Eurasian treecreeper

The Eurasian treecreeper or common treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) is a small passerine bird also known in the British Isles, where it is the only living member of its genus, simply as treecreeper. It is similar to other treecreepers, and has a curved bill, patterned brown upperparts, whitish underparts, and long stiff tail feathers which help it creep up tree trunks. It can be most easily distinguished from the similar short-toed treecreeper, which shares much of its European range, by its different song.

The Eurasian treecreeper has nine or more subspecies which breed in different parts of its range in temperate Eurasia. This species is found in woodlands of all kinds, but where it overlaps with the short-toed treecreeper in western Europe it is more likely to be found in coniferous forests or at higher altitudes. It nests in tree crevices or behind bark flakes, and favours introduced giant sequoia as nest sites where they are available. The female typically lays five or six pink-speckled white eggs in the lined nest, but eggs and chicks are vulnerable to attack by woodpeckers and mammals, including squirrels.

The Eurasian treecreeper is insectivorous and climbs up tree trunks like a mouse, to search for insects which it picks from crevices in the bark with its fine curved bill. It then flies to the base of another tree with a distinctive erratic flight. This bird is solitary in winter, but may form communal roosts in cold weather.

Contact calls recorded in Surrey, England


Similar in appearance, all treecreepers are small birds with streaked and spotted brown upperparts, rufous rumps and whitish underparts. They have long decurved bills, and long rigid tail feathers that provide support as they creep up tree trunks looking for insects.[2]

The Eurasian treecreeper is 12.5 cm (4.9 in) long and weighs 7.0–12.9 g (0.25–0.46 oz). It has warm brown upperparts intricately patterned with black, buff and white, and a plain brown tail. Its belly, flanks and vent area are tinged with buff. The sexes are similar, but the juvenile has duller upperparts than the adult, and its underparts are dull white with dark fine spotting on the flanks.[2]

The contact call is a very quiet, thin and high-pitched sit, but the most distinctive call is a penetrating tsree, with a vibrato quality, sometimes repeated as a series of notes. The male's song begins with srrih, srrih followed in turn by a few twittering notes, a longer descending ripple, and a whistle that falls and then rises.[2]

The range of the Eurasian treecreeper overlaps with that of several other treecreepers, which can present local identification problems. In Europe, the Eurasian treecreeper shares much of its range with the short-toed treecreeper. Compared to that species, it is whiter below, warmer and more spotted above, and has a whiter supercilium and slightly shorter bill. Visual identification, even in the hand, may be impossible for poorly marked birds. A singing treecreeper is usually identifiable, since short-toed treecreeper has a distinctive series of evenly spaced notes sounding quite different from the song of Eurasian treecreeper; however, both species have been known to sing the other's song.[2]

Three Himalayan subspecies of Eurasian treecreeper are now sometimes given full species status as Hodgson's treecreeper, for example by BirdLife International,[3] but if they are retained as subspecies of Eurasian, they have to be distinguished from three other South Asian treecreepers. The plain tail of Eurasian treecreeper differentiates it from bar-tailed treecreeper, which has a distinctive barred tail pattern, and its white throat is an obvious difference from brown-throated treecreeper. Rusty-flanked treecreeper is more difficult to separate from Eurasian, but has more contrasting cinnamon, rather than buff, flanks.[2]

The North American brown creeper has never been recorded in Europe, but an autumn vagrant would be difficult to identify, since it would not be singing, and the American species' call is much like that of Eurasian treecreeper. In appearance, brown creeper is more like short-toed than Eurasian, but a vagrant might still not be possible to identify with certainty given the similarities between the three species.[2]


Short-toed treecreeper, a confusion species in Europe

The Eurasian treecreeper was first described under its current scientific name by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758.[4] The binomial name is derived from Ancient Greek kerthios, a small tree-dwelling bird described by Aristotle and others, and Latin familiaris, familiar or common.[5]

This species is one of a group of very similar typical treecreeper species, all placed in the single genus Certhia. Eight species are currently recognised, in two evolutionary lineages: a Holarctic radiation, and a southern Asian group. The Holarctic group has a more warbling song, always (except in C. familiaris from China) starting or ending with a shrill sreeh. Species in the southern group, in contrast, have a faster-paced trill without the sreeh sound. All the species have distinctive vocalizations and some subspecies have been elevated to species on the basis of their calls.[6]

Hodgson's Treecreeper I IMG 3315
Hodgson's treecreeper, probably C. h. mandelli, formerly considered to be a subspecies of Eurasian treecreeper

