Libyan Jamahiriya Broadcasting Corporation (الجماهيرية اللّيبيّة)||LJBC||1974||2011|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Alliance of Public Radio and Television||UJRT||2001||2006|
|Spain||Antena 3 Radio||A3R||1986||1993|
|Yugoslavia||Yugoslav Radio Television||JRT||1950||1992|
Any group or organisation from an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) member country, which provide a radio or television service outside of the European Broadcasting Area, are permitted to submit applications to the EBU for Associate Membership. Countries which have this status also pay an annual fee to maintain this status. It was also noted by the EBU that any country that is granted Associate Member status does not include any access into the Eurovision events (with the exceptions of Australia, who have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest and the Junior Eurovision Song Contest since 2015, and Kazakhstan, who will participate in Junior Eurovision in 2018).
The list of Associate Members of EBU, comprised the following 34 broadcasting companies from 21 countries as of January 2018.
|Australia||Australian Broadcasting Corporation||ABC||1950|
|Special Broadcasting Service||SBS||1979|
|Bangladesh||National Broadcasting Authority of Bangladesh||NBAB||1974|
|Brazil||Rádio Cultura (Fundação Padre Anchieta)||FPA||2012|
|Canada||Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Societé Radio Canada||CBC||1950|
|China||China Central Television||CCTV||2010|
|Shanghai Media Group||SMG||2016|
|Cuba||Cuban Institute of Radio and Television||ICRT||1992|
|Hong Kong||Radio Television Hong Kong||RTHK||1983|
|India||All India Radio||AIR||1979|
|Iran||Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting||IRIB||1969|
|Japan||Nippon Hoso Kyokai||NHK||1951|
|Tokyo Broadcasting System||TBS||2000|
|South Korea||Korean Broadcasting System||KBS||1974|
|Malaysia||Radio Televisyen Malaysia||RTM||1970|
|Mauritius||Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation||MBC||1980|
|New Zealand||Radio New Zealand||RNZ||1950|
|Television New Zealand||TVNZ||1950|
|Oman||Public Authority for Radio and TV of Oman||PART||1976|
|South Africa||South African Broadcasting Corporation||SABC||1951|
|Syria||Organisme de la Radio-Télévision Arabe Syrienne||ORTAS||1978|
|United States||American Broadcasting Company||ABC||1959|
|American Public Media||APM||2004|
|National Public Radio||NPR||1971|
|National Broadcasting Company||NBC||1953|
|WFMT Radio Network||WFMT||1980|
Any groups or organisations from a country with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) membership, which do not qualify for either the EBU's Active or Associate memberships, but still provide a broadcasting activity for the EBU, are granted a unique Approved Participants membership, which lasts approximately five years. An application for this status may be submitted to the EBU at any given time, providing an annual fee is paid.
The following seven EBU broadcast members had status as Approved Participants in May 2016.
|JP MRD||JP MRD|
|Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network||RTRN|
The EBU in co-operation with the respective host broadcaster, organises competitions and events in which its Members can participate, if they wish to do so. These include:
The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson) is an annual international song competition between EBU Members, that was first held in Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated – each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by the host nation, Switzerland. The most recent winner was Israel and the most recent host city was Lisbon.
Let the Peoples Sing is a biennial choir competition, the participants of which are chosen from radio recordings entered by EBU radio members. The final, encompassing three categories and around ten choirs, is offered as a live broadcast to all EBU members. The overall winner is awarded the Silver Rose Bowl.
Jeux Sans Frontières (English: Games Without Frontiers, or Games Without Borders) was a Europe-wide television game show. In its original conception, it was broadcast from 1965 to 1999 under the auspices of the EBU. The original series run ended in 1982 but was revived in 1988 with a different complexion of nations and was hosted by smaller broadcasters.
Eurovision Young Musicians is a competition for European musicians that are between the ages of 12 and 21 years old. It is organised by the EBU and is a member of EMCY. The first competition was held in Manchester, United Kingdom on 11 May 1982.
The televised competition is held every two years, with some countries holding national heats. Since its foundation in 1982, the Eurovision Young Musicians competition has become one of the most important music competitions on an international level.
It uses a format similar to the Eurovision Song Contest, every country that is a member of the EBU has had the opportunity to send a dance act to compete for the title of "Eurovision Young Dancer". The competition is for solo dancers and all contestants must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years and not professionally engaged.
Euroclassic Notturno is a six-hour sequence of classical music recordings assembled by BBC Radio from material supplied by members of the EBU and streamed back to those broadcasters by satellite for use in their overnight classical-music schedules. The recordings used are taken not from commercial CDs but from earlier (usually live) radio broadcasts.
Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior), is an annual international song competition, that was first held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 15 November 2003. Sixteen countries participated – each submitting one song, for a total of 16 entries. The 2003 Contest was won by Croatia and the current winner is Poland.
The Eurovision Dance Contest (not to be confused with the Eurovision Young Dancers Competition) was an international dancing competition that was held for the first time in London, United Kingdom on 1 September 2007. The competition was repeated in 2008 when it was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom, but has not been held since.
The Eurovision Magic Circus Show was an entertainment show organised by the EBU, which took place in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in Geneva. Children aged between 7-14 representing 8 countries within the EBU membership area, performed a variety of circus acts at the Geneva Christmas Circus (French: Cirque de Noël Genève). The main show was also accompanied by the Magic Circus Show Orchestra.
The inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year featuring non-professional choirs selected by EBU Members, took place on 22 July 2017 in Riga, hosted by the Latvian broadcaster Latvijas Televīzija (LTV). 9 countries took part in the first edition. Carmen Manet from Slovenia were the first winners.
The European Sports Championships is a multi-sport event involving some of the leading sports in Europe. The European Governing Bodies for athletics, aquatics, cycling, rowing, golf, gymnastics and triathlon, will co-ordinate their individual championships as part of the first edition in the summer of 2018, hosted by the cities of Berlin (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Athletics Championships) and Glasgow (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Aquatics Championships, and which will now also host the events of the other sports).
Bulgarian National Radio (Bulgarian: Българско национално радио, Bŭlgarsko natsionalno radio; abbreviated to БНР, BNR) is Bulgaria's national radio broadcasting organization. It operates two national and seven regional channels, as well as an international service – Radio Bulgaria – which broadcasts in 11 languages.Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation
Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (Greek: Ραδιοφωνικό Ίδρυμα Κύπρου Radiofonikó Ídryma Kýprou, Turkish: Kıbrıs Radyo Yayın Kurumu), or CyBC (ΡΙΚ, KRYK), is Cyprus' public broadcasting service. It transmits island-wide on four radio and two domestic television channels, and uses one satellite channel for the Cypriot diaspora.
CyBC is a nonprofit organization, using its entire income for its mission to provide objective information and entertainment to the people of Cyprus.
CyBC was partially funded by a tax on electric bills, a practice which ended on 1 July 2000; CyBC is currently funded by the state budget. The amount of the tax was dependent on the size of the home and, as a hypothecated tax for public television, was similar in principle to the television licence systems in other countries. The corporation is a member of the international broadcasting community, belonging to the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the Broadcasting Organisation of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC) and the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association (CBA).Eesti Rahvusringhääling
Eesti Rahvusringhääling (ERR) – Estonian Public Broadcasting – is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created in Estonia on 1 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio (ER) (Estonian Radio) and Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television), under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act. The first chair of ERR is Margus Allikmaa, the former chair of Eesti Raadio. Present CEO is Erik Roose.
The Act, which was passed by the Estonian Parliament on 18 January 2007, also appointed Eesti Ringhäälingunõukogu (RHN) (the Estonian Broadcasting Council) to act as the regulatory body for ERR's five national radio channels and single television station.
Regular radio broadcasting in Estonia began on 18 December 1926. TV was first broadcast in Estonia on 19 July 1955. ERR receives a state grant to fund the operation of its five national radio channels and two TV channels. ERR participates in a number of projects within the European Broadcasting Union, of which it is a full member, notably in musical exchanges and concert series. In addition, ERR's Radio Drama Department has won international recognition at events organised by the EBU.
On 19 September 2014, the Estonian government approved the creation of a dedicated Russian-language TV channel as part of the ERR network. The channel ETV+ was launched in late September 2015.Eurovision (network)
Eurovision, founded 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, is a television network that is part of the European Broadcasting Union.
Eurovision was set up for the purpose of exchanging TV programmes and, subsequently, TV news footage (via the daily Eurovision news exchange - EVN). The first official Eurovision transmission took place on 6 June 1954. It showed the Narcissus Festival in Montreux, Switzerland. It has a radio counterpart in Euroradio.Eurovision Song Contest
The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio, then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. At least 50 countries are eligible to compete as of 2018, and since 2015, Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant.Winning the Eurovision Song Contest often provides a short-term career boost for artists, but rarely results in long-term success. Exceptions include ABBA (winner in 1974 for Sweden), Bucks Fizz (winner in 1981 for the United Kingdom), and Celine Dion (winner in 1988 for Switzerland), all of whom launched successful careers.
Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes. It is also one of the most watched non-sporting events, with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally. It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website.Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2016, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, Ukraine, with 758 points; under the previous system, the highest-scoring winner was Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009.Eurovision Young Dancers
The Eurovision Young Dancers (French: L'Eurovision des Jeunes Danseurs), often shortened to EYD, or Young Dancers, was a biennial dance competition, organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and is broadcast on television throughout Europe. Thirty-seven countries have taken part since the inauguration of the contest in 1985; including Kosovo (non-EBU member) and Canada (North American continent). Performers between the ages of 16 and 21, from member countries of the European Broadcasting Union, compete as solo of couples to dance routines of their choice. Professional jury members each representing the elements of ballet, contemporary, and modern dancing, score each of the performances. The two participants which receive the most overall points advance forward to a televised 'dance-off' final, where the winner is decided by the jury.
The 2007 Young Dancers contest was cancelled in a mutual decision between the EBU and Swiss broadcaster SRG SSR idée suisse, to allow the Prix de Lausanne, a similar event organised by the host broadcaster, to take place. Spain is the most successful country in the Young Dancers contest, having won five times 1985, 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997 respectively. The Eurovision Young Dancers 2017 event took place in Prague, Czech Republic, on 16 December 2017.Junior Eurovision Song Contest
The Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior), often shortened to JESC, Junior Eurovision or Junior EuroSong, is a song competition which has been organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) annually since 2003 and is open exclusively to broadcasters that are members of the EBU. It is held in a different European city each year, however the same city can host the contest more than once.
The competition has many similarities to the Eurovision Song Contest from which its name is taken. Each participating broadcaster sends an act, the members of which are aged 9 to 14 on the day of the contest, and an original song lasting between 2 minutes 45 seconds and 3 minutes to compete against the other entries. Each entry represents the country served by the participating broadcaster. Viewers from the participating countries are invited to vote for their favourite performances by televote and a national jury from each participating country also vote. The overall winner of the contest is the entry that has received the most points after the scores from every country have been collected and totalled. The current winner is Roksana Węgiel of Poland, who won the 2018 contest in Minsk, Belarus with "Anyone I Want to Be".
In addition to the countries taking part, the contest has been screened in Australia every year. Estonia, Finland and Germany also broadcast the inaugural contest in 2003, followed by Andorra in 2006 and Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2006 to 2011), however these countries have yet to participate. Since 2006, the contest has been streamed live on the Internet through the official website of the contest. Australia was invited to sing at the 2015 contest and has participated every year since.Latvijas Radio
Latvijas Radio (LR) is Latvia's national public-service radio broadcasting network. It began broadcasting on 1 November 1925, and has its headquarters in the Latvian capital, Riga. Latvijas Radio broadcasts six different channels in the FM band as well as via the internet: Latvijas Radio 1, Latvijas Radio 2, Latvijas Radio 3 Klasika, Latvijas Radio 4 Doma laukums, Latvijas Radio 5 Pieci.lv, and Latvijas Radio 6 – Radio NABA.
Latvijas Radio is a national cultural institution, fostering radio drama, and organizing a radio choir as well as children's vocal groups. The organization's phonographic archives contain approximately 200,000 sound recordings. Latvijas Radio became a member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) on 1 January 1993.Since 2013 it has collaborated with Latvijas Televīzija (Latvian Television) as part of the Latvijas Sabiedriskie Mediji (Public Broadcasting of Latvia) news platform and online streaming service.
Latvijas Radio (as Radio Riga) also broadcast programming in Swedish from 1960 to 1995.Latvijas Televīzija
Latvijas Televīzija (English: Latvian Television, LTV) is the state-owned public service television broadcaster in Latvia.
The company is funded by grant-in-aid from the Latvian government (around 60%), with the remainder coming from television commercials. Although moving LTV to licence fee funding has long been debated, this has been consistently opposed by the government. Many media analysts believe that the real reason for this is that the government is reluctant to lose the control of LTV that state-funding gives the government.LTV operates two channels, LTV1 in Latvian and LTV7 (previously called LTV2) in Latvian with selected programming in Russian. LTV1 is the annual broadcaster of Eurovision in Latvia, and LTV7 also broadcasts many sport events like the Olympics, different Latvian sport league and national team games, MHL, Euro and FIFA World Cup.
