European Broadcasting Union

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; French: Union Européenne de Radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 117 member organisations in 56 countries,[2] and 34 associate members from a further 21 countries.[3] It is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the European Union itself.[4]

European Broadcasting Union
Union européenne de radio-télévision
European Broadcasting Union logo
EBU Member Elliptic
Countries with one or more members are in dark blue. Associated members in light blue.
PredecessorInternational Broadcasting Union
Formation12 February 1950
TypeUnion of broadcasting organisations
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
  • 117 member organizations
  • (in 56 countries)
Official language
English, French
Tony Hall[1]
WebsiteOfficial Website

General description

Eurovision old logo
The classic opening ident that preceded all Eurovision network transmissions until 1993. The logotypes of both the sending and receiving company were shown in the middle. The pattern around the middle is based on the Flag of Europe. This sample shows the old logo of the BBC.

EBU Members are public service broadcasters whose output is made, financed and controlled by the public, for the public. PSM broadcasters are often established by law but are non-partisan, independent and run for the benefit of society as a whole.

EBU Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, and almost every nation from geographical Europe in between. Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Japan, Mexico, India and Hong Kong. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, CPB, NPR, APM and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music radio WFMT.

Membership is for media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area (EBA), as defined by the International Telecommunication Union, or who are members of the Council of Europe.[5]

Members benefit from:

  • Access to world-class content ranging from exclusive sports rights to exchanges for news, music and children's programmes.
  • A voice in Brussels and on international platforms lobbying for PSM and ensuring the optimal legal and technical framework.
  • Opportunities for sharing, learning and collaborating through conferences, working groups, training and dedicated advice and guidance.
  • A centre for learning and sharing new technology and innovation with a team of experts providing strategic advice and guidance.

The EBU's highest profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest. The EBU also organises the Eurovision Dance Contest, the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, the Eurovision Young Dancers competition, and other competitions which are modelled along similar lines.

Radio collaborations include Euroclassic Notturno – an overnight classical music stream, produced by BBC Radio 3 and broadcast in the United Kingdom as Through the Night – and special theme days, such as the annual Christmas music relays from around Europe.[6] The EBU is a member of the International Music Council.

Most EBU broadcasters have group deals to carry major sporting events including the FIFA World Cup and the inaugural European Championships. Another annually recurring event which is broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Year's Concert.[7]

Eurovision Media Services is the business arm of the EBU and provides first class media services for many media organisations and sport federations around the world.

The theme music played before EBU broadcasts is Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Prelude to Te Deum. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest and other important events.[8]


EBU logo
EBU logo used from 1993 to 2012.

The EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union (IBU) that was founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated technical disputes between members that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues. It was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War and when the conflict ended in the eyes of the Allies it was a compromised organisation that they could not trust.

In the spring of 1946, representatives of the Soviet radio committee proposed forming a new organisation; however, at the same time preparations were being made for an inter-governmental “European Broadcasting Conference” (EBC) in Copenhagen in 1948 to draw up a new plan for frequency use in the European Broadcasting Area (EBA). It was considered necessary to have an organisation that could implement the “Copenhagen Wavelength Plan” but there was disagreement among broadcasters and particularly a fear expressed by the BBC that a new association might be dominated by the USSR and its proposal to give each of its constituent states one vote. France proposed that it would have four votes with the inclusion of its North African colonies. Great Britain felt it would have little influence with just one vote.

On 27 June 1946, the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation (IBO) was founded with 26 members and without British participation. The following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt was made to dissolve it but failed; though 18 of its 28 members left to join the IBO.[9] For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither. The BBC attempted but failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels and employed its staff. The BBC then proposed a new solution based on the IBO changing its constitution so there will be only one member per ITU country, thus ensuring a Western majority over the USSR and its satellite states. In August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, the Levant and North Africa.

After Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London. Meetings in Paris on 31 October and 1 November 1949 sealed the fate of the IBU and IBO, but it was decided not to allow West Germany to be a founder of the new organisation. On 13 February 1950 the European Broadcasting Union had its first meeting with 23 members from the ITU defined European Broadcasting Area at the Imperial Hotel in Torquay, England. The first president was Ian Jacob of the BBC who remained at the helm for 10 years while its operation was largely dominated by the BBC due to its financial, technical and staff input. The most important difference between the EBU and its predecessors was that EBU membership was for broadcasters and not governments. Early delegates said EBU meetings were cordial and professional and very different from the abrupt tone of its predecessors. West Germany was admitted in 1951 and a working relationship forged with the USSR’s Organisation for International Radio and TV (OIRT) which existed in parallel with the EBU until its merger in 1993. (Source: Diffusion, Journal of the EBU, ‘50 years of the EBU’, Winter 1999/2000[9]).

In 1967, the first concert in the International Concert Season of the European Broadcasting Union was broadcast from the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London.[10]

Technical activities

The objective of the EBU's technical activities is simply to assist EBU Members (see below) in this period of unprecedented technological changes. This includes provision of technical information to Members via conferences and workshops, as well as in written form (such as the EBU Technical Review, and the EBU tech-i magazine).

The EBU also encourages active collaboration between its Members on the basis that they can freely share their knowledge and experience, thus achieving considerably more than individual Members could achieve by themselves. Much of this collaboration is achieved through Project Groups which study specific technical issues of common interest: for example, EBU Members have long been preparing for the revision of the 1961 Stockholm Plan.

The EBU places great emphasis on the use of open standards. Widespread use of open standards (such as MPEG-2, DAB, DVB, etc.) ensures interoperability between products from different vendors, as well as facilitating the exchange of programme material between EBU Members and promoting "horizontal markets" for the benefit of all consumers.

EBU Members and the EBU Technical Department have long played an important role in the development of many systems used in radio and television broadcasting, such as:

The EBU has also actively encouraged the development and implementation of:

  • Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) through Eureka Project 147 and the WorldDAB Forum.
  • Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) through the DVB Project and DigiTAG.
  • Digital radio in the bands currently used for AM broadcasting through DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale).
  • Standardisation of PVR systems through the TV-Anytime Forum.
  • Development of other content distribution networks on the internet through P2PTV; EBU Project Group D/P2P, from November 2007 to April 2008, with a trial of selected member channels, thanks to Octoshape's distribution platform.[11] The EBU is also part of the European P2P-Next project.

Greek state broadcaster controversy of 2013

On 11 June 2013, the Greek government shut down the state broadcaster ERT, at short notice, citing government spending concerns related to the Euro crisis.[12] In response, the European Broadcasting Union set up a makeshift studio on the same day, near the former ERT offices in Athens, in order to continue providing EBU Members with the news-gathering and broadcast relay services which had formerly been provided by ERT.[13]

The EBU put out a statement expressing its "profound dismay" at the shutdown, urged the Greek Prime Minister "to use all his powers to immediately reverse this decision" and offered the "advice, assistance and expertise necessary for ERT to be preserved".[14]

Starting on 4 May 2014, the New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television broadcaster began nationwide transmissions, taking over ERT's vacant active membership slot in the EBU.[15] On 11th June 2015, two years after ERT's closure, Nerit SA renamed as ERT SA which reopened with a comprehensive program in all radio stations (with 19 regional, 2 world-Range and 5 Panhellenic range radio stations) and four TV channels ERT1, ERT2, ERT3 and ERT HD.


EBU enlargement animation
Countries with active EBU membership coloured in order of accession from 1950.

The Member list as of January 2019, comprises the following 73 broadcasting companies from 56 countries.[2]

Current members

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
 Albania Radio Televizioni Shqiptar RTSH 1999
 Algeria Public Establishment of Television (Établissement public de télévision) ENTV 1970
National Sound Broadcasting Company (Entreprise nationale de radiodiffusion sonore) ENRS
Télédiffusion d'Algérie DA
 Andorra Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra RTVA 2002
 Armenia Public Television of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրային Հեռուստաընկերություն, Hayastani Hanrayin Herrustaynkerut’yun) ARMTV
Public Radio of Armenia ARMR
 Austria Österreichischer Rundfunk ORF 1953
 Azerbaijan İctimai Television İCTI/İTV 2007
 Belarus National State Television and Radio Company of Belarus (Нацыянальная дзяржаўная тэлерадыёкампанія Рэспублікі Беларусь, Belteleradio) BTRC 1993
 Belgium Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie VRT 1950
Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté Française RTBF
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Javni Radio Televizijski servis Bosne i Hercegovine BHRT 1993
 Bulgaria Bâlgarsko Nacionalno Radio
Българско национално радио
Bâlgarska Nacionalna Televiizija
Българска национална телевизия
 Croatia Hrvatska Radiotelevizija HRT 1993
 Cyprus Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (Ραδιοφωνικό Ίδρυμα Κύπρου, Radiofonikó Ídryma Kýprou, Kıbrıs Radyo Yayın Kurumu) CyBC
 Czech Republic Český Rozhlas ČR 1993
Česká televize ČT
 Denmark Danmarks Radio DR 1950
TV2 Danmark DK/TV2 1989
 Egypt Egyptian Radio and Television Union ERTU 1985
 Estonia Eesti Rahvusringhääling ERR 1993
 Finland Yleisradio Yle 1950
MTV3 FI/MTV 1993
 France Groupement des Radiodiffuseurs Français de l'UER: GRF 1950
Europe 1 E1 1978
 Georgia Georgian Public Broadcasting (საქართველოს საზოგადოებრივი მაუწყებელი, sakartvelos sazogadoebrivi mauts'q'ebeli) GPB
 Germany Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (ARD): ARD 1952
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF 1963
 Greece Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi) ERT 1950–2013
 Hungary Hungarian Media Group: HMG 2014
 Iceland Ríkisútvarpið RÚV 1956
 Ireland Raidió Teilifís Éireann RTÉ 1950
TG4 TG4 2007
 Israel Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation (תאגיד השידור הישראלי, Ta'agid HaShidur HaYisra'eli) Kan (כאן, literally "Here") 2017
 Italy RAI - Radiotelevisione Italiana RAI 1950
 Jordan Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (مؤسسة الإذاعة والتلفزيون الأردني) JRTV 1970
 Latvia Latvijas Televīzija LTV 1993
Latvijas Radio LR 1993
 Lebanon Télé Liban (تلفزيون لبنان) TL 1950
 Libya Libya National Channel LNC 2011
 Lithuania Lietuvos Radijas ir Televizija LRT 1993
 Luxembourg RTL Group RTL 1950
Établissement de Radiodiffusion Socioculturelle du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ERSL 1996
 Malta Public Broadcasting Services PBS 1970
 Moldova Compania Națională "Teleradio-Moldova" TRM 1993
 Monaco Groupement de Radiodiffusion monégasque: GRMC 1950
 Montenegro Radio i televizija Crne Gore (Радио и телевизија Црне Горе) RTCG
 Morocco Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision SNRT 1950
 Netherlands Nederlandse Publieke Omroep: NPO 1950
 North Macedonia Makedonska radio televizija (Македонска Радио Телевизиjа) MRT
 Norway Norsk Rikskringkasting NRK 1950
TV2 NO/TV2 1993
 Poland Telewizja Polska TVP 1993
Polskie Radio PR
 Portugal Radio and Television of Portugal (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) RTP 1950
 Romania Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune ROR 1993
Televiziunea Română RO/TVR
 Russia Channel One Russia (Первый канал, Perviy kanal) C1R 1996
All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (Vserossiyskaya Gosudarstvennaya Televizionnaya i Radioveshchatelnaya Kompaniya, Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания) VGTRK
Radio Dom Ostankino: RDO 1996
 San Marino San Marino RTV SMRTV 1995
 Serbia Radiotelevizija Srbije (Радио-телевизија Србије) RTS 2006
 Slovakia Radio and Television of Slovakia (Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska) RTVS 2011
 Slovenia Radiotelevizija Slovenija RTVSLO 1993
 Spain Radiotelevisión Española RTVE 1955
Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión SER 1982
Radio Popular SA COPE COPE 1998
 Sweden Sveriges Television och Radio Grupp: STR 1950
TV4 SE/TV4 2004
  Switzerland Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR): SRG SSR 1950
 Tunisia Établissement de la radiodiffusion-télévision tunisienne:
  • Radio tunisienne
  • Télévision tunisienne
RTTT 1950
 Turkey Türkiye Radyo-Televizyon Kurumu TRT 1950
 Ukraine National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine (Національна суспільна телерадіокомпанія України, Natsionalna Suspilna Teleradiokompaniya Ukrayiny) UA:PBC 1993
 United Kingdom British Broadcasting Corporation BBC 1950
United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting: UKIB 1960
  Vatican Vatican Radio VR 1950

Past members

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. From To
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Television CST 1991 1992
 Greece New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television NERIT 2014 2015
 Hungary Duna TV Duna 2013
Magyar Rádió MR 1993
Magyar Televízió MTV
 Israel Israel Broadcasting Authority IBA 1957 2017
 Monaco  Italy Telemontecarlo (now La7) TMC 1981 2001
 Libya Libyan Jamahiriya Broadcasting Corporation (الجماهيرية اللّيبيّة) LJBC 1974 2011
 Serbia and Montenegro Alliance of Public Radio and Television UJRT 2001 2006
 Slovakia Slovenský rozhlas SRo 1993 2011
Slovenská televízia STV
 Spain Antena 3 Radio A3R 1986 1993
 Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radio Television JRT 1950 1992

Associate Members

EBU Associate Members
Countries with Associate EBU Membership.

