Eurogamer is a website focused on video game journalism, reviews, and other features. It is operated by Gamer Network Ltd. with headquarters in Brighton, East Sussex. It was formed in 1999 by brothers Rupert and Nick Loman while they were in secondary school.
Gamer Network states that the site has the largest readership of any independent videogames website in Europe (over 5.7 million unique users in November 2011), and was the first such site to subject its traffic to independent verification by the ABC Electronic system. The site primarily caters to a UK/Ireland audience; Gamer Network operates other sites using the Eurogamer brand that caters to other European countries.
Most of its reviews are of European or PAL releases of games. In February 2015, Eurogamer dropped its 10-point scale review scores system in favour of a "recommendation system," where games would either receive no specific recommendation or awards for being "Recommended," "Essential" or "Avoid."
Type of site
|Video game journalism|
|Divisions||USgamer, Digital Foundry, GamesIndustry.biz|
|Alexa rank||1,526 (February 2019)|
|Launched||3 May 1999|
Eurogamer launched on 4 September 1999. Among its founders were Rupert Loman, a Quake and esports community organiser; John Bye, a PlanetQuake team member and a writer for the British magazine PC Gaming World; and Patrick Stokes, a contributor for the website Warzone.
Eurogamer's current editor is Oli Welsh, who took over the role from Tom Bramwell in September 2014. The editor prior to Bramwell was Kristan Reed. Contributors to the site include past or present writers from PC Gamer, GamesTM, Edge, and Rock, Paper, Shotgun, such as Kieron Gillen, Jim Rossignol, John Walker, Simon Parkin, Alec Meer, Richard Leadbetter, and Dan Whitehead, as well as former GamesIndustry.biz editor Rob Fahey.
Eurogamer founder Rupert Loman was interviewed in February 2007 by MCV magazine. He was also featured in the Sunday Telegraph on 19 August 2007, speaking about the experience he has gained from choosing to run Eurogamer instead of attending university.
At the Games Media Awards, Eurogamer won the categories of Best Games Website – News, and Best Games Website – Reviews & Features in 2007. The two awards were consolidated in 2008 and the site went on to win the new award for Best Games Website every year it was awarded, from 2008 to 2013, making it the only website to win the award in its history.
Deputy Editor Tom Bramwell won Best Writer in Specialist Digital Media and Eurogamer TV editor Johnny Minkley won Best Games-Dedicated Broadcast on Mainstream TV or Radio in 2007. News editor Wesley Yin-Poole won Best News Writer in 2014.
Rupert Loman was winner of Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 at the Sussex Business Awards and The Observer's "One to Watch" in Media 2007. He was also selected as one of 30 "Young Guns" by Growing Business magazine in October 2008.
Eurogamer is the principal site of the Gamer Network family of video game-related websites which it has either launched or acquired. Many of its sister sites were started with language/country-specific sites through 2006 to 2012. Eurogamer Germany. This was followed up with Eurogamer France in June 2007, Eurogamer Portugal in May 2008, Eurogamer Netherlands in August 2008, Eurogamer Spain and Eurogamer Italy in October 2008, Eurogamer Romania in March 2009, Eurogamer Czech in May 2009, Eurogamer Denmark in June 2009, Eurogamer Belgium in August 2009, Eurogamer Sweden in April 2010 and Eurogamer Poland in November 2012. In April 2011, Eurogamer Netherlands and Eurogamer Belgium merged to form Eurogamer Benelux. Eurogamer Romania closed down in 2011. In November 2012, Eurogamer launched their first non-European site, Brasilgamer,
Other sites under the Gamer Network include:
Eurogamer has hosted the Digital Foundry channel since 2007. Digital Foundry evaluates video game hardware and software from a technical level, often comparing performances of the same game across different platforms.
In February 2018, ReedPOP, a subsidiary of Reed Exhibitions that runs the PAX conventions, acquired the Gamer Network and its network of sites as to expanding into digital news and editorial content, as well as EGX, the largest video game convention in the United Kingdom. No immediate changes were expected at Eurogamer and other sites on the Gamer Network.
The year 2015 saw releases of numerous video games as well as a follow-up to Nintendo's portable 3DS console, the New Nintendo 3DS. Top-rated games originally released in 2015 included Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, Bloodborne, Undertale, and Fallout 4. Sales of video games in 2015 reached $61 billion, according to analysis firm SuperData, an 8% increase from 2014. Of this, the largest sector was in computer game sales and subscription services, accounting for $32 billion. Mobile gaming revenues were at $25.1 billion, a 10% increase from 2014. Digital sales on consoles made up the remaining $4 billion.In the United States, the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) and the NPD Group estimated total video game market revenues at $23.5 billion, a 5% increase from 2014. Of this, the total software market was $16.5 billion, with the NPD Group estimating retail sales subset at $13.1 billion. The ESA reported that there were 2,457 companies in the United States involved in video game developing or publishing that directly supported 65,678 workers (37,122 in developing, 28,556 in publishing) with about another 154,000 indirectly supporting the industry, such as through contracting or video game journalism. The total contribution to the US's gross national product from the industry was $11.7 billion.In the United Kingdom, the total video game market was valued at nearly GB£4.2 billion, according to figures from Ukie and MCV. The largest segments were in digital software (£1.2 billion) and mobile gaming (£664 million), while sales of consoles dropped to £689 million.2016 in video gaming
Numerous video games were released in 2016. New hardware came out as well, albeit largely refreshed and updated versions of consoles in the PlayStation 4 Pro, PlayStation 4 Slim, and Xbox One S. Commercially available virtual reality headsets were released in much greater numbers and at much lower price points than the enthusiast-only virtual reality headsets of earlier generations. Top-rated games originally released in 2016 included Uncharted 4: A Thief's End, Inside, Overwatch, Forza Horizon 3, NBA 2K17, Dark Souls III, and Battlefield 1.2019 in video gaming
Numerous video games are scheduled to be released in the year 2019. Series with new installments and potential new installments that might come for several franchises, including Ace Combat, Age of Wonders, Animal Crossing, Battletoads, Bloodstained, Crackdown, Crash Bandicoot, Dead or Alive, Devil May Cry, Digimon, Far Cry, Final Fantasy, Fire Emblem, Gears of War, God Eater, Kingdom Hearts, Luigi's Mansion, Marvel Ultimate Alliance, MediEvil, Metro, Mortal Kombat, No More Heroes, Ori, Pokémon, Psychonauts, Rage, Resident Evil, Science Adventure, Shenmue, Sonic the Hedgehog, Star Wars, Super Mario, Super Meat Boy, The Legend of Zelda, Tom Clancy's The Division, Total War, Trials, Tropico, Umihara Kawase, Wasteland, Wolfenstein, and Yoshi.Dragon Age II
Dragon Age II is an action role-playing video game developed by BioWare and published by Electronic Arts (EA) for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and OS X. It is the second major game in the Dragon Age series and was released worldwide in March 2011. Set in the world of Thedas, introduced in Dragon Age: Origins, players assume the role of Hawke, a human mage, rogue, or warrior who arrives in the city of Kirkwall as a lowly refugee, and becomes its legendary champion over a turbulent decade of political and social conflict. In the game, players explore and engage in combat from a third-person perspective. Players encounter various companions, who play major roles in the game's plot and gameplay. Depending on players' decisions and dialogue, a companion will either recognize Hawke as a friend or a rival.
BioWare began the game's development during the production of Origins's expansion pack Awakening. EA gave them only 14 to 16 months to finish the game's development, thus forcing the team to crunch for an extended period and reuse assets. BioWare looked at players' feedback and reviews of Origins, and decided to improve its gameplay, making it more action-oriented. They improved the Eclipse Engine, renaming it Lycium, to enhance the game's visuals and lighting, and accommodate a new art style inspired by movies like Yojimbo and Conan. Both David Gaider and Inon Zur, who worked on Origins, returned and served as lead writer and composer respectively.
The game received generally positive reviews from critics. They praised its gameplay, companions and writings, though they had mixed feelings about the storytelling structure, and the diminished focus on tactics and strategy. Employing reused assets, and setting the game entirely in one city, were widely criticized. It received a more polarized response from players, though more than one million copies were sold in less than two weeks, a faster sales pace than its predecessor. A sequel, Dragon Age: Inquisition was released in November 2014.EGX (expo)
EGX (previously named Eurogamer Expo) is a trade fair for video games held annually in the United Kingdom.Fez (video game)
Fez (stylized as FEZ) is an indie puzzle-platform video game developed by Polytron Corporation and published by Trapdoor. The player-character Gomez receives a fez that reveals his two-dimensional (2D) world to be one of four sides of a three-dimensional (3D) world. The player rotates between these four 2D views to realign platforms and solve the game's puzzles. The object of the game is to collect cubes and cube fragments to restore order to the universe.
The game was called an "underdog darling of the indie game scene" during its high-profile and protracted five-year development cycle. Fez designer and Polytron founder Phil Fish gained celebrity status for his outspoken public persona and his prominence in the 2012 documentary Indie Game: The Movie, which detailed Fez's final stages of development and Polytron's related legal issues. Fez met critical acclaim upon its April 2012 release for Xbox Live Arcade. The game was ported to other platforms following the expiration of a yearlong exclusivity agreement.
Reviewers commended the game's emphasis on discovery and freedom, but criticized its technical issues, in-game navigation, and endgame backtracking. They likened the game's rotation mechanic to the 2D–3D shifts of Echochrome, Nebulus, Super Paper Mario, and Crush. Fez won awards including the Seumas McNally Grand Prize and Eurogamer's 2012 Game of the Year. It had sold one million copies by the end of 2013, and it influenced games such as Monument Valley, Crossy Road, and Secrets of Rætikon. A planned sequel was canceled when Fish abruptly left the indie game industry.Id Tech
id Tech is a series of separate game engines designed and developed by id Software. Prior to the presentation of the id Tech 5-based game Rage, the engines lacked official designation and as such were simply referred to as the Doom and Quake engines, from the name of the main game series the engines have been developed for. "id Tech" numbers 2, 3, and 4 have been released as free software under the GNU General Public License, along with the source code to Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, and Quake.
According to Eurogamer.net, "id Software has been synonymous with PC game engines since the concept of a detached game engine was first popularised." However id Tech 4 had far fewer licensees than the Unreal Engine from Epic Games, and id planned to regain the momentum with id Tech 5, until they were bought by ZeniMax Media which intends to keep the id Tech engines exclusively for id's sister studios.Obsidian Entertainment
Obsidian Entertainment, Inc. is an American video game developer based in Irvine, California. It was founded in June 2003, shortly before the closure of Black Isle Studios, by ex-Black Isle employees Feargus Urquhart, Chris Avellone, Chris Parker, Darren Monahan, and Chris Jones.
Although they have created original intellectual property, many of their games are sequels based on licensed properties. Early projects include Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II: The Sith Lords and Neverwinter Nights 2, both sequels to BioWare-developed games. The team then developed their first original game, Alpha Protocol, in 2010. Other notable works from Obsidian include Fallout: New Vegas, Dungeon Siege III, and South Park: The Stick of Truth, all also licensed properties.
Throughout the studio's history, many projects—including Futureblight, Dwarfs, Aliens: Crucible, and Stormlands—were cancelled. Due to having so many projects cancelled, the company entered a severe financial crisis in 2012. As a result, Obsidian decided to crowdfund their next game, Pillars of Eternity, a role-playing game played from an isometric perspective, which ultimately became a success and saved the studio from closure. The team's focus then changed from developing licensed titles to creating original games based on the studio's own intellectual property, including a sequel to Pillars of Eternity.
In November 2018, it was announced that the studio had been acquired by Microsoft and become part of Microsoft Studios (now known as Xbox Game Studios). At The Game Awards 2018, they announced their upcoming game for 2019 — The Outer Worlds.PlayStation 4
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, and on February 22, 2014, in Japan. It competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.
Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops; AMD stated that it was the "most powerful" APU it had developed to date. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices ("Remote Play"), the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely ("Share Play"). The console's controller was also redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, and an integrated touchpad among other changes. The console also supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia.
The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, and for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes similarly to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios also praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors; developers described the performance difference between the console and Xbox One as "significant" and "obvious". Heightened demand also helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3. As of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide.
On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games. The company also released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, and the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.Portal 2
Portal 2 is a first-person puzzle-platform video game developed by Valve Corporation. It was released in April 2011 for Windows, OS X, Linux, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360. The digital PC version is distributed online by Valve's Steam service, while all retail editions were published by Electronic Arts.
Like the original Portal (2007), players solve puzzles by placing portals and teleporting between them. Portal 2 adds features including tractor beams, lasers, light bridges, and paint-like gels that alter player movement or allow portals to be placed on any surface. In the single-player campaign, players control Chell, who navigates the dilapidated Aperture Science Enrichment Center during its reconstruction by the supercomputer GLaDOS (Ellen McLain); new characters include robot Wheatley (Stephen Merchant) and Aperture founder Cave Johnson (J. K. Simmons). In the new cooperative mode, players solve puzzles together as robots Atlas and P-Body (both voiced by Dee Bradley Baker). Jonathan Coulton and the National produced songs for the game.
Valve announced Portal 2 in March 2010, and promoted it with alternate reality games including the Potato Sack, a collaboration with several independent game developers. After release, Valve released downloadable content and a simplified map editor to allow players to create and share levels.
Portal 2 received acclaim for its gameplay, balanced learning curve, pacing, dark humor, writing, and acting. It has been described as one of the greatest video games of all time by numerous publications and critics.Rare (company)
Rare Limited is a British video game developer and a subsidiary of Microsoft Studios based in Twycross, England. Rare is known for its platform games, which include the Donkey Kong Country, Banjo-Kazooie, and Conker series, although the studio does not adhere to specific genres and has developed games in the first-person shooter, action-adventure, fighting, and racing genres.
The company was established in 1985 by the Stamper brothers, Tim and Chris, who also founded Ultimate Play the Game. During its early years, Rare was backed by an unlimited budget from Nintendo, primarily concentrated on Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) games. During this time they created successful titles such as Wizards & Warriors, Battletoads, and R.C. Pro-Am. Rare became a prominent second-party developer for Nintendo, who came to own a large minority stake of the company. During this period, Rare received international recognition and critical acclaim for games such as Donkey Kong Country, GoldenEye 007, Banjo-Kazooie, Perfect Dark, and Conker's Bad Fur Day.
In 2002, Microsoft acquired Rare, who retained their original brand, logo, and most intellectual properties. It has since focused on developing games exclusively for Microsoft's video game consoles. Their releases include Kameo: Elements of Power, Perfect Dark Zero and Viva Piñata. In 2007, founders Tim and Chris Stamper left the company to pursue "other opportunities" and, in 2010, the company's focus shifted to the Xbox Live Avatar and Kinect, releasing three different Kinect Sports games. In 2015, Rare released Rare Replay, a compilation of 30 games produced by the company to celebrate their 30th anniversary which was made exclusively for Xbox One. Rare developed Sea of Thieves, a multiplayer adventure game released in 2018.
Several key employees left Rare to form their own companies, such as Free Radical Design and Playtonic Games. Rare is widely recognised by the gaming industry and has received numerous accolades from critics and journalists. The company has often been described as secretive and seclusive.Resident Evil 6
Resident Evil 6 is a third-person shooter game developed and published by Capcom. It was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in October 2012 and for Windows in March 2013. Players control several characters including Leon S. Kennedy, Chris Redfield, and Ada Wong as they confront the force behind a worldwide bio-terrorist attack; each character has unique abilities and styles.
Resident Evil 6 was conceptualized in 2009 and entered full development the following year under Resident Evil 4 producer Hiroyuki Kobayashi. It had a development staff of more than 600, making it Capcom's largest production.
Resident Evil 6 received mixed reviews; some reviewers praised the game's storyline and themes, but the interwoven campaigns and departure from survival horror received criticism. With over 8.8 million copies sold, it is the third-bestselling Capcom game. It was rereleased for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One with all downloadable content.Respawn Entertainment
Respawn Entertainment, LLC is an American video game development studio founded by Jason West and Vince Zampella. West and Zampella previously co-founded Infinity Ward and created the Call of Duty franchise, where they were responsible for its development until 2010. Respawn was acquired by Electronic Arts on December 1, 2017.Rockstar Advanced Game Engine
The Rockstar Advanced Game Engine (RAGE) is a proprietary game engine developed by RAGE Technology Group, a division of Rockstar Games' Rockstar San Diego studio. Since its first game, Rockstar Games Presents Table Tennis in 2006, the engine has been used by Rockstar Games' internal studios to develop games for macOS, Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Wii, Xbox 360 and Xbox One, including Grand Theft Auto IV, Red Dead Redemption, Max Payne 3, Grand Theft Auto V, and Red Dead Redemption 2.Spider-Man (2018 video game)
Marvel's Spider-Man is a 2018 action-adventure game developed by Insomniac Games and published by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Based on the Marvel Comics superhero Spider-Man, it is inspired by the long-running comic book mythos, and adaptations in other media. In the main storyline, the super-human crime lord Mr. Negative orchestrates a plot to seize control of New York City's criminal underworld. With Mr. Negative threatening to release a deadly virus, Spider-Man must confront him and protect the city, while navigating the personal problems of his civilian persona, Peter Parker.
The game is presented from the third-person perspective with a primary focus on Spider-Man's traversal and combat abilities. Spider-Man can freely move around New York City, interacting with characters and undertaking missions, and unlocking new gadgets and suits by progressing through the main story or completing tasks. The player is able to complete side missions away from the main story to unlock additional content and collectible items. Combat focuses on chaining attacks together against numerous foes while avoiding damage, using the environment and webs to incapacitate foes.
The first licensed game by Insomniac in its then-22 year history, development of Spider-Man began in 2014 and took approximately four years. Marvel gave Insomniac the choice of any character from their catalogue to work on; Spider-Man was chosen both for his appeal to the employees and the similarities in traversal gameplay to their previous game Sunset Overdrive (2014). The game design took inspiration from the history of Spider-Man across all media, but both Marvel and Insomniac wanted to tell an original story not tied to an existing property, creating a unique universe that has since appeared in novels, merchandise, movies, and alongside the mainstream comic book Spider-Man.
Spider-Man was released worldwide for the PlayStation 4 video game consoles on September 7, 2018. The game received praise for its narrative, characterization, combat, and web-swinging traversal mechanics, although some criticized it for lacking innovation in its open-world design. Some reviewers called it one of the best superhero games ever made, comparing it favorably to the Batman: Arkham series. Following its release, the game became one of the fastest-selling games of the year, the best-selling PlayStation 4 game of all time, and the fastest-selling superhero game in the United States. Spider-Man was followed by a story-based three-part downloadable content called Spider-Man: The City that Never Sleeps, released monthly from October that year, that takes place after the main game.TotalBiscuit
John Peter Bain (8 July 1984 – 24 May 2018), better known as TotalBiscuit, was a British video gaming commentator and game critic on YouTube. He was known for his role in professional shoutcasting and e-sports, and also known for his gaming commentary audio work on WCradio.com. According to Eurogamer, he obtained a large following due to his video commentary on newly developed indie games and analysis of gaming news. Bain voiced strong support for consumer protection in the video gaming industry.
Bain announced that he had terminal cancer in October 2015, and while he continued to critique games through the next few years, he formally retired from the job in April 2018 due to his failing health as his cancer had become untreatable. He died on 24 May 2018.Wipeout (series)
Wipeout (commonly stylised as wipEout or WipEout) is a series of futuristic anti-gravity racing video games developed by Sony Studio Liverpool (formerly known as Psygnosis).
The series is known for its fast-paced gameplay, 3D visual design running on the full resolution of the game's console, and its association with electronic dance music (mainly techno and trance) as well as its continuous collaboration with electronic artists (The Chemical Brothers, Leftfield, CoLD SToRAGE, Kraftwerk, Orbital, DJ Fresh, Noisia and others). The series is notable for its distinctive graphic design identity, provided by The Designers Republic for the first three games.
The concept of Wipeout was first discussed during a pub conversation, when a Psygnosis staff member, Jim Bowers, envisioned an idea of creating a futuristic racing game which featured anti-gravity ships. Some elements of the game were inspired by Matrix Marauders, an Amiga game released by the Liverpudlian studio in 1990. A beta version of Wipeout appeared in the cult film Hackers, in which the game was being played by the protagonists in a nightclub. The game's appearance in the film led to Sony purchasing the studio in the following months after its release.
The Wipeout franchise has been well received by critics, with Wipeout 2097 in particular being listed as among the PlayStation's best games. Wipeout 2048 was the last game to be developed by Studio Liverpool prior to their closure in August 2012. The series was later revived, with Wipeout Omega Collection released in 2017.Xbox One
Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft. Announced in May 2013, it is the successor to Xbox 360 and the third console in the Xbox family. It was first released in North America, parts of Europe, Australia, and South America in November 2013, and in Japan, China, and other European countries in September 2014. It is the first Xbox game console to be released in China, specifically in the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone. Microsoft marketed the device as an "all-in-one entertainment system", hence the name 'Xbox One'. The Xbox One line mainly competes against consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.
Moving away from its predecessor's PowerPC-based architecture, Xbox One marks a shift back to the x86 architecture used in the original Xbox; it features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built around the x86-64 instruction set. Xbox One's controller was redesigned over the Xbox 360's, with a redesigned body, D-pad and triggers capable of delivering directional haptic feedback. The console places an increased emphasis on cloud computing, as well as social networking features, and the ability to record and share video clips or screenshots from gameplay, or live-stream directly to streaming services such as Mixer and Twitch. Games can also be played off-console via a local area network on supported Windows 10 devices. The console can play Blu-ray Disc, and overlay live television programming from an existing set-top box or a digital tuner for digital terrestrial television with an enhanced program guide. The console optionally included a redesigned Kinect sensor, marketed as the "Kinect 2.0", providing improved motion tracking and voice recognition.
Xbox One received mostly positive reviews for its refined controller design, multimedia features, and voice navigation. Its quieter and cooler design was praised for making the console more reliable than its predecessor on-launch, but the console was generally criticized for running games at a technically lower graphical level than the PlayStation 4. Its original user interface was panned for being nonintuitive, although changes made to it and other aspects of the console's software post-launch received positive reception. Its Kinect received praise for its improved motion-tracking accuracy, its face recognition logins, and its voice commands.
The original Xbox One model was succeeded by Xbox One S in 2016, which has a smaller form factor and support for HDR10 high-dynamic-range video, as well as support for 4K video playback and upscaling of games from 1080p to 4K. It was praised for its smaller size, its on-screen visual improvements, and its lack of an external power supply, but its regressions such as the lack of a native Kinect port were noted. A high-end model, Xbox One X, was unveiled in June 2017 and released in November; it features upgraded hardware specifications, and support for rendering games at 4K resolution.