The Eurasian treecreeper belongs to the northern group, along with the North American brown creeper, C. americana, the short-toed treecreeper, C. brachydactyla, of western Eurasia, and, if it is considered a separate species, Hodgson's treecreeper, C. hodgsoni, from the southern rim of the Himalayas.[7]

The brown creeper has sometimes been considered to be a subspecies of Eurasian treecreeper, but has closer affinities to short-toed treecreeper, and is normally now treated as a full species.[2] Hodgson's treecreeper is a more recent proposed split following studies of its cytochrome b mtDNA sequence and song structure that indicate that it may well be a distinct species from C. familiaris.[7]

There are nine to twelve subspecies of Eurasian treecreeper, depending on the taxonomic view taken, which are all very similar and often interbreed in areas where their ranges overlap. There is a general cline in appearance from west to east across Eurasia, with subspecies becoming greyer above and whiter below, but this trend reverses east of the Amur River. The currently recognised subspecies are as follows:[2]

Subspecies Range Notes[2]
C. f. britannica Great Britain and Ireland Irish treecreepers, slightly darker than British ones, have sometimes been given subspecific status
C. f. macrodactyla Western Europe Paler above and whiter below than C. f. britannica
C. f. corsa Corsica Buff-tinged underparts and more contrasted upperparts than C. f. macrodactyla
C. f. familiaris Scandinavia and eastern Europe east to western Siberia Nominate subspecies. Paler above than C. f. macrodactyla, white underparts
C. f. daurica Eastern Siberia, northern Mongolia Paler and greyer than the nominate subspecies
C. f. orientalis Amur basin, northeast China, Korea and Hokkaido, Japan Similar to nominate, but with stronger streaking above
C. f. japonica Japan south of Hokkaido Darker and more rufous than C. f. daurica
C. f. persica The Crimea and Turkey east to northern Iran Duller and less rufous than the nominate form
C. f. tianchanica Northwestern China and adjacent regions of the former USSR Paler and more rufous than nominate subspecies
C. f. hodgsoni Western Himalayas of, Kashmir Often treated as a full species, Hodgson's treecreeper, C. hodgsonii.[7]
C. f. mandellii Eastern Himalayas of India, Nepal Often now treated as a subspecies of Hodgson's treecreeper
C. f. khamensis China, Sichuan Often now treated as a subspecies of Hodgson's treecreeper

Distribution and habitat

474px-Certhia familiariscroppedmirror
Central European bird feeding on a trunk

The Eurasian treecreeper is the most widespread member of its genus, breeding in temperate woodlands across Eurasia from Ireland to Japan. It prefers mature trees, and in most of Europe, where it shares its range with short-toed treecreeper, it tends to be found mainly in coniferous forest, especially spruce and fir. However, where it is the only treecreeper, as in European Russia,[2] or the British Isles,[5] it frequents broadleaved or mixed woodland in preference to conifers. It is also found in parks and large gardens.

The Eurasian treecreeper breeds down to sea level in the north of its range, but tends to be a highland species further south. In the Pyrenees it breeds above 1,370 metres (4,490 feet), in China from 400–2,100 metres (1,300–6,900 ft) and in southern Japan from 1,065–2,135 metres (3,494–7,005 ft).[2] The breeding areas have July isotherms between 14–16 °C and 23–24 °C (73–75 °F) and 72–73 °F).[8]

The Eurasian treecreeper is non-migratory in the milder west and south of its breeding range, but some northern birds move south in winter, and individuals breeding on mountains may descend to a lower altitude in winter. Winter movements and post-breeding dispersal may lead to vagrancy outside the normal range. Wintering migrants of the Asian subspecies have been recorded in South Korea and China, and the nominate form has been recorded west of its breeding range as far as Orkney, Scotland. The Eurasian treecreeper has also occurred as a vagrant to the Channel Islands (where the short-toed is the resident species), Majorca and the Faroe Islands.[2]


This species has an extensive range of about 10 million km2 (3.8 million square miles). It has a large population, including an estimated 11–20 million individuals in Europe alone. Population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.[1]

It is common through much of its range, but in the northernmost areas it is rare, since it is vulnerable to hard winters, especially if its feeding is disrupted by an ice glaze on the trees or freezing rain. It is also uncommon in Turkey and the Caucasus. In the west of its range it has spread to the Outer Hebrides in Scotland, pushed further north in Norway, and first bred in the Netherlands in 1993.[2]



Certhia familiaris MWNH 1434
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Introduced redwoods are the preferred nesting trees where present.

The Eurasian treecreeper breeds from the age of one year, nesting in tree crevices or behind bark flakes.[5] Where present, the introduced North American giant sequoia is a favourite nesting tree, since a nest cavity can be easily hollowed out in its soft bark.[9] Crevices in buildings or walls are sometimes used, and artificial nest boxes or flaps may be preferred in coniferous woodland.[2] The nest has a base of twigs, pine needles, grass or bark, and a lining of finer material such as feathers, wool, moss, lichen or spider web.

In Europe, the typical clutch of five–six eggs is laid between March and June, but in Japan three–five eggs are laid from May to July.[2] The eggs are white with very fine pinkish speckles mainly at the broad end,[2] measure 16 mm × 12 mm (0.63 in × 0.47 in) and weigh 1.2 g (0.042 oz) of which 6% is shell.[5] The eggs are incubated by the female alone for 13–17 days until the altricial downy chicks hatch; they are then fed by both parents, but brooded by the female alone, for a further 15–17 days to fledging.[5] Juveniles return to the nest for a few nights after fledging. About 20% of pairs, mainly in the south and west, raise a second brood.[2]

Predators of treecreeper nests and young include the great spotted woodpecker, red squirrel, and small mustelids, and predation is about three times higher in fragmented landscapes than in solid blocks of woodland (32.4% against 12.0% in less fragmented woodlands). The predation rate increases with the amount of forest edge close to a nest site, and also the presence of nearby agricultural land, in both cases probably because of a higher degree of mustelid predation.[10] This species is parasitised in the nest by the moorhen flea, Dasypsyllus gallinulae.[11] The juvenile survival rate of this species is unknown, but 47.7% of adults survive each year. The typical lifespan is two years, but the maximum recorded age is eight years and ten months.[5]


A formica rufa sideviewmirror
Formica rufa, a competitor for arthropod prey

The Eurasian treecreeper typically seeks invertebrate food on tree trunks, starting near the tree base and working its way up using its stiff tail feathers for support. Unlike a nuthatch, it does not come down trees head first, but flies to the base of another nearby tree. It uses its long thin bill to extract insects and spiders from crevices in the bark. Although normally found on trees, it will occasionally hunt prey items on walls, bare ground, or amongst fallen pine needles, and may add some conifer seeds to its diet in the colder months.[8]

The female Eurasian treecreeper forages primarily on the upper parts of the tree trunks, while the male uses the lower parts. A study in Finland found that if a male disappears, the unpaired female will forage at lower heights, spend less time on each tree and have shorter foraging bouts than a paired female.[12]

This bird may sometimes join mixed-species feeding flocks in winter, but it does not appear to share the resources found by accompanying tits and goldcrests, and may just be benefiting from the extra vigilance of a flock.[8] Wood ants share the same habitat as the treecreeper, and also feed on invertebrates on tree trunks. The Finnish researchers found that where the ants have been foraging, there are fewer arthropods, and male treecreepers spent a shorter time on spruce trunks visited by ants.[13]


Certhia familiaris - 01
The claws of the treecreeper allows it to attach to the trunks and branches.

As a small woodland bird with cryptic plumage and a quiet call, the Eurasian treecreeper is easily overlooked as it hops mouse-like up a vertical trunk, progressing in short hops, using its stiff tail and widely splayed feet as support. Nevertheless, it is not wary, and is largely indifferent to the presence of humans.[2] It has a distinctive erratic and undulating flight, alternating fluttering butterfly-like wing beats with side-slips and tumbles. Migrating birds may fly by day or night, but the extent of movements is usually masked by resident populations. It is solitary in winter, but in cold weather up to a dozen or more birds will roost together in a suitable sheltered crevice.[8]


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Certhia familiaris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Harrap, Simon; Quinn, David (1996). Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers. Christopher Helm. pp. 177–195. ISBN 0-7136-3964-4.
  3. ^ "Hodgson's Treecreeper Certhia hodgsoni". BirdLife Species Factsheet. BirdLife International. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  4. ^ Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 118. C. supra grisea, subtus alba, remigibus fuscis, decemris macula alba.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Treecreeper Certhia familiaris [Linnaeus, 1758]". BirdFacts. British Trust for Ornithology (BTO). Retrieved 2008-05-20.
  6. ^ Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Sun, Yue-Hua; Paeckert, Martin (2008). "Evolutionary history of treecreeper vocalisations(Aves: Certhia)". Organisms, Diversity & Evolution. 8: 305–324. doi:10.1016/j.ode.2008.05.001.
  7. ^ a b c Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Sun, Yue-Hua (2006). "Molecular phylogeny of treecreepers (Certhia) detects hidden diversity". Ibis. 148 (3): 477–488. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00547.x.
  8. ^ a b c d Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M, eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X. 1411–1416
  9. ^ Cocker, Mark; Mabey, Richard (2005). Birds Britannica. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6907-9. 394
  10. ^ Huhta, Esa; Aho, Teija; Jäntti, Ari; Suorsa, Petri; Kuitunen, Markku; Nikula, Ari; Hakkarainen Harri (February 2004). "Forest Fragmentation Increases Nest Predation in the Eurasian Treecreeper". Conservation Biology. 18 (1): 148–155. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00270.x.
  11. ^ Rothschild, Miriam; Clay, Theresa (1953). Fleas, Flukes and Cuckoos. A study of bird parasites. London: Collins. p. 113.
  12. ^ Aho, Teija; Kuitunen, Markku; Suhonen, Jukka; Hakkari, Tomi; Jäntti, Ari (July 1997). "Effects of male removal on female foraging behavior in the Eurasian treecreeper". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 41 (1): 49–53. doi:10.1007/s002650050362.
  13. ^ Aho, Teija; Kuitunen, Markku; Suhonen, Jukka; Hakkari, Tomi; Jäntti, Ari (November 1997). "Behavioural responses of Eurasian treecreepers, Certhia familiaris, to competition with ants". Animal Behaviour. 54 (5): 1283–1290. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0547. PMID 9398381.

External links

Ashford Hill NNR

Ashford Hill is a British national nature reserve next to the village of Ashford Hill in Hampshire. Part of the reserve is a designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The site is one of Natural Englands nature reserves

Birds in music

Birds have played a role in Western Classical music since at least the 14th century, when composers such as Jean Vaillant quoted birdsong in some of their compositions. Among the birds whose song is most often used in music are the nightingale and the cuckoo.

Composers and musicians have made use of birds in their music in different ways: they can be inspired by birdsong; they can intentionally imitate bird song in a composition; they can incorporate recordings of birds into their works, as Ottorino Respighi first did; or, like the cellist Beatrice Harrison in 1924 and more recently the jazz musician David Rothenberg, they can duet with birds.

Authors including Rothenberg have claimed that birds such as the hermit thrush sing on traditional scales as used in human music, but at least one songbird, the nightingale wren, does not choose notes in this way. However, among birds which habitually borrow phrases or sounds from other species such as the starling, the way they use variations of rhythm, relationships of musical pitch, and combinations of notes can resemble music. The similar motor constraints on human and avian song may have driven these to have similar song structures, including "arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases", long notes at the ends of phrases, and typically small differences in pitch between adjacent notes, at least in birds with a strong song structure like the Eurasian treecreeper.


Certhia is the genus of birds containing the typical treecreepers, which together with the African and Indian spotted creepers make up the family Certhiidae.

The typical treecreepers occur in many wooded parts of the North Temperate Zone. They do not normally migrate other than for local movements, such as altitudinal migrations in the Himalayan species.The treecreepers are small woodland birds, very similar in appearance (so they can present serious identification problems where two species occur together). They are brown with streaks above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff, pointed tail feathers, like woodpeckers and woodcreepers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. All the tail feathers but the two central ones are molted in quick succession; the two central ones are not molted till the others grow back, so the bird can always prop itself with its tail.They build cup nests on loose twig platforms wedged behind patches of bark on tree trunks. (They will also use special nest boxes clamped to tree trunks and made with two openings; the birds use one as an entrance and one as an exit.) They lay 3 to 9 eggs (usually 5 or 6), which are white with reddish-brown speckles and dots. The female incubates for 14 or 15 days. The young fledge 15 or 16 days later; the male may care for them while the female incubates and feeds a second brood. Rarely a male may mate with a second female while the first is incubating, and there are even records of two females incubating their clutches side by side in a nest.At least some species roost in small oblong cavities that they dig out behind loose bark. They may roost individually or in groups (probably families) that in extreme cold have been known to exceed 12 birds.