Any group or organisation from an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) member country, which provide a radio or television service outside of the European Broadcasting Area, are permitted to submit applications to the EBU for Associate Membership. Countries which have this status also pay an annual fee to maintain this status. It was also noted by the EBU that any country that is granted Associate Member status does not include any access into the Eurovision events (with the exceptions of Australia, who have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest and the Junior Eurovision Song Contest since 2015, and Kazakhstan, who will participate in Junior Eurovision in 2018).[16]

The list of Associate Members of EBU, comprised the following 34 broadcasting companies from 21 countries as of January 2018.[3]

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
 Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC 1950
FreeTV Australia Free 1962
Special Broadcasting Service SBS 1979
 Bangladesh National Broadcasting Authority of Bangladesh NBAB 1974
 Brazil Rádio Cultura (Fundação Padre Anchieta) FPA 2012
 Canada Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Societé Radio Canada CBC 1950
 Chile Channel 13 UCTV 1971
 China China Central Television CCTV 2010
Shanghai Media Group SMG 2016
 Cuba Cuban Institute of Radio and Television ICRT 1992
 Georgia Teleimedi TEME 2004
Rustavi 2 RB 2003
 Hong Kong Radio Television Hong Kong RTHK 1983
 India All India Radio AIR 1979
 Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting IRIB 1969
 Japan Nippon Hoso Kyokai NHK 1951
Tokyo Broadcasting System TBS 2000
Tokyo FM TFM 1986
 Kazakhstan Khabar Agency KA 2016
Channel 31[17] 2017
South Korea South Korea Korean Broadcasting System KBS 1974
 Malaysia Radio Televisyen Malaysia RTM 1970
 Mauritius Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation MBC 1980
 New Zealand Radio New Zealand RNZ 1950
Television New Zealand TVNZ 1950
 Oman Public Authority for Radio and TV of Oman PART 1976
 South Africa South African Broadcasting Corporation SABC 1951
 Syria Organisme de la Radio-Télévision Arabe Syrienne ORTAS 1978
 United States American Broadcasting Company ABC 1959
American Public Media APM 2004
CBS Corporation CBS 1956
National Public Radio NPR 1971
National Broadcasting Company NBC 1953
WFMT Radio Network WFMT 1980

Approved participant members

Any groups or organisations from a country with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) membership, which do not qualify for either the EBU's Active or Associate memberships, but still provide a broadcasting activity for the EBU, are granted a unique Approved Participants membership, which lasts approximately five years. An application for this status may be submitted to the EBU at any given time, providing an annual fee is paid.[18]

The following seven EBU broadcast members had status as Approved Participants in May 2016.[19]

Broadcasting organisation Abbr.
Catalunya Música CAT
Cellnex Telecom CELLNEX
Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network RTRN
TV5Monde TV5

Organised events

The EBU in co-operation with the respective host broadcaster, organises competitions and events in which its Members can participate, if they wish to do so. These include:

Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson)[20] is an annual international song competition between EBU Members, that was first held in Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated – each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by the host nation, Switzerland.[21] The most recent winner was Israel and the most recent host city was Lisbon.

Let the Peoples Sing

Let the Peoples Sing is a biennial choir competition, the participants of which are chosen from radio recordings entered by EBU radio members. The final, encompassing three categories and around ten choirs, is offered as a live broadcast to all EBU members. The overall winner is awarded the Silver Rose Bowl.

Jeux Sans Frontières

Jeux Sans Frontières (English: Games Without Frontiers, or Games Without Borders) was a Europe-wide television game show. In its original conception, it was broadcast from 1965 to 1999 under the auspices of the EBU. The original series run ended in 1982 but was revived in 1988 with a different complexion of nations and was hosted by smaller broadcasters.

Eurovision Young Musicians

Eurovision Young Musicians is a competition for European musicians that are between the ages of 12 and 21 years old. It is organised by the EBU and is a member of EMCY. The first competition was held in Manchester, United Kingdom on 11 May 1982.

The televised competition is held every two years, with some countries holding national heats. Since its foundation in 1982, the Eurovision Young Musicians competition has become one of the most important music competitions on an international level.

Eurovision Young Dancers

The Eurovision Young Dancers is a biennial dance showcase broadcast on television throughout Europe. The first competition was held in Reggio Emilia, Italy on 16 June 1985.

It uses a format similar to the Eurovision Song Contest, every country that is a member of the EBU has had the opportunity to send a dance act to compete for the title of "Eurovision Young Dancer". The competition is for solo dancers and all contestants must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years and not professionally engaged.

Euroclassic Notturno

Euroclassic Notturno is a six-hour sequence of classical music recordings assembled by BBC Radio from material supplied by members of the EBU and streamed back to those broadcasters by satellite for use in their overnight classical-music schedules. The recordings used are taken not from commercial CDs but from earlier (usually live) radio broadcasts.[22][23]

Junior Eurovision Song Contest

Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior),[24] is an annual international song competition, that was first held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 15 November 2003. Sixteen countries participated – each submitting one song, for a total of 16 entries. The 2003 Contest was won by Croatia and the current winner is Poland.

Eurovision Dance Contest

The Eurovision Dance Contest (not to be confused with the Eurovision Young Dancers Competition) was an international dancing competition that was held for the first time in London, United Kingdom on 1 September 2007. The competition was repeated in 2008 when it was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom, but has not been held since.

Eurovision Magic Circus Show

The Eurovision Magic Circus Show was an entertainment show organised by the EBU, which took place in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in Geneva. Children aged between 7-14 representing 8 countries within the EBU membership area, performed a variety of circus acts at the Geneva Christmas Circus (French: Cirque de Noël Genève). The main show was also accompanied by the Magic Circus Show Orchestra.[25]

Eurovision Choir of the Year

The inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year featuring non-professional choirs selected by EBU Members, took place on 22 July 2017 in Riga, hosted by the Latvian broadcaster Latvijas Televīzija (LTV). 9 countries took part in the first edition. Carmen Manet from Slovenia were the first winners.

European Sports Championships

The European Sports Championships is a multi-sport event involving some of the leading sports in Europe. The European Governing Bodies for athletics, aquatics, cycling, rowing, golf, gymnastics and triathlon, will co-ordinate their individual championships as part of the first edition[26] in the summer of 2018, hosted by the cities of Berlin (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Athletics Championships) and Glasgow (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Aquatics Championships, and which will now also host the events of the other sports).[27][28]

See also


  1. ^ "EBU - Tony Hall and Delphine Ernotte Cunci elected President and Vice-President of EBU as of 2019". Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b "EBU Active Members". EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b "EBU Associate Members". EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  4. ^ "Eurovision Debate". EBU. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  5. ^ "42 countries to take part in 2018 Eurovision Song Contest". EBU. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  6. ^ "Joy to the World: a guide to the European Broadcasting Union's Christmas broadcast". CBC Music.
  7. ^ (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "EBU - Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra New Year's Concert". Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  8. ^ Clements, Paul. "Eurovision 2014: how much do you know about the Eurovision Song Contest?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  9. ^ a b (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "50 years of Eurovision (1954-2004)" (PDF).
  10. ^ "Euroradio: 50 years" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  11. ^ "P2P Media Portal Trial". EBU. 10 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
  12. ^ "Greek public broadcaster ERT to be shut down, reopened with fewer employees". 11 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  13. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (12 June 2013). "ERT (Greek state broadcaster), Media, Television industry (Media), Radio industry (Media), Greece (News), Europe (News), World news, Digital media, Internet, Social media". The Guardian. London.
  14. ^ EBU urges Greek government to reverse decision on ERT. (2013-06-11). Retrieved on 2014-04-28.
  15. ^ "Greece profile - Media". BBC. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  16. ^ "Admission". Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  17. ^ "Kazakhstan will broadcast JESC 2017 with hopes of debuting in 2018". 19 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  18. ^ "Approved Participants". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  19. ^ "EBU Directory" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  20. ^ "Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  21. ^ "Historical Milestones". European Broadcasting Union. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
  22. ^ "Euroradio Notturno". EBU. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  23. ^ "Through the Night". BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  24. ^ "Official information page" (in French). European Broadcasting Union. 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  25. ^ Burkhardt, Nadja (16 November 2012). "Eurovision Magic Circus Show". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  26. ^ ESC Press Release
  27. ^ "European Athletics - Leading sports bring together their European championships in 2018". Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  28. ^ "Rowing joins the innovative European Sports Championships -". Retrieved 24 October 2016.

External links

Bulgarian National Radio

Bulgarian National Radio (Bulgarian: Българско национално радио, Bŭlgarsko natsionalno radio; abbreviated to БНР, BNR) is Bulgaria's national radio broadcasting organization. It operates two national and seven regional channels, as well as an international service – Radio Bulgaria – which broadcasts in 11 languages.

Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation

Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (Greek: Ραδιοφωνικό Ίδρυμα Κύπρου Radiofonikó Ídryma Kýprou, Turkish: Kıbrıs Radyo Yayın Kurumu), or CyBC (ΡΙΚ, KRYK), is Cyprus' public broadcasting service. It transmits island-wide on four radio and two domestic television channels, and uses one satellite channel for the Cypriot diaspora.

CyBC is a nonprofit organization, using its entire income for its mission to provide objective information and entertainment to the people of Cyprus.

CyBC was partially funded by a tax on electric bills, a practice which ended on 1 July 2000; CyBC is currently funded by the state budget. The amount of the tax was dependent on the size of the home and, as a hypothecated tax for public television, was similar in principle to the television licence systems in other countries. The corporation is a member of the international broadcasting community, belonging to the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the Broadcasting Organisation of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC) and the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association (CBA).

Eesti Rahvusringhääling

Eesti Rahvusringhääling (ERR) – Estonian Public Broadcasting – is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created in Estonia on 1 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio (ER) (Estonian Radio) and Eesti Televisioon (ETV) (Estonian Television), under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act. The first chair of ERR is Margus Allikmaa, the former chair of Eesti Raadio. Present CEO is Erik Roose.

The Act, which was passed by the Estonian Parliament on 18 January 2007, also appointed Eesti Ringhäälingunõukogu (RHN) (the Estonian Broadcasting Council) to act as the regulatory body for ERR's five national radio channels and single television station.

Regular radio broadcasting in Estonia began on 18 December 1926. TV was first broadcast in Estonia on 19 July 1955. ERR receives a state grant to fund the operation of its five national radio channels and two TV channels. ERR participates in a number of projects within the European Broadcasting Union, of which it is a full member, notably in musical exchanges and concert series. In addition, ERR's Radio Drama Department has won international recognition at events organised by the EBU.

On 19 September 2014, the Estonian government approved the creation of a dedicated Russian-language TV channel as part of the ERR network. The channel ETV+ was launched in late September 2015.

Eurovision (network)

Eurovision, founded 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, is a television network that is part of the European Broadcasting Union.

Eurovision was set up for the purpose of exchanging TV programmes and, subsequently, TV news footage (via the daily Eurovision news exchange - EVN). The first official Eurovision transmission took place on 6 June 1954. It showed the Narcissus Festival in Montreux, Switzerland. It has a radio counterpart in Euroradio.

Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union. Each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio, then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the winner. At least 50 countries are eligible to compete as of 2018, and since 2015, Australia has been allowed as a guest entrant.Winning the Eurovision Song Contest often provides a short-term career boost for artists, but rarely results in long-term success. Exceptions include ABBA (winner in 1974 for Sweden), Bucks Fizz (winner in 1981 for the United Kingdom), and Celine Dion (winner in 1988 for Switzerland), all of whom launched successful careers.

Based on the Sanremo Music Festival held in Italy since 1951, Eurovision has been broadcast every year since its inauguration in 1956, making it the longest-running annual international television contest and one of the world's longest-running television programmes. It is also one of the most watched non-sporting events, with audience figures of between 100 million and 600 million internationally. It has been broadcast in several countries that do not compete, such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and China. Since 2000, it has been broadcast online via the Eurovision website.Ireland holds the record for most victories, with seven wins, including four times in five years in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. Under the current voting system, in place since 2016, the highest-scoring winner is Salvador Sobral of Portugal who won the 2017 contest in Kiev, Ukraine, with 758 points; under the previous system, the highest-scoring winner was Alexander Rybak of Norway with 387 points in 2009.

Eurovision Young Dancers

The Eurovision Young Dancers (French: L'Eurovision des Jeunes Danseurs), often shortened to EYD, or Young Dancers, was a biennial dance competition, organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and is broadcast on television throughout Europe. Thirty-seven countries have taken part since the inauguration of the contest in 1985; including Kosovo (non-EBU member) and Canada (North American continent). Performers between the ages of 16 and 21, from member countries of the European Broadcasting Union, compete as solo of couples to dance routines of their choice. Professional jury members each representing the elements of ballet, contemporary, and modern dancing, score each of the performances. The two participants which receive the most overall points advance forward to a televised 'dance-off' final, where the winner is decided by the jury.

The 2007 Young Dancers contest was cancelled in a mutual decision between the EBU and Swiss broadcaster SRG SSR idée suisse, to allow the Prix de Lausanne, a similar event organised by the host broadcaster, to take place. Spain is the most successful country in the Young Dancers contest, having won five times 1985, 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997 respectively. The Eurovision Young Dancers 2017 event took place in Prague, Czech Republic, on 16 December 2017.

Junior Eurovision Song Contest

The Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior), often shortened to JESC, Junior Eurovision or Junior EuroSong, is a song competition which has been organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) annually since 2003 and is open exclusively to broadcasters that are members of the EBU. It is held in a different European city each year, however the same city can host the contest more than once.

The competition has many similarities to the Eurovision Song Contest from which its name is taken. Each participating broadcaster sends an act, the members of which are aged 9 to 14 on the day of the contest, and an original song lasting between 2 minutes 45 seconds and 3 minutes to compete against the other entries. Each entry represents the country served by the participating broadcaster. Viewers from the participating countries are invited to vote for their favourite performances by televote and a national jury from each participating country also vote. The overall winner of the contest is the entry that has received the most points after the scores from every country have been collected and totalled. The current winner is Roksana Węgiel of Poland, who won the 2018 contest in Minsk, Belarus with "Anyone I Want to Be".

In addition to the countries taking part, the contest has been screened in Australia every year. Estonia, Finland and Germany also broadcast the inaugural contest in 2003, followed by Andorra in 2006 and Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2006 to 2011), however these countries have yet to participate. Since 2006, the contest has been streamed live on the Internet through the official website of the contest. Australia was invited to sing at the 2015 contest and has participated every year since.

Latvijas Radio

Latvijas Radio (LR) is Latvia's national public-service radio broadcasting network. It began broadcasting on 1 November 1925, and has its headquarters in the Latvian capital, Riga. Latvijas Radio broadcasts six different channels in the FM band as well as via the internet: Latvijas Radio 1, Latvijas Radio 2, Latvijas Radio 3 Klasika, Latvijas Radio 4 Doma laukums, Latvijas Radio 5, and Latvijas Radio 6 – Radio NABA.

Latvijas Radio is a national cultural institution, fostering radio drama, and organizing a radio choir as well as children's vocal groups. The organization's phonographic archives contain approximately 200,000 sound recordings. Latvijas Radio became a member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) on 1 January 1993.Since 2013 it has collaborated with Latvijas Televīzija (Latvian Television) as part of the Latvijas Sabiedriskie Mediji (Public Broadcasting of Latvia) news platform and online streaming service.

Latvijas Radio (as Radio Riga) also broadcast programming in Swedish from 1960 to 1995.

Latvijas Televīzija

Latvijas Televīzija (English: Latvian Television, LTV) is the state-owned public service television broadcaster in Latvia.

The company is funded by grant-in-aid from the Latvian government (around 60%), with the remainder coming from television commercials. Although moving LTV to licence fee funding has long been debated, this has been consistently opposed by the government. Many media analysts believe that the real reason for this is that the government is reluctant to lose the control of LTV that state-funding gives the government.LTV operates two channels, LTV1 in Latvian and LTV7 (previously called LTV2) in Latvian with selected programming in Russian. LTV1 is the annual broadcaster of Eurovision in Latvia, and LTV7 also broadcasts many sport events like the Olympics, different Latvian sport league and national team games, MHL, Euro and FIFA World Cup.

The company is a member of the European Broadcasting Union, having joined on 1 January 1993. LTV hosted the annual Eurovision Song Contest in 2003, as well as the IIHF Men's Ice Hockey Championships in 2006 and the inaugural Eurovision Choir of the Year competition in 2017.


NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS, generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway. NRK broadcasts three national TV channels and three national radio channels on digital terrestrial television, digital terrestrial radio and subscription television. All NRK radio stations are being streamed online at, which also offers an extensive TV service. NRK is a founding member of the European Broadcasting Union.

Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (organization)

The Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (often abbreviated to NPO, literally "Dutch Public Broadcaster") or Dutch Foundation for Public Broadcasting is a Dutch public broadcasting organization that administers the public broadcasting service in the Netherlands.

Public Broadcasting Services

Public Broadcasting Services Limited (PBS) is the public broadcaster of Malta. PBS is funded by government grants and the sale of commercial airtime. Its TVM channel is Malta's most watched television channel, and its radio station Magic Malta enjoys huge popularity among local and tourist listeners.

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia (Slovak: Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska) or RTVS is a state-owned nationwide public broadcasting organisation in Slovakia. It is headquartered in Bratislava and led by Jaroslav Rezník.The organization was created in 2011 following a merger of Slovenská televízia (Slovak Television) with Slovenský rozhlas (Slovak Radio). Funding for the combined organisation is obtained through advertising, government payments, and a monthly fee levied on most individuals registered with electricity retailers and most businesses containing three or more employees.Like its two predecessor organizations, RTVS is a full member of the European Broadcasting Union.


Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV) (pronounced [ˈriːcɪsˌuːtvar̥pɪð] or [ˈruːv]) (English: 'The Icelandic National Broadcasting Service') is Iceland's national public-service broadcasting organization.

Operating from studios in the country's capital, Reykjavík, as well as regional centres around the country, the service broadcasts an assortment of general programming to a wide national audience via three radio channels, Rás 1 and Rás 2, available terrestrially, Rondó (only on the Internet and Digital Radio), and one full-time television channel. There is also a supplementary, part-time TV channel, RÚV 2, which transmits live coverage of major cultural and sporting events, both domestic and foreign, as required.

RÚV began radio broadcasting in 1930 and its first television transmissions were made in 1966. In both cases coverage quickly reached nearly every household in Iceland. RÚV is funded by a broadcast receiving licence fee collected from every income tax payer, as well as from a limited amount of on-air advertising. RÚV has been a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union since 1956.

Since 1986, the year in which its monopoly as the only permitted domestic broadcaster ended, RÚV has faced competition from a number of private broadcasting companies, most notably the 365 corporation.

On 31 March 2011, RÚV introduced a major re-branding of its stations, with new logos and a visual overhaul of its television channel.

Slovenská televízia

Slovenská televízia (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈslɔʋɛnskaː ˈtɛlɛʋiːzɪ̯a]; Slovak Television) or STV was a state-owned public television organization in Slovakia. It was created in 1991 as the Slovak part of the former Czechoslovak Television and was headquartered in Bratislava. It was funded from a combination of television licence fees, advertising, and government funding.As a parliamentary response to increasing debt, on 1 January 2011, STV was merged with the state-owned public radio organization Slovenský rozhlas (Slovak Radio) to create Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska (Radio and Television of Slovakia).STV was a regular member of the European Broadcasting Union.

TMC (TV channel)

TMC (pronounced [te ɛm se]) is a Franco-Monégasque general entertainment television channel, owned by the French media holding company TF1 Group share the 10.1%.

TV4 (Sweden)

TV4 is a Swedish television network owned and operated by the TV4 Group, a subsidiary of the Bonnier Broadcasting Group. It started broadcasting by satellite in 1990 and, since 1992, on the terrestrial network. In 1994, TV4 became the largest channel and remained so for a number of years. The two channels of Sveriges Television (SVT) lost more and more viewers for a couple of years. After making schedule changes in 2001, SVT1 had practically the same numbers of viewers as TV4. Since 2004 the TV4 Group has been a fully active member of the European Broadcasting Union.

TV 2 (Denmark)

TV 2 is a government-owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense, Funen.

Turkish Radio and Television Corporation

The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964. Around 70% of TRT's funding comes from a tax levied on electricity bills and a license tax on television and radio receivers. As these are hypothecated taxes, as opposed to the money coming from general government funds, the principle is similar to that of the television licence levied in a number of other countries, such as the BBC in the United Kingdom. The rest of TRT's funding comes from government grants (around 20%), with the final 10% coming from advertising.Affectionately known to local consumers as the "School", it was for many years the only television and radio provider in Turkey. Before the introduction of commercial radio in 1990, and subsequently commercial television in 1992, it held a monopoly on broadcasting. More recent deregulation of the Turkish television broadcasting market produced analogue cable television. Today, TRT broadcasts around the world, especially in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.

TRT's predecessor, "Türkiye Radyoları" was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950; it would return to the EBU fold as TRT in 1972. The original company started radio test broadcasts in 1926, with a studio built in Istanbul in 1927 and a studio in Ankara following in 1928.

It organized the Eurovision Song Contest 2004.

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