Eurema

Eurema is a widespread genus of grass yellow butterflies in the family Pieridae.

Species range from Asia, Africa, Australia, and Oceania, to the New World. The type species is the North American barred yellow (Eurema daira).

There are over 70 species in the genus, but more than 300 synonymous names have been applied to them. Some species, such as the common African grass yellow (E. hecabe) have over 80 synonyms. The genus itself has over 15 junior generic synonyms. This is the price of being a widespread taxon, as well as a zoogeographical problem.

Eurema
Tridax procum 100228-0132 ipb
Eurema blanda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Pieridae
Tribe: Euremini
Genus: Eurema
Hübner, [1819]
Type species
Eurema daira
Cramer, 1780
Species

c. 70, see text

Synonyms
  • Abaeis Hübner, [1819]
  • Terias Swainson, [1821]
  • Xanthidia Boisduval & Le Conte, [1829]
  • Lucidia Lacordaire, 1833
  • Heurema Agassiz, [1847]
  • Pyrisitia Butler, 1870
  • Sphaenogona Butler, 1870
  • Maiva Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1893
  • Kibreeta Moore, [1906]
  • Nirmula Moore, [1906]
  • Teriocolias Röber, [1909]
Banded yellow (Eurema elathea obsoleta)
E. elathea obsoleta - banded yellow, Brazil
False barred sulphur (Eurema elathea elathea) female
E. elathea elathea - false barred sulphur, Grand Cayman
Small Grass Yellow (Eurema brigitta) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 0313
E. brigitta - small grass yellow
Common Grass Yellow (Eurema hecabe) mating in Narshapur, AP W IMG 0776
E. hecabe - common grass yellow
Grass yellow (Eurema venusta)
E. venusta - grass yellow, Brazil

Species

Listed alphabetically within groups:[1]

  • Eurema ada (Distant & Pryer, 1887)
  • Eurema alitha (C.& R. Felder, 1862) – scalloped grass yellow
  • Eurema andersonii (Moore, 1886) – one-spot grass yellow
  • Eurema beatrix (Toxopeus, 1939)
  • Eurema blanda (Boisduval, 1836) – three-spot grass yellow
  • Eurema brigitta (Stoll, [1780]) – small grass yellow or no brand grass yellow
  • Eurema candida (Stoll, [1782])
  • Eurema celebensis Wallace, 1867
  • Eurema desjardinsii (Boisduval, 1833) – angled grass yellow
  •  ?Eurema ecriva (Butler, 1873)
  • Eurema esakii Shirôzu, 1953
  • Eurema floricola (Boisduval, 1883) – Malagasy grass yellow
  •  ?Eurema halmaherana Shirôzu & Yata, 1981
  • Eurema hapale (Mabille, 1882) – pale grass yellow or marsh grass yellow
  • Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758) – common grass yellow
  • Eurema herla (Macleay, 1826) – pink grass yellow
  •  ?Eurema hiurae Shirozu & Yata, 1977
  • Eurema lacteola (Distant, 1886) – scarce grass yellow
  • Eurema laeta (Boisduval, [1836]) – spotless grass yellow
  • Eurema lombokiana Fruhstorfer, 1897
  • Eurema mandarinula (Holland, 1892) – mandarin grass yellow
  • Eurema mentawiensis Corbet, 1942
  • Eurema novapallida Yata, 1992
  • Eurema nilgiriensis Yata, 1990 – Nilgiri grass yellow
  • Eurema puella (Boisduval, 1832) – broad-margined grass yellow
  • Eurema regularis (Butler, 1876) – regular grass yellow
  • Eurema sari (Horsfield, [1829]) – chocolate grass yellow
  • Eurema sarilata Semper, 1891
  • Eurema senegalensis Boisduval, [1836] – forest grass yellow
  • Eurema simulatrix (Semper, 1891) – changeable grass yellow
  • Eurema smilax (Donovan, 1805) – small grass yellow
  • Eurema tilaha (Horsfield, [1829])
  • Eurema nicevillei (Butler, 1898) – Malayan grass yellow
  • Eurema timorensis Shirôzu & Yata, 1977
  • Eurema tominia (Vollenhoven, 1865)
  • Eurema upembana (Berger, 1981)
  • Eurema zamida (Fruhstorfer, 1908)