Hidaka Mountains

Hidaka Mountains (日高山脈, Hidaka-sanmyaku) is a mountain range in southeastern Hokkaido, Japan. It runs 150 km from Mount Sahoro or Karikachi Pass in central Hokkaidō south, running into the sea at Cape Erimo. It consists of folded mountains that range from 1,500 to 2,000 metres in height. Mount Poroshiri is the highest at 2,053 m. The Hidaka Mountains separate the subprefectures of Hidaka and Tokachi. Most of the range lies in the Hidaka-sanmyaku Erimo Quasi-National Park (日高山脈襟裳国定公園, Hidaka-sanmyaku Erimo Kokutei-kōen). Since the mountain range lies so far north, the alpine climate zone lies at a lower altitude.

Highwood, Wokingham

Highwood is a local nature reserve between Woodley and Earley. The nature reserve is owned and managed by Wokingham Borough Council.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Ireland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ireland. The avifauna of Ireland include a total of 478 species as of late 2015 according to the Irish Rare Birds Committee (IRBC). An additional 17 species have been added from Bird Checklists of the World.Of these 495 species, 281 are rare or accidental and three have been introduced by humans. One has apparently been extirpated, one is extinct, and one is probably extinct. The list also includes four entries of birds that have been accepted without being identified to species. The list does not include species placed in "Category D" by the IBRC. These are species where there is doubt as to whether they have occurred in a wild state (Category D1), they have arrived by human assistance such as on board a ship (D2), they have only been recorded dead on the tideline (D3), or they are feral species whose populations may not be self-sustaining (D4).

Ireland has a relatively low diversity of breeding birds due to its isolation. Several species such as the tawny owl, Eurasian nuthatch and willow tit which breed in Great Britain have not been recorded. However, there are large colonies of seabirds including important populations of European storm-petrels, northern gannets, and roseate terns. Other notable breeding birds include corn crakes and red-billed choughs. There are no endemic species but there are endemic subspecies of white-throated dipper, coal tit, and Eurasian jay.

Large numbers of wildfowl and waders winter in Ireland, attracted by its mild climate. About half the world population of the Greenland race of greater white-fronted geese spend the winter there. During autumn, many migrating seabirds can be seen off the coasts including several species of skuas, shearwaters, and petrels. Ireland's westerly position means that North American birds are regularly recorded in autumn.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence; the tags are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ireland

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ireland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of the Isle of Man

Over 300 species of bird have been recorded in the wild on the Isle of Man, a self-governing island in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. Over 100 species breed there, including significant populations of red-billed chough, peregrine falcon and hen harrier.A variety of seabirds breed on the coastal cliffs such as Atlantic puffin, black guillemot, black-legged kittiwake, European shag and northern fulmar. The island gives its name to the Manx shearwater which formerly nested in large numbers on the Calf of Man. The colony disappeared following the arrival of rats but the shearwaters began to return in the 1960s. The Ayres in the north of the island have colonies of little tern, Arctic tern and common tern.Moorland areas on the island are home to red grouse, Eurasian curlew and northern raven. Woodland birds include long-eared owl, common treecreeper, Eurasian blackcap and common chiffchaff. There is little native woodland on the island and several species found in Great Britain, such as tawny owl, Eurasian green woodpecker and Eurasian jay, do not breed on the isle of Man.

Many birds visit the island during the winter and migration seasons including waders such as purple sandpiper, turnstone and golden plover. Wintering wildfowl include small numbers of whooper swan. A bird observatory was established on the Calf of Man in 1959 to study the migrating and breeding birds. By the end of 2001, 99,042 birds of 134 species had been ringed there. Numerous rarities have been recorded there including American mourning dove and white-throated robin.

The list below includes 323 species of bird. The English names are those recommended by the International Ornithological Congress (IOC) with alternative names given in brackets. The scientific names and classification follow the British Ornithologists' Union (BOU). Species marked as rare are those for which the Manx Ornithological Society (MOS) requires a written description in order to accept a record.The Manx Ornithological Society uses the following codes:

A: a species which has occurred naturally on the island since 1 January 1950

B: a species which has occurred naturally but only before 31 December 1949

C: a species with an established breeding population as a result of introduction by man

C*: a species which has visited the island from an introduced population in Great BritainFailed introductions such as black grouse or species which are not yet established such as red-winged laughingthrush are not included on the list.

Lousehill Copse

Lousehill Copse is a local nature reserve in the Tilehurst suburb of the English town of Reading. The nature reserve is 13.03 hectares (32.2 acres) in size, and is under the management of the Reading Borough Council. The majority of the site comprises natural mature woodland surrounded by housing and featuring a pond, whilst the northern section of the reserve, also known as Comparts Plantation, is a grassy meadow area. To the south the reserve is crossed by Dee Road.Along with Blundells Copse & McIlroy Park, Lousehill Copse forms part of West Reading Woodlands.

Maiden Erlegh Local Nature Reserve

Maiden Erlegh Local Nature Reserve is a local nature reserve in Earley of the English county of Berkshire. The nature reserve is under the management of Earley Town Council. It consists of areas of ancient and secondary woodland, grassland, a large lake, a brook, an old woodland pond and surrounding wetland habitat. The reserve supports a large amount of wildlife including over a 100 species of butterflies and moths, more than 50 species of birds, 50 species of fungi and over 20 species of trees.

Moorhen flea

The moorhen flea (Dasypsyllus gallinulae) is a flea originating from South America. It is now a globally widespread. It is a large flea, easily identified because the male has two heavy horn-like spines on one of the genital flaps, and the female has a deep "bite" on the seventh sternite.It is found in bird nests, and is more likely to be found on the bird's body than, say, the chicken flea, which is normally found in the nest. The moorhen flea's many hosts include the common moorhen, Eurasian woodcock, grouse, European robin, goldcrest, willow tit, and Eurasian treecreeper.

Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

The Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga ecoregion (WWF ID:PA0606) is an area of coniferous forests in the Russian Far East, covering the Amur River delta, the west coast of the Okhotsk Sea, and the rugged extension of the northern Sikhote-Alin Mountains that run southwest-to-northeast through the Primorsky and Khabarovsk regions. It is the southernmost taiga forest in Eurasia. The ecoregion is distinguished from surrounding ecoregions by the slightly warmer climate due to the maritime influence and the shield of the mountains to the west, and by the mixing of flora and fauna species from Okhotsk-Kamchatka communities to the north and Manchurian species from the south. The forest at lower altitudes is "light taiga" (mostly larch), and "dark taiga" (spruce and fir) at higher altitudes.

Padworth Common Local Nature Reserve

Padworth Common Local Nature Reserve is a local nature reserve on the edge of the hamlet of Padworth Common in Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is under the management of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust.

Round Copse

Round Copse is a local nature reserve in Tilehurst, Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is under the management of the Reading Borough Council.

Shepperlands Farm Nature Reserve

Shepperlands Farm Nature Reserve is a nature reserve on the edge of the village of Finchampstead in Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is under the management of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust.

Short-toed treecreeper

The short-toed treecreeper (Certhia brachydactyla) is a small passerine bird found in woodlands through much of the warmer regions of Europe and into north Africa. It has a generally more southerly distribution than the other European treecreeper species, the common treecreeper, with which it is easily confused where they both occur. The short-toed treecreeper tends to prefer deciduous trees and lower altitudes than its relative in these overlap areas. Although mainly sedentary, vagrants have occurred outside the breeding range.

The short-toed treecreeper is one of a group of four very similar Holarctic treecreepers, including the closely related North American brown creepers, and has five subspecies differing in appearance and song. Like other treecreepers, the short-toed is inconspicuously plumaged brown above and whitish below, and has a curved bill and stiff tail feathers. It is a resident in woodlands throughout its range, and nests in tree crevices or behind bark flakes, laying about six eggs. This common, unwary, but inconspicuous species feeds mainly on insects which are picked from the tree trunk as the treecreeper ascends with short hops.


The treecreepers are a family, Certhiidae, of small passerine birds, widespread in wooded regions of the Northern Hemisphere and sub-Saharan Africa. The family contains ten species in two genera, Certhia and Salpornis. Their plumage is dull-coloured, and as their name implies, they climb over the surface of trees in search of food.


Vaikkojoki River is a 50-kilometre (31 mi) long river, which is in provinces of Northern Karelia and Northern Savonia.

The waters of Vaikkojoki River flows from Lake Vaikkojärvi to Lake Kaavinjärvi, from the municipality of Juuka to municipality of Kaavi. The elevation difference of the river is more than 60 metres (200 ft). There are 27 rapids in Vaikkojoki River. The total length of the rapids is approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi).Lake Kärenjärvi, Lake Vihtajärvi, Lake Saarijärvi and Lake Retunen are the largest lakes in the area of Vaikkojoki River.The total length of Vaikkojoki Canoeing Route is about 90 kilometres (56 mi).

Wraysbury No 1 Gravel Pit

Wraysbury No 1 Gravel Pit is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) based in Wraysbury, Berkshire. The site is a lowland lake.


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