Eurasian reed warbler

The Eurasian reed warbler, or just reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds across Europe into temperate western Asia. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.

Eurasian reed warbler
Acrocephalus scirpaceus Vlaskop cropped
Song recorded in Surrey, England
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Acrocephalidae
Genus: Acrocephalus
Species:
A. scirpaceus
Binomial name
Acrocephalus scirpaceus
(Hermann, 1804)

Etymology

The genus name Acrocephalus is from Ancient Greek akros, "highest", and kephale, "head". It is possible that Naumann and Naumann thought akros meant "sharp-pointed". The specific scirpaceus is from Latin and means "reed".[2]

An older scientific name for the reed warbler was Acrocephalus streperus (Vieill.).[3]

Habitat and population density

This small passerine bird is a species found almost exclusively in reed beds, usually with some bushes. Direct counts of territorial males in suitable habitat and sampling the population sex-ratio can be a proper alternative to inference-rich predictive modeling based on imperfect habitat-extrapolation of densities of reed warblers at large spatial scales.[4]

Description

This is a medium-sized warbler, 12.5–14 cm in length. The adult has an unstreaked brown back and buff underparts. The forehead is flattened, and the bill is strong and pointed. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers, but young birds are richer buff below. The Eurasian reed warbler looks similar to the great reed warbler, but the great reed warbler is larger in size and has a stronger supercilium.

Song

The song is a slow, chattering jit-jit-jit with typically acrocephaline whistles and mimicry added.

Song Diaccia Botrona Marsh, Italy

Food

Like most warblers, it is insectivorous, but will take other small food items, including berries.

Nesting

The 3–5 eggs are laid in a basket nest in reeds. The chicks fledge after 10 or 11 days. This species is usually monogamous.[9] The Eurasian reed warbler is one of the species that are brood parasitised by the common cuckoo.

A history of British birds (1871) (14746972441)

Placement of nest

Reed Warbler Nest 10-06-12 (7173408749)

View on nest with clutch

Reed warbler cuckoo

Common cuckoo chick fed by reed warbler adult

Acrocephalus scirpaceus MHNT 323 Larache MAroc RdN

Reed warbler eggs

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2014). "Acrocephalus scirpaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 30, 350. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ For instance in Naumann, Johann Friedrich (1897). Naturgeschichte der Vögel Mitteleuropas. 2. OCLC 603365339 (all editions).; see also: 12 px Commons logo image on Wikimedia Commons.
  4. ^ a b Frías, O.; Bautista, L. M.; Dénes, F. V.; Cuevas, J. A.; Martínez, F.; Blanco, G. (2018). "Influence of habitat suitability and sex-related detectability on density and population size estimates of habitat-specialist warblers". PLoS ONE. 13: 020148. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201482.
  5. ^ Bibby, C. J.; Thomas, D. K. (1985). "Breeding and diets of the reed warbler at a rich and a poor site". Bird Study. 32: 19–31.
  6. ^ Parcuellos, M. (1997). "Comparative analysis between the passerine communities of great reed beds (Arundo donax) and reed beds (Phragmites australis) in southeastern Iberia". Ardeola. 44: 105–108.
  7. ^ Prokešová, J.; Kocian, L. (2004). "Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)" (PDF). Biologia Bratislava. 59: 637–644.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Stokke, B. G.; Hafstad, I.; Rudolfsen, G.; Bargain, B.; Beier, J.; Campas, D. B.; Dyrcz, A.; Honza, M.; Leisler, B.; Pap, P. L.; Patapavicius, R.; Prochazka, P.; Schulze-Hagen, K.; Thomas, R.; Moksness, A.; Møller, A. P.; Roskaft, E.; Soler, M. (2007). "Host density predicts presence of cuckoo parasitism in reed warblers". Oikos. 116: 913–922.
  9. ^ Leisler, B. & Wink, Michael (2000): Frequencies of multiple paternity in three Acrocephalus species (Aves: Sylviidae) with different mating systems (A. palustris, A. arundinaceus, A. paludicola). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 12: 237–249. PDF fulltext

External links

Bibliography

  • Kishkinev, D., Chernetsov, N., Pakhomov, A., Heyers, D., and Mouritsen, H. (2015). Eurasian reed warblers compensate for virtual magnetic displacement. Curr. Biol. 25, R822–R824
Abrod

Abrod is a national nature reserve in the Slovak municipality of Veľké Leváre in the Malacky District. The nature reserve covers an area of 92 ha of the Borská lowland area. It has a protection level of 4 under the Slovak nature protection system. The nature reserve is part of the Site of Community Importance with the same name which measures 162 ha. Since 1988 it is also a part of the Záhorie Protected Landscape Area.

Acrocephalidae

The Acrocephalidae (the reed warblers, marsh- and tree-warblers, or acrocephalid warblers) are a family of oscine passerine birds, in the superfamily Sylvioidea.

The species in this family are usually rather large "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Acrocephalus (bird)

The Acrocephalus warblers are small, insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Acrocephalus. Formerly in the paraphyletic Old World warbler assemblage, they are now separated as the namesake of the marsh and tree warbler family Acrocephalidae. They are sometimes called marsh warblers or reed warblers, but this invites confusion with marsh warbler and reed warbler proper, especially in North America, where it is common to use lower case for bird species.

These are rather drab brownish warblers usually associated with marshes or other wetlands. Some are streaked, others plain. Many species breeding in temperate regions are migratory.

This genus has heavily diversified into many species throughout islands across the tropical Pacific. This in turn has led to many of the resulting insular endemic species to become endangered. Several of these species (including all but one of the species endemic to the Marianas and two endemic to French Polynesia) have already gone extinct.

The most enigmatic species of the genus, the large-billed reed warbler (A. orinus), was rediscovered in Thailand in March, 2006; it was found also in a remote corner of Afghanistan in the summer of 2009. Prior to these recent sightings, it had been found only once before, in 1867.

Many species have a flat head profile, which gives rise to the group's scientific name. The genus name Acrocephalus is from Ancient Greