European Americans

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.[1][2] This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group (or, variously considered an ethnic group in its own right) in the United States, both historically and at present.

The Spaniards are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles (b. 1566) in St. Augustine, then a part of Spanish Florida.[3][4] Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587, was the first English child to be born in the Americas. She was born in Roanoke Colony, located in present-day North Carolina, which was the first attempt, made by Queen Elizabeth I, to establish a permanent English settlement in North America.

In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans (13.9%), Irish Americans (10.0%), English Americans (7.4%), Italian Americans (5.2%), and Polish Americans (3%) were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming over a third of the total population.[5] However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves simply as Americans (20,151,829 or 7.2%).[6][7][8][9] In the 2000 census over 56 million or 19.9% of the United States population ignored the ancestry question completely and classified as "unspecified" and "not reported".[10]

European Americans
Total population
223,553,265
(72.4% of US population as of the 2010 Census)
Regions with significant populations
Contiguous United States and Alaska
smaller populations in Hawaii and the territories
Languages
Predominantly English
German • Polish °Russian • Spanish • Italian • French • Portuguese • others
Religion
Predominantly Christianity (of which majority Protestant with Roman Catholicism the largest single denomination); Minority religions: Judaism, Islam
Related ethnic groups
Non-Hispanic Whites
European diaspora • Europeans
European Ancestry in the US by county
European ancestry in the US by county (self-reported)

Terminology

Number of European Americans: 1800–2010
Year Population % of the United States Ref(s)
1800 4,306,446 81.1% [11]
1850 19,553,068 84.3% [11]
1900 66,809,196 87.9% [11]
1950 134,942,028 89.5% [11]
2010 223,553,265 72.4% [12]

Use

In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 (Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting), a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the White group, European American came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees.[13]

The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, and Anglo American in many places around the United States.[14] However, the terms Caucasian and White are purely racial terms, not geographic, and include some populations whose origin is outside of Europe; and Anglo-American also has another definition, meaning, European Americans with English ancestry.

Origin

The term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans and Asian Americans. A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U.S. Census knew their European ancestry.[15] Historically, the concept of an American originated in the United States as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding non-European groups.[16]

As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else.[17] Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures.[18]

History

Historical immigration / est. origins
Country Immigration
before 1790
Population
ancestry: 1790[19]
England* 230,000 1,900,000
Ulster Scotch-Irish* 135,000 320,000
Germany[a] 103,000 280,000
Scotland* 48,500 160,000
Ireland 8,000 200,000
Netherlands 6,000 100,000
Wales* 4,000 120,000
France 3,000 80,000
Sweden and Other[b] 500 20,000
*Totals, British 417,500 2,500,000+
United States United States[c] 950,000 3,929,214
Source:[20](excludes African population.)

Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. Approximately 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people.[21]

Colonial settlers

Between 1607 and 1776 most European settlements were British. Colonial stock of English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish, Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is especially dominant in New England and the South. Some people of colonial stock, especially in the Mid-Atlantic states, are also of Swedish, Dutch, German and Flemish descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants. The Pennsylvania Dutch (German American) population gave the state of Pennsylvania a high German cultural character. French descent, which can also be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida. These are primarily Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively.

1820–1890

The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and Britain, and with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans usually used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland lost its independence in the period between 1772 and 1795. Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West, although German descent is extremely common in Pennsylvania, and Irish descent is also common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well as other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Northeast and the Midwest (see also White ethnic).

Second wave 1890–1920

The second wave of European Americans arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s, mainly from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland.[15] This wave included Irish, Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Portuguese, Romanians, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Mexico, Spanish Caribbean, and South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, and Texas, California, New York, and Florida are important centers for them.

Shifts in European migration

Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants, almost 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. The years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the sources of U.S. "New immigration". Between 1894 and 1914, immigrants from southern, central, and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total.[22][23][24] Prior to 1960, the overwhelming majority came from Europe or of European descent from Canada. The shift in European immigration has been in decline since the mid-20th century, with 75.0% of the total foreign-born population born in Europe compared to 12.1% recorded in the 2010 census.[25]

Immigration since 1820

European immigration to the U.S. 1820-1970
Years Arrivals Years Arrivals Years Arrivals
1820–1830 98,816 1901–1910 8,136,016 1981–1990
1831–1840 495,688 1911–1920 4,376,564 1991–2000
1841–1850 1,597,502 1921–1930 2,477,853
1851–1860 2,452,657 1931–1940 348,289
1861–1870 2,064,407 1941–1950 621,704
1871–1880 2,261,904 1951–1960 1,328,293
1881–1890 4,731,607 1961–1970 1,129,670
1891–1900 3,558,793 1971–1980
Arrivals Total (150 yrs) 35,679,763
Source:[26][27][28][29][30]
Country of origin 1820-1978
Country Arrivals % of total Country Arrivals % of total
Germany1 6,978,000 14.3% Norway 856,000 1.8%
Italy 5,294,000 10.9% France 751,000 1.5%
Great Britain 4,898,000 10.01% Greece 655,000 1.3%
Ireland 4,723,000 9.7% Portugal 446,000 0.9%
Austria-Hungary1, 2 4,315,000 8.9% Denmark 364,000 0.7%
Russia1, 2 3,374,000 6.9% Netherlands 359,000 0.7%
Sweden 1,272,000 2.6% Finland 33,000 0.1%
Total (158 yrs) 34,318,000
Source:[31][32][33]Note: Many returned to their country of origin
European-born population

The figures below show that of the total population of specified birthplace in the United States. A total of 11.1% were born-overseas of the total population.

Population / Proportion
born in Europe in 1850−2016
Year Population % of foreign-born
1850 2,031,867 92.2%
1860 3,807,062 92.1%
1870 4,941,049 88.8%
1880 5,751,823 86.2%
1890 8,030,347 86.9%
1900 8,881,548 86.0%
1910 11,810,115 87.4%
1920 11,916,048 85.7%
1930 11,784,010 83.0%
1960 7,256,311 75.0%
1970 5,740,891 61.7%
1980 5,149,572 39.0%
1990 4,350,403 22.9%
2000 4,915,557 15.8%
2010 4,817,437 12.1%
2016 4,785,267 10.9%
Source:[34][35][36][37]
Birthplace Population
in 2010
Percent
in 2010
Population
in 2016
Percent
in 2016
Totals, European-born 4,817,437 12.0% 4,785,267 10.9%
Northern Europe 923,564 2.3% 950,872 2.2%
United Kingdom 669,794 1.7% 696,896 1.6%
Ireland 124,457 0.3% 125,840 0.3%
Other Northern Europe 129,313 0.3% 128,136 0.3%
Western Europe 961,791 2.4% 939,383 2.1%
Germany 604,616 1.5% 563,985 1.3%
France 147,959 0.4% 175,250 0.4%
Other Western Europe 209,216 0.5% 200,148 0.4%
Southern Europe 779,294 2.0% 760,352 1.7%
Italy 364,972 0.9% 335,763 0.8%
Portugal 189,333 0.5% 176,638 0.4%
Other Southern Europe 224,989 0.6% 247,951 0.5%
Eastern Europe 2,143,055 5.4% 2,122,951 4.9%
Poland 475,503 1.2% 424,928 1.0%
Russia 383,166 1.0% 397,236 0.9%
Other Eastern Europe 1,284,286 3.2% 1,300,787 3.0%
Other Europe (no country specified) 9,733 0.0% 11,709 0.0%
Source: 2010 and 2016[38]

Demographics

Top of Rock Cropped
The New York City Metropolitan Area is home to the largest European population in the United States.[39]

The numbers below give numbers of European Americans as measured by the U.S. Census in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses. This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact, this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects the increased popularity of the "American" option following its inclusion as an example in the 2000 census forms.

Breakdowns of the European American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise. Farley (1991) argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents from their forebears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistent".[40]

In particular, a large majority of European Americans have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single "ancestry" gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the more distinctive parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity." He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey (1973) where for the main "old" ancestry groups (e.g., German, Irish, English, and French), over 40% change their reported ancestry over the six-month period between survey waves (page 422).

An example is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English ancestry and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6 million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million.[41]

The largest self-reported ancestries in 2000, reporting over 5 million members, were in order: German, Irish, English, American, Italian, French, and Polish. They have different distributions within the United States; in general, the northern half of the United States from Pennsylvania westward is dominated by German ancestry, and the southern-half by English and American. Irish may be found throughout the entire country.

Italian ancestry is most common in the Northeast, Polish in the Great Lakes Region and the Northeast, and French in New England and Louisiana. U.S. Census Bureau statisticians estimate that approximately 62 percent of European Americans today are either wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish, or Scottish ancestry. Approximately 86% of European Americans today are of northwestern and central European ancestry, and 14% are of southeastern European and White Hispanic and Latino American descent.

Ancestral origins

Notes
  • Jewish Americans, particularly those of Ashkenazi and Sephardi descent, are a diaspora population with origins in South Western Asia, but are often classified as White rather than Asian. In addition, all of the original peoples of the Middle East are classified as White by the US Census Bureau.[48][49]
  • Romani Americans are a diaspora group with origins in the Indian Subcontinent, but are sometimes classified as European.

Culture

Motherhood and apple pie
American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. All have European influence primarily from the British.

Overall the culture of the United States deeply reflects the European-influenced culture that predates the United States of America as an independent state. Much of American culture shows influences from European nations, particularly the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[2] Scholar David Hackett Fischer asserts in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America that the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of the United Kingdom to the United States persisted and provide a substantial cultural basis for much of the modern United States.[50] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."[51]

Much of the European-American cultural lineage can be traced back to Western and Northern Europe, which is institutionalized in the government, traditions, and civic education in the United States.[52] Since most later European Americans have assimilated into American culture, most European Americans now generally express their individual ethnic ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been revived since the 1960s.[15] Some European Americans such as Italians, Greeks, Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, Irish, and others have maintained high levels of ethnic identity. Same applied to Polish Americans. In the 1960s, Mexican Americans, Jewish Americans, and African Americans started exploring their cultural traditions as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold.[15] European Americans followed suit by exploring their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural heritage.[15]

Law

The American legal system also has its roots in French philosophy with the separation of powers and the federal system[53] along with English law in common law.[54] For example, elements of the Magna Carta in it contain provisions on criminal law that were incorporated into the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. It as well as other documents had elements influencing and incorporated into the United States Constitution.[55]

Cuisine

Sports

  • Baseball – The sport originated in London, England.[60] English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[61][62] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America by English immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball.
  • American football – can be traced to modified early versions of rugby football played in England and Canadian football mixed with and ultimately changed by American innovations which led over time to the finished version of the game from 1876 to now. The basic set of rules were first developed in American universities in the mid-19th century.[63]

Music

Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

Automotive industry

Ford Henry
Henry Ford in 1934.

Notable people

Presidents heritage

Most of the heritage that all 44 US Presidents come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish or Welsh) ancestry. Others include John F. Kennedy of Irish descent, Martin Van Buren of Dutch descent and three presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower (whose original family name was Eisenhauer), Herbert Hoover (Huber), and Donald Trump. Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.[69]

1st George Washington 1789–1797 (English through great-grandfather John Washington, French through great-great-great-grandfather Nicolas Martiau)
2nd John Adams 1797–1801 (English)
3rd Thomas Jefferson 1801–1809 (Welsh, Scotch-English)
4th James Madison 1809–1817 (English)
5th James Monroe 1817–1825 (Scottish)
6th John Quincy Adams 1825–1829 (English)
7th Andrew Jackson 1829–1837 (Scotch-Irish)
8th Martin Van Buren 1837–1841 (Dutch)
9th William Henry Harrison 1841 (English)
10th John Tyler 1841–1845 (English)
11th James Knox Polk 1845–1849 (Scotch-Irish)
12th Zachary Taylor 1849–1850 (English)
13th Millard Fillmore 1850–1853 (Scottish, English)
14th Franklin Pierce 1853–1857 (English)
15th James Buchanan 1857–1861 (Scotch-Irish)
16th Abraham Lincoln 1861–1865 (Welsh, English through ancestor Samuel Lincoln)
17th Andrew Johnson 1865–1869 (Scotch-Irish, English)
18th Ulysses Simpson Grant 1869–1877 (Scotch-Irish, English, Scottish, Walloon)
19th Rutherford Birchard Hayes 1877–1881 (English, Scottish)
20th James Abram Garfield 1881 (Welsh, English, French)
21st Chester Alan Arthur 1881–1885 (Scotch-Irish, English)
22nd Grover Cleveland 1885–1889 (English, Anglo-Irish, German)
23rd Benjamin Harrison 1889–1893 (Scotch-Irish, English)
24th Grover Cleveland 1893–1897 (English, Anglo-Irish, German)
25th William McKinley 1897–1901 (Scotch-Irish, English)
26th Theodore Roosevelt 1901–1909 (Dutch, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, English, Walloon)
27th William Howard Taft 1909–1913 (Scotch-Irish, English)
28th Woodrow Wilson 1913–1921 (Scotch-Irish, Scottish)
29th Warren Gamaliel Harding 1921–1923 (Scotch-Irish, English)
30th Calvin Coolidge 1923–1929 (English)
31st Herbert Clark Hoover 1929–1933 (German, Swiss, English)
32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933–1945 (Dutch, Walloon, English)
33rd Harry S. Truman 1945–1953 (English, German, Scotch-Irish)
34th Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953–1961 (German, Swiss)
35th John F. Kennedy 1961–1963 (Irish)
36th Lyndon B. Johnson 1963–1969 (English)
37th Richard Nixon 1969–1974 (English, Scotch-Irish, Irish, German)
38th Gerald Ford 1974–1977 (English)
39th Jimmy Carter 1977–1981 (English, Scotch-Irish)
40th Ronald Reagan 1981–1989 (Irish, Scottish, English)
41st George H. W. Bush 1989–1993 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish)
42nd Bill Clinton 1993–2001 (Scotch-Irish, English)
43rd George W. Bush 2001–2009 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh)
44th Barack Obama 2009–2017 (English, Irish, German through his mother Ann Dunham)
45th Donald Trump 2017–present (German, Scottish)

Royalty

Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans).[70] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans[71]

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture.[72] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture.[73] Later, Shriver retracted his statement, saying that actually around 5% of White Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry.[74]

From the 23andMe database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry.[75] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry.[76] White Americans (European Americans) on average are: "98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American." Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas.[75][76]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Germany in this time period consisted of a large number of separate countries, the largest of which was Prussia.
  2. ^ The Other category probably contains mostly English ancestry settlers; but the loss of several states' census records in makes closer estimates difficult. The summaries of the 1790 and 1800 census from all states surveyed.
  3. ^ Total represents total immigration over the approximately 130-year span of colonial existence of the U.S. colonies as found in the 1790 census. At the time of the American Revolution the foreign born population was estimated to be from 300,000 to 400,000.
  4. ^ Excludes Flemish.[43]
  5. ^ Excludes Moravian.[43]
  6. ^ a b This category represents a general type response, which may encompass several ancestry groups.[43]
  7. ^ Excludes Bavarian, Prussian, Saxon, and West German.[43]
  8. ^ Excludes Northern Irish and Celtic.[43]
  9. ^ Excludes Sicilian.[43]

References

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2017 Chicago torture incident

In January 2017, a mentally disabled white youth in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois, was filmed being physically and verbally abused by four black individuals. The incident was livestreamed on Facebook, making the incident a live streaming crime.

The victim met with an acquaintance from high school at a McDonald's on New Year's Eve, and on January 3 was found by a police officer to appear injured while walking with a suspect on a sidewalk. The four suspects were arrested after the incident was livestreamed by one of the women on Facebook, and found guilty of hate crimes and other offenses.

Choctaw

The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta) are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana). Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group. Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs. The anthropologist John R. Swanton suggested that the Choctaw derived their name from an early leader. Henry Halbert, a historian, suggests that their name is derived from the Choctaw phrase Hacha hatak (river people).The Choctaw coalesced as a people in the 17th century, and developed three distinct political and geographical divisions: eastern, western and southern. These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers. These included the French, based on the Gulf Coast and in Louisiana; the English of the Southeast, and the Spanish of Florida and Louisiana during the colonial era. During the American Revolution, most Choctaw supported the Thirteen Colonies' bid for independence from the British Crown. They never went to war against the United States but they were forcibly relocated in 1831–1833, as part of the Indian Removal, in order for the US to take over their land for development by European Americans.

In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors. The Choctaw and the United States (US) agreed to nine treaties. By the last three, the US gained vast land cessions; they removed most Choctaw west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, sending them on a forced migration far from their homelands. The Choctaw were the first Native American tribe forced to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. The Choctaw were exiled from their land because the U.S. desired its resources, and to sell it for settlement and agricultural development by European Americans. Some US leaders believed that by reducing conflict between the peoples, they were saving the Choctaw from extinction. The Choctaw negotiated the largest area and most desirable lands in Indian Territory. Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council. They appointed a Choctaw Delegate to represent them to the US government in Washington, DC.

By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U.S. citizens; they were one of the first major non-European ethnic groups to be granted citizenship. Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw.During the American Civil War, the Choctaw in both Oklahoma and Mississippi mostly sided with the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy had suggested to their leaders that it would support a state under Indian control if it won the war.

After the Civil War, the Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw fell into obscurity for some time. The Choctaw in Oklahoma no longer considered the Mississippi Choctaw part of the Choctaw Nation. However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century.

In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation. The American Indian Policy Review Commission Final Report Volume I, Chapter 11, Page 468 on May 19, 1977 federally acknowledged/recognized the existence of the Choctaw Communities of Mobile and Washington Counties which are along the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers where Choctaw Treaties were negotiated in various Choctaw Treaties.

The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation. They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s. In the aftermath of the Dawes Act in the late 19th century, the US dissolved tribal governments in order to extinguish Indian land claims and admit the Indian and Oklahoma territories as a state in 1907. From that period, the US appointed chiefs of the Choctaw and other tribes in the former Indian Territory.

During World War I, Choctaw soldiers served in the U.S. military as the first Native American codetalkers, using the Choctaw language. After the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Choctaw reconstituted their government. The Choctaw Nation had kept their culture alive despite years of pressure for assimilation.

The Choctaw are the third-largest federally recognized tribe. Since the mid-twentieth century, the Choctaw have created new institutions, such as a tribal college, housing authority, and justice system. Today the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians are the federally recognized Choctaw tribes. Mississippi also recognizes another band, and smaller Choctaw groups are located in Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The Alabama Choctaw who are federally recognized under 24 C.F.R 1000 and 25 U.S.C. 4101 called the Native American Housing Self-Determination Act of 1986 (formerly the "Indian" Housing Act of 1937) under which the United States Federal Government jointly owns the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation as land held in trust as a reservation and for the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians per multiple deeds in public records in Mobile County, Alabama Department of Revenue Records. The Department of Interior has listed the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians as a trustee of Natural Resources in the Southeast Region of the United States. The National Park Service under the Secretary of Interior has posted public notice of the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation in Alabama. The Office of the Secretary of Interior issued the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians its Federal Bureau of Investigations ORI number, formally acknowledging the Government to Government relationship in 1999.

The MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians in Alabama and the Alabama Inter-Tribal Council, which is composed solely of non-federally recognized tribes under Chief Framon Weaver, obtained a US Supreme Court ruling that sovereign immunity applies not only to entities such as the Alabama Inter-Tribal Council as an arm of the tribe, but also that sovereign immunity is inherent and possessed of Indians because they are Indians. This decision of the U.S. Federal Court of Appeals was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 2002.

Cotton Belt

The Cotton Belt is a region of the Southern United States where cotton was the predominant cash crop from the late 18th century into the 20th century.Before the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton production was limited to coastal plain areas of South Carolina and Georgia, and, on a smaller scale, along the lower Mississippi River. The cotton gin allowed profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could be grown in the upland regions of the Deep South. After 1793 the Natchez District rapidly became the leading cotton-producing region in Mississippi. Natchez planters developed new cotton plant hybrids and a mechanized system that fueled the spread of the cotton plantation system throughout the Old Southeast. The demand by European Americans for land to develop for upland cotton drove the removal of Native American tribes from the Southeast after 1830. The central part of this area, extending into Texas, became known as the Black Belt for the fertility of the soil and later the high proportion of slave population.

By the middle of the 19th century, the Cotton Belt extended from Maryland to East Texas. The most intensive cotton production occurred in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi, together with parts of Florida, Louisiana and Texas. High productivity depended on the plantation system and slavery combined with fertile soils and a favorable climate.After the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, many freedman families worked as sharecroppers rather than hire out as laborers; this generally replaced slavery as the primary source of agricultural labor. Cotton production in the region declined in the 20th century due to soil depletion, invasion by the boll weevil, development of alternative markets, and social changes in the region as urban, industrial areas developed. Cotton is still grown in parts of the region, but agricultural land in the region is now used primarily for commodity crops such as corn, wheat, soybeans, and livestock; and commercial timber production.

Demographics of Florida

Florida is the third-most populous state in the United States. With a population of 18.8 million according to the 2010 census, Florida is the most populous state in the Southeastern United States, and the second-most populous state in the South behind Texas. Within the United States, it contains the highest percentage of people over 65 (17.3%), and the 8th fewest people under 18 (21.9%).Its residents include people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial, national and religious backgrounds. The state has attracted immigrants, particularly from Latin America.Florida's majority ethnic group are European Americans, with approximately 65% of the population identifying as White. National ethnic communities in the state include Cubans, who migrated en masse following the revolution in mid-century. They have been joined by other immigrants from Latin America, and Spanish is spoken by more than 20% of the state's population, with high usage especially in the Miami-Dade County area.

Forestville, California

Forestville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sonoma County, California, United States. It was settled by European Americans during the late 1860s and was originally named Forrestville after one of its founders. The spelling long ago became standardized with one "r". The population was 3,293 at the 2010 census, an increase of nearly 1,000 since the 2000 census.

By 1900, the community was known for attracting writers and artists and had a bohemian reputation. The small town has a limited number of businesses. Its public high school had 1,099 students in 2005, serving families of the Russian River region.

Haole

Haole (; Hawaiian [ˈhɔule]) is a Hawaiian term for individuals who are not Native Hawaiian or Polynesian, usually white people. In Hawaii, it may mean any foreigner or anything else introduced to the Hawaiian islands of foreign origin.The origins of the word predate the 1778 arrival of Captain James Cook, as recorded in several chants stemming from antiquity. Its connotations have ranged from merely descriptive to invective, while today it is considered to be mildly pejorative.

Holly Springs, Mississippi

Holly Springs is a city in a county seat of Marshall County, Mississippi, United States at the border with southern Tennessee. Near the Mississippi Delta, the area was developed by European Americans for cotton plantations and was dependent on enslaved Africans. After the American Civil War, many freedmen continued to work in agriculture but as sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

As the county seat, the city is a center of trade and court sessions. The population was 7,957 at the 2000 census. A slight decrease in population was calculated in the 2010 census. The community includes several National Register of Historic Places listed properties and historic districts including Southwest Holly Springs Historic District, Holly Springs Courthouse Square Historic District, Depot-Compress Historic District, and East Holly Springs Historic District.Hillcrest Cemetery in Holly Springs contains the graves of five Confederate generals, and has been referred to as "Little Arlington of the South".

Interminority racism in the United States

Interminority racism is prejudice or discrimination between racial minorities. This article strictly addresses interminority racism as it exists in the United States.

Jordanville, New York

Jordanville is a hamlet in the town of Warren, Herkimer County, New York. Jordanville is in the northwest part of Warren, at the intersection of New York State Route 167 and County Route 155. The community was settled by European Americans after the Revolutionary War and before 1791. Its name was derived from the nearby Ocquionis Creek, which was used by settlers for baptisms and likened by them to the Jordan River.

Livernois–Fenkell riot

The Livernois–Fenkell riot was a racially motivated riot in the summer of 1975 on Livernois Avenue at Chalfonte Avenue, just south of Fenkell Avenue, in Detroit, Michigan. The trouble began when Andrew Chinarian, the 39-year-old owner of Bolton's Bar, observed three black youths tampering with his car in the parking lot. He fired a pistol or rifle, fatally wounding Obie Wynn (18). According to some accounts, Wynn was fleeing; according to others, he was approaching Chinarian with what the latter thought was a weapon (it turned out to be a screwdriver). Crowds gathered and random acts of vandalism, assault looting and racial fighting along Livernois and Fenkell avenues ensued. Bottles and rocks were thrown at passing cars.The second fatality was Marian Pyszko, a 54-year-old dishwasher and a Nazi concentration-camp survivor who had emigrated from Poland in 1958. As he drove home from the bakery/candy-factory where he worked, he was pulled from his car by a group of black youths and beaten to death with a piece of concrete. Among those accused of the crime (and later acquitted) was Raymond Peoples, a co-founder of Young Boys Incorporated.Police were ordered to avoid the use of deadly force, and indeed, not a shot was fired. The crowd of 700 was dispersed by morning. However, angry crowds and violence reappeared the following night – using a car as a battering ram, the crowd stormed and ransacked Bolton's Bar.Detroit mayor Coleman Young then worked to defuse the situation by appearing in person, along with numerous clergy, at the scene of the disturbance. The damage to property in the Livernois-Fenkell area amounted to tens of thousands of dollars. Fifty-three people were arrested, and ten injuries were recorded (including one firefighter and one police officer).

CBS News reported an unverified claim that the bar served white patrons only, and noted the 25% unemployment rate as an aggravating factor.

Mosher, Baltimore

Mosher is a neighborhood in the western part of Baltimore, Maryland. Its boundaries are the north side of Edmondson Avenue, the west side of Braddish Avenue, the east side of Poplar Grove, and the south side of Riggs Avenue. The neighborhood lies in the vicinity of Walbrook Junction, Coppin State University, Sandtown-Winchester, and Edmondson Village. Mosher is one of several neighborhoods that resisted the development of the "Road to Nowhere", now designated as US 40, along the Franklin Avenue corridor. The area was historically segregated, and largely occupied by European Americans, but transitioned during the early 1950s to become a predominantly African American area.

One of the most significant buildings remaining the early development of Mosher is the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. This 1876 Richardsonian Romanesque building became the West Baltimore General Hospital in 1923, then in 1945 became the Lutheran Hospital of Maryland. The hospital closed in 1989 and the building has been owned by Coppin State University since 2003.

The population neighborhood is predominantly African American and significantly low-income. According to 2000 Census data, 99% of Mosher households identify as African-American, .5% identifying as Asian, and .2% each identifying as white, American Indian and Alaska Native, or two or more races. The median household income was $24,667. Resident organizations in Mosher include the La Burt Improvement Association, Lafayette Community Association, Mosher Ridge Improvement Association, and Nehemiah House Community Association.

Non-Hispanic whites

Non-Hispanic whites (commonly referred to as white Americans), are European Americans, Middle Eastern Americans, and North African Americans as defined by the United States Census Bureau.Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups that combined account for more than half of the share of the white population are Germans, Irish, and English.

In the United States, this population was first derived from English (and, to a lesser degree, French) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, Sweden and Norway, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in Mexico and the Southwestern states; German speakers (Amish) in North Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; and French speakers in Quebec, New England, and Louisiana.

In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, non-Hispanic whites accounted for under half of the births in the country, with 49.6% of total births. Over 50% of children under age one are minorities. Between 2015 and 2016 for the first time in American history the population of non-Hispanic whites declined by 0.005% and then declined by 0.016% between 2016 and 2017 to a historic low of 60.7%. Between 2042 and 2045, the United States is projected to be a majority minority nation and by 2060 the white population will decline by roughly 16.1 million.

Oregon Institute

The Oregon Institute was an American school located in the Willamette Valley of the Oregon Country during the 19th century. Begun in 1842, it was the first school built for European Americans west of Missouri. Founded by members of the Methodist Mission, it was located in what is now Salem, Oregon. The school began as a pre-college institution, but by 1853 was developed as Willamette University. The school's three-story building was a prominent feature in the early days of Oregon; it served as a meeting place for the Oregon Territorial Legislature when it first moved to Salem.

Racialism

Racialism is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories. Most dictionaries define the term racialism as synonymous with racism.

Tecumseh

Tecumseh ( ti-KUM-sə, ti-KUM-see; March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century. Born in the Ohio Country (present-day Ohio), and growing up during the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War, Tecumseh was exposed to warfare and envisioned the establishment of an independent Native American nation east of the Mississippi River under British protection. He worked to recruit additional members to his tribal confederacy from the southern United States.Tecumseh was among the most celebrated Native American leaders in history and was known as a strong and eloquent orator who promoted tribal unity. He was also ambitious, willing to take risks, and make significant sacrifices to repel the Americans from Native American lands in the Old Northwest Territory. In 1808, with his brother Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet"), Tecumseh founded the Native American village the European Americans called Prophetstown, north of present-day Lafayette, Indiana. Prophetstown grew into a large, multi-tribal community and a central point in Tecumseh's political and military alliance.

Tecumseh's confederation fought the United States during Tecumseh's War, but he was unsuccessful in getting the U.S. government to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809) and other land-cession treaties. In 1811, as he traveled south to recruit more allies, his brother Tenskwatawa defended Prophetstown against William Henry Harrison's army at the Battle of Tippecanoe, but the Native Americans retreated from the field and the European Americans unearthed graves and burned Prophetstown. Although Tecumseh remained the military leader of the pan-Native American confederation, his plan to enlarge the Native American alliance was never fulfilled.

Tecumseh and his confederacy continued to fight the United States after forming an alliance with Great Britain in the War of 1812. During the war, Tecumseh's confederacy helped in the capture of Fort Detroit. However, after U.S. naval forces took control of Lake Erie in 1813, the British and their Native American allies retreated into Upper Canada, where the European American forces engaged them at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, and Tecumseh was killed. His death and the end of the war caused the pan-Native American alliance to collapse. Within a few years, the remaining tribal lands in the Old Northwest were ceded to the U.S. government and subsequently opened for new settlement and most of the Native Americans eventually moved west, across the Mississippi River. Since his death Tecumseh has become an iconic folk hero in American, Indigenous, and Canadian history.

Tillamook people

The Nehalem or Tillamook are a Native American tribe from coastal Oregon of the Salish linguistic group. The name "Tillamook" is a Chinook language term meaning "people of Nekelim (or Nehalem)."Estimated to have 2200 people at the beginning of the 18th century, the Tillamook lost population in the 19th century to infectious disease and effects of encroachment by European Americans. In 1849 they were estimated to have 200 members. In 1856 they were forced to the Siletz Reservation with other small remnant tribes. In 1898 the Tillamook and the Clatsop, another Coast Salish people, were the first tribes to sue the United States government for compensation for land it had taken from them. They were paid a settlement in 1907. Their descendants are now considered part of the Siletz, as generations of people have intermarried.

White Americans

White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U.S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding.

The United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race. Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white.

The largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans (17%), Irish Americans (12%), English Americans (9%), Italian Americans (6%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (3%), Scotch-Irish Americans (2%), Dutch Americans (2%), Norwegian Americans (2%) and Swedish Americans (1%). However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (7%), due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States, particularly if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution. The vast majority of white Americans also have ancestry from multiple countries.

Yahweh ben Yahweh

Yahweh ben Yahweh (born Hulon Mitchell Jr.; October 27, 1935 – May 7, 2007) was an American man who in 1979 founded and led the Nation of Yahweh, a new religious movement headquartered in Florida that had thousands of African-American devotees at its peak. Yahweh was later indicted on three counts of federal racketeering and extortion charges, to which he was found not guilty. However, he was convicted of conspiracy to commit murder.

Yazoo River

The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi. It is considered by some to mark the southern boundary of what is called the Mississippi Delta, a broad floodplain that was cultivated for cotton plantations before the American Civil War. It has continued to be devoted to large-scale agriculture.

The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth at its confluence with the Mississippi. The exact meaning of the term is unclear. One long held belief is that it means "river of death".The river is 188 miles (303 km) long and is formed by the confluence of the Tallahatchie and the Yalobusha rivers, where present-day Greenwood developed. The river parallels the Mississippi River in the latter's floodplain for some distance before joining it north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Natural levees which flank the Mississippi prevent the Yazoo from joining it before Vicksburg. A "yazoo stream" is a hydrologic term that was coined to describe any river or major stream with similar characteristics. Potamologists believe the Yazoo River had its origins as the lower Ohio River.The French (and later European Americans) historically called the surrounding area of Mississippi and Alabama the Yazoo lands, after the river. This became the basis for naming the Yazoo Land Scandal of the late 18th and early 19th century.

The river was of major importance during the American Civil War. The Confederates used the first electrically detonated underwater mine in the river in 1862 near Vicksburg to sink the Union ironclad USS Cairo. The last section of the Cairo was raised on December 12, 1964. It has been restored and is now on permanent display to the public at the Vicksburg National Military Park. There are 29 sunken ships from the Civil War beneath the waters of the river. The steamer Dew Drop was reportedly sunk near Roebuck Lake as an obstruction to the United States Navy, but Union sources claim the vessel was captured and burned.Variant names of the Yazoo River include Zasu River, Yazous River, Yahshoo River, Rivière des Yasoux, and Fiume del Yasous.

In 1876, the Mississippi River changed its course, shifting west several miles and leaving Vicksburg without a river front. In 1902, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers diverted the Yazoo River into the old river bed, forming the Yazoo Diversion Canal. The modern-day port of Vicksburg is still located on this canal. Commercial navigation of the Yazoo River has declined considerably since the 1990s and is mainly concentrated on the section from Vicksburg to Yazoo City.

Ancestral origin 1980 / %[42] 1990 / %[43] 2000 / %[44] 2016 (est.) / %[45] Pop. change
1990–2016
United States population 226,545,805 100.0 248,709,873 100.0 281,421,906 100.0 318,558,162 100.0 Increase28.08%
Total ancestries reported 188,302,438 83.1 248,709,873 100.0 287,304,886 102.1
Acadian/Cajun 668,271 0.3 85,414 0.0 115,312 0.04 Decrease82.74%
Albanian 38,658 0.02 47,710 0.0 113,661 0.0 191,463 0.06 Increase301.31%
Alsatian 42,390 0.02 16,465 0.0 15,601 0.0 11,107 0.00 Decrease32.54%
American 12,395,999 5.0 20,625,093 7.3 22,097,012 6.94 Increase78.26%
Austrian 948,558 0.42 864,783 0.3 735,128 0.3 702,772 0.22 Decrease18.73%
Basque 43,140 0.0 47,956 0.0 57,793 0.0
Bavarian 4,348 0.0
Belarusian 7,381 0.00 4,277 0.0
Belgian 360,277 0.16 380,498[d] 0.2 360,642 0.1 359,121 0.11 Decrease5.62%
British 1,119,154 0.4 1,085,720 0.4 1,370,222 0.43 Increase22.43%
Bulgarian 42,504 0.02 29,595 0.0 55,489 0.0 98,410 0.03 Increase232.52%
Carpatho Rusyn 7,602 0.0 7,921 0.00 Increase4.20%
Celtic 29,652 0.0 65,638 0.0 50,058 0.02 Increase68.82%
Cornish 3,991 0.0
Croatian 252,970 0.11 544,270 0.2 374,241 0.1 410,003 0.13 Decrease24.67%
Cypriot 6,053 0.00 4,897 0.0 7,663 0.0 7,332 0.00 Increase49.72%
Czech 1,892,456 0.84 1,296,411[e] 0.5 1,262,527 0.4 1,435,359 0.45 Increase10.72%
Czechoslovakian 315,285 0.1 441,403 0.2 300,424 0.09 Decrease4.71%
Danish 1,518,273 0.67 1,634,669 0.7 1,430,897 0.5 1,297,738 0.41 Decrease20.61%
Dutch 6,304,499 2.78 6,227,089 2.5 4,542,494 1.6 4,210,787 1.32 Decrease32.38%
Eastern European[f] 62,404 0.03 132,332 0.1 546,280 0.17
English 49,598,035 21.89 32,651,788 13.1 24,515,138 8.7 24,426,623 7.67 Decrease25.19%
Estonian 25,994 0.01 26,762 0.0 25,034 0.0 27,864 0.01 Increase4.12%
European[f] 175,461 0.08 466,718 0.2 1,968,696 0.7 3,922,881 1.23
Finnish 615,872 0.27 658,870 0.3 623,573 0.2 645,053 0.20 Decrease2.10%
Flemish 14,157 0.0
French (except Basque) 12,892,246 5.69 10,320,935 4.1 8,309,908 3.0 8,151,499 2.56 Decrease21.02%
French Canadian 780,488 0.34 2,167,127 0.9 2,349,684 0.8 2,084,903 0.65 Decrease3.79%
German 49,224,146 21.73 57,947,171[g] 23.3 42,885,162 15.2 45,879,360 14.40 Decrease20.83%
German Russian 10,153 0.0 10,535 0.0 23,772 0.01 Increase134.14%
Greek 959,856 0.42 1,110,373 0.4 1,153,307 0.4 1,282,655 0.40 Increase15.52%
Gypsy (Rom) 6,322 0.00 5,693 0.0
Hungarian 1,776,902 0.78 1,582,302 0.6 1,398,724 0.5 1,423,144 0.45 Decrease10.06%
Icelandic 32,586 0.01 40,529 0.0 42,716 0.0 50,572 0.02 Increase24.78%
Irish 40,165,702 17.73 38,735,539[h] 15.6 30,528,492 10.8 33,093,550 10.39 Decrease14.57%
Italian 12,183,692 5.38 14,664,550[i] 5.9 15,723,555 5.6 17,174,741 5.39 Increase17.12%
Latvian 92,141 0.04 100,331 0.0 87,564 0.0 86,128 0.03 Decrease14.16%
Lithuanian 742,776 0.33 811,865 0.3 659,992 0.2 648,514 0.20 Decrease20.12%
Luxemburger 49,994 0.02 49,061 0.0 45,139 0.0 40,760 0.01 Decrease16.92%
Macedonian 20,365 0.0 38,051 0.0 57,221 0.02 Increase180.98%
Maltese 31,645 0.01 39,600 0.0 40,159 0.0 39,985 0.01 Increase0.97%
Manx 9,220 0.00 6,317 0.0 6,955 0.0
Moravian 3,781 0.0
Northern Irish 16,418 0.01 4,009 0.0 3,693 0.0
Norwegian 3,453,839 1.52 3,869,395 1.6 4,477,725 1.6 4,454,964 1.40 Increase15.13%
Pennsylvania German 305,841 0.1 255,807 0.1 301,483 0.09 Decrease1.42%
Polish 8,228,037 3.63 9,366,106 3.8 8,977,444 3.2 9,344,126 2.93 Decrease0.23%
Portuguese 1,024,351 0.45 1,153,351 0.5 1,177,112 0.4 1,367,476 0.43 Increase18.57%
Prussian 25,469 0.0
Romanian 315,258 0.14 365,544 0.1 367,310 0.1 459,841 0.14 Increase25.80%
Russian 2,781,432 1.23 2,952,987 1.2 2,652,214 0.9 2,795,443 0.88 Decrease5.34%
Saxon 4,519 0.0
Scandinavian 475,007 0.21 678,880 0.3 425,099 0.2 629,819 0.20 Decrease7.23%
Scotch-Irish 5,617,773 2.3 4,319,232 1.5 3,056,848 0.96 Decrease45.59%
Scottish 10,048,816 4.44 5,393,581 2.2 4,890,581 1.7 5,457,798 1.71 Increase1.19%
Serbian 100,941 0.04 116,795 0.0 140,337 0.0 189,425 0.06 Increase62.19%
Sicilian 50,389 0.0
Slavic 172,696 0.08 76,931 0.0 127,137 0.0 125,571 0.04 Increase63.23%
Slovak 776,806 0.34 1,882,897 0.8 797,764 0.3 714,557 0.22 Decrease62.05%
Slovene 126,463 0.06 124,437 0.1 176,691 0.1 172,511 0.05 Increase38.63%
Soviet Union 7,729 0.0 2,459 0.00 Decrease68.18%
Spaniard 94,528 0.04 360,935 0.1 299,948[46] 0.1 768,252[47] 0.24 Increase112.85%
Swedish 4,345,392 1.92 4,680,863 1.9 3,998,310 1.4 3,908,762 1.23 Decrease16.49%
Swiss 981,543 0.43 1,045,495 0.4 911,502 0.3 937,376 0.29 Decrease10.34%
Ukrainian 730,056 0.32 740,723 0.3 892,922 0.3 986,597 0.31 Increase33.19%
Welsh 1,664,598 0.73 2,033,893 0.8 1,753,794 0.6 1,805,577 0.57 Decrease11.23%
West German 3,885 0.0
Yugoslavian 360,174 0.16 257,994 0.1 328,547 0.1 276,360 0.09 Increase7.12%
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