Species group:

  • Eurema adamsi (Lathy, 1898)
  • Eurema agave (Cramer, [1775])
  • Eurema albula (Cramer, [1776]) – ghost yellow
  • Eurema amelia (Poey, [1832])
  • Eurema arbela Geyer, [1832]
  • Eurema daira (Godart, [1819]) (type species) – barred yellow, fairy yellow, or barred sulphur
  • Eurema deva (Doubleday, 1847)
  • Eurema elathea (Cramer, [1777])
  • Eurema fabiola (C. & R. Felder, 1861)
  • Eurema lirina (Bates, 1861)
  • Eurema lucina (Poey, [1852])
  • Eurema mexicana (Boisduval, [1836]) – Mexican yellow
  • Eurema nigrocincta Dognin, 1889
  • Eurema paulina (Bates, 1861)
  • Eurema phiale (Cramer, [1775])
  • Eurema reticulata (Butler, 1871)
  • Eurema salome (C. & R. Felder, 1861) – Salome yellow
  • Eurema tupuntenem Lichy, 1976
  • Eurema xantochlora (Kollar, 1850) – tropical yellow

Species group abaeis:

Species group pyrisitia:

  • Eurema chamberlaini Butler, 1897
  • Eurema dina (Poey, 1832) – bush sulphur or dina yellow
  • Eurema euterpiformis Munroe, 1947
  • Eurema leuce (Boisduval, 1836) – Hall's sulphur
  • Eurema lisa (Boisduval & Leconte, 1829) – little yellow
  • Eurema messalina (Fabricius, 1787) – shy yellow
  • Eurema nise (Cramer, [1775]) – mimosa yellow
  • Eurema portoricensis (Dewitz, 1877) – Puerto Rican yellow
  • Eurema proterpia (Fabricius, 1775) – tailed orange or little jaune
  • Eurema pyro (Godart, 1819)
  • Eurema venusta (Boisduval, 1836)

Species group teriocolias:

  • Eurema zelia (Lucas, 1852)

Unknown species group

  • Eurema doris (Röber, 1909)
  • Eurema irena Corbet & Pendlebury, 1932
  • Eurema ormistoni (Watkins, 1925)
  • Eurema raymundoi (D'Almeida, 1928)
  • Eurema tondana (Felder, C & R Felder, 1865)

References

  1. ^ Eurema, page on Markku Savela's butterfly website

External links

Eurema alitha

Eurema alitha, the scalloped grass yellow, is a butterfly species in the genus Eurema. It was first described as Terias alitha by father and son entomologists Cajetan and Rudolf Felder in 1862. It is found in Southeast Asia.

Eurema andersonii

Eurema andersonii, the one-spot grass yellow or Anderson's grass yellow, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites, which is found in India and other parts of Asia.

Eurema blanda

Eurema blanda, the three-spot grass yellow, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae which is found in Sri Lanka, India and southeast Asia.

Eurema brigitta

Eurema brigitta, the small grass yellow or broad-bordered grass yellow, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites. It is found in India, other parts of Asia, Australia and Africa.

Eurema daira

Eurema daira, the fairy yellow, barred yellow or barred sulphur, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is found from Argentina north to the southern United States. Strays can be found up to southern Arizona, South Dakota, southern Texas and even Washington, D.C.

The wingspan is 32–41 mm. Adults are on wing year round in the southern part of the range and in late summer and fall as vagrant.

The larvae feed on Fabaceae species, including Stylosanthes biflora and Aeschynomene species. Adults feed on the nectar of various flowers including joint vetches and shepherd's needle, and are the principal pollinators of Cnidoscolus urens.

Eurema desjardinsii

Eurema desjardinsii, the angled grass yellow, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae, found in Africa.

The wingspan is 35–38 mm for males and 37–40 mm for females. Adults are on wing year-round, depending on rainfall.The larvae feed on Chamaecrista mimosoides and probably Hypericum aethiopicum.

Eurema floricola

Eurema floricola, the Malagasy grass yellow, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found in Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and on Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, Réunion and the Seychelles. The habitat consists of the forest/savanna transition zone.

The larvae feed on Desmanthus virgatus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Leucaena glauca, Mimosa and Entada species.

Eurema hapale

Eurema hapale, the marsh grass yellow or pale grass yellow, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, eastern Zimbabwe, northern Botswana and Madagascar. The habitat consists of marshy areas in forests and moist savanna.

Adults have a relatively weak flight and often fly in dense vegetation. They are on wing from August to September and from April to May.

The larvae feed on Albizia species.

Eurema hecabe

Eurema hecabe, the common grass yellow, is a small pierid butterfly species found in Asia, Africa and Australia. They are found flying close to the ground and are found in open grass and scrub habitats. It is simply known as "the grass yellow" in parts of its range; the general term otherwise refers to the entire genus Eurema.

Eurema laeta

Eurema laeta, the spotless grass yellow, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae (the yellows and whites), which is found in India, Sri Lanka, China, Indochina, Japan, and onwards to Australia.

Eurema leuce

Eurema leuce, the Hall's sulphur, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found on the West Indies and in Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, and Venezuela.

The length of the forewings is 17–21 mm for males and females. Adults have been recorded feeding on Bidens pilosa, Tournefortia hirsutissima, and Croton barahonensis.

Eurema lisa

Eurema lisa, commonly known as the little yellow, little sulphur or little sulfur, is a butterfly species of subfamily Coliadinae that occurs in Central America and the southern part of North America.

Eurema mexicana

Eurema mexicana, the Mexican yellow, sometimes called the wolf-face sulphur, is a North and South American butterfly in the family Pieridae. It occurs mainly in Mexico but occasionally is found in central and southwestern United States and rarely in Canada.

Eurema nicippe

Eurema nicippe, the sleepy orange, is a North American butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is also found in the West Indies, Costa Rica and Belize.

Eurema proterpia

Eurema proterpia, the tailed orange, is a North and South American butterfly in the family Pieridae.

Eurema regularis

Eurema regularis, the even-bordered grass yellow or regular grass yellow, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found in Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya to Zambia, eastern Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. The habitat consists of woodland and forest margins.

Adults are on wing year round.

List of butterflies of India (Pieridae)

This is a list of the pierid butterflies of India. It forms part of the full List of butterflies of India.

The family Pieridae, or the whites and yellows are a family of butterflies of moderate or small size. The common names refer to the two predominant colours found on the wings of these butterflies along with markings in black.

Of the 1051 species of pierids occurring in the world, 81 species in 21 genera are found in India.

Pyrisitia nise

Pyrisitia nise, the mimosa yellow, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found from Argentina north to the Texas Gulf Coast and throughout central and southern Florida, northward to the Tennessee Valley. It is an occasional stray to central Texas and south-eastern Arizona and rarely to southern California, southern Colorado and Kansas. The habitat consists of brushy woodland edges.The wingspan is 29–51 mm (1.1–2.0 in). Both sexes are yellow. The upperside of the forewing has narrow black outer edges. Black margins of the hindwing are uncommon in males, but always absent in females. Adults are on wing from May to August in southern Florida, September to November in southern Texas and all year round in the tropics. Adults feed on flower nectar.The larvae feed on Mimosa pudica.

Trifurcula eurema

Trifurcula eurema is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is widespread throughout Europe, northwards to southern Norway and Sweden (but not in Finland), Poland and the Baltic Region. It is also found in the Mediterranean region, including the larger Mediterranean islands, east to Bulgaria, Asiatic Turkey and Ukraine.

The wingspan is 4.5–7 mm.

The larvae feed on Dorycnium hirsutum, Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Dorycnium rectum, Lotus corniculatus, Lotus cytisoides, Lotus ornithopodoides, Lotus pedunculatus, Lotus uliginosus and Tetragonolobus maritimus. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a long narrow corridor with a linear frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch that may occupy almost an entire leaflet at the end. The blotch mostly starts at the base of the leaflet, where most frass is concentrated. Pupation normally takes place within the mine.

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