The company is a member of the European Broadcasting Union, having joined on 1 January 1993. LTV hosted the annual Eurovision Song Contest in 2003, as well as the IIHF Men's Ice Hockey Championships in 2006 and the inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year competition in 2017.NRK
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway. NRK broadcasts three national TV channels and three national radio channels on digital terrestrial television, digital terrestrial radio and subscription television. All NRK radio stations are being streamed online at NRK.no, which also offers an extensive TV service. NRK is a founding member of the European Broadcasting Union.Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (organization)
The Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (often abbreviated to NPO, literally "Dutch Public Broadcaster") or Dutch Foundation for Public Broadcasting is a Dutch public broadcasting organization that administers the public broadcasting service in the Netherlands.Public Broadcasting Services
Public Broadcasting Services Limited (PBS) is the public broadcaster of Malta. PBS is funded by government grants and the sale of commercial airtime. Its TVM channel is Malta's most watched television channel, and its radio station Magic Malta enjoys huge popularity among local and tourist listeners.Radio and Television of Slovakia
Radio and Television of Slovakia (Slovak: Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska) or RTVS is a state-owned nationwide public broadcasting organisation in Slovakia. It is headquartered in Bratislava and led by Jaroslav Rezník.The organization was created in 2011 following a merger of Slovenská televízia (Slovak Television) with Slovenský rozhlas (Slovak Radio). Funding for the combined organisation is obtained through advertising, government payments, and a monthly fee levied on most individuals registered with electricity retailers and most businesses containing three or more employees.Like its two predecessor organizations, RTVS is a full member of the European Broadcasting Union.RÚV
Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV) (pronounced [ˈriːcɪsˌuːtvar̥pɪð] or [ˈruːv]) (English: 'The Icelandic National Broadcasting Service') is Iceland's national public-service broadcasting organization.
Operating from studios in the country's capital, Reykjavík, as well as regional centres around the country, the service broadcasts an assortment of general programming to a wide national audience via three radio channels, Rás 1 and Rás 2, available terrestrially, Rondó (only on the Internet and Digital Radio), and one full-time television channel. There is also a supplementary, part-time TV channel, RÚV 2, which transmits live coverage of major cultural and sporting events, both domestic and foreign, as required.
RÚV began radio broadcasting in 1930 and its first television transmissions were made in 1966. In both cases coverage quickly reached nearly every household in Iceland. RÚV is funded by a broadcast receiving licence fee collected from every income tax payer, as well as from a limited amount of on-air advertising. RÚV has been a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union since 1956.
Since 1986, the year in which its monopoly as the only permitted domestic broadcaster ended, RÚV has faced competition from a number of private broadcasting companies, most notably the 365 corporation.
On 31 March 2011, RÚV introduced a major re-branding of its stations, with new logos and a visual overhaul of its television channel.Slovenská televízia
Slovenská televízia (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈslɔʋɛnskaː ˈtɛlɛʋiːzɪ̯a]; Slovak Television) or STV was a state-owned public television organization in Slovakia. It was created in 1991 as the Slovak part of the former Czechoslovak Television and was headquartered in Bratislava. It was funded from a combination of television licence fees, advertising, and government funding.As a parliamentary response to increasing debt, on 1 January 2011, STV was merged with the state-owned public radio organization Slovenský rozhlas (Slovak Radio) to create Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska (Radio and Television of Slovakia).STV was a regular member of the European Broadcasting Union.TMC (TV channel)
TMC (pronounced [te ɛm se]) is a Franco-Monégasque general entertainment television channel, owned by the French media holding company TF1 Group share the 10.1%.TV4 (Sweden)
TV4 is a Swedish television network owned and operated by the TV4 Group, a subsidiary of the Bonnier Broadcasting Group. It started broadcasting by satellite in 1990 and, since 1992, on the terrestrial network. In 1994, TV4 became the largest channel and remained so for a number of years. The two channels of Sveriges Television (SVT) lost more and more viewers for a couple of years. After making schedule changes in 2001, SVT1 had practically the same numbers of viewers as TV4. Since 2004 the TV4 Group has been a fully active member of the European Broadcasting Union.TV 2 (Denmark)
TV 2 is a government-owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense, Funen.Turkish Radio and Television Corporation
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964. Around 70% of TRT's funding comes from a tax levied on electricity bills and a license tax on television and radio receivers. As these are hypothecated taxes, as opposed to the money coming from general government funds, the principle is similar to that of the television licence levied in a number of other countries, such as the BBC in the United Kingdom. The rest of TRT's funding comes from government grants (around 20%), with the final 10% coming from advertising.Affectionately known to local consumers as the "School", it was for many years the only television and radio provider in Turkey. Before the introduction of commercial radio in 1990, and subsequently commercial television in 1992, it held a monopoly on broadcasting. More recent deregulation of the Turkish television broadcasting market produced analogue cable television. Today, TRT broadcasts around the world, especially in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.
TRT's predecessor, "Türkiye Radyoları" was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950; it would return to the EBU fold as TRT in 1972. The original company started radio test broadcasts in 1926, with a studio built in Istanbul in 1927 and a studio in Ankara following in 1928.
It organized the Eurovision Song Contest 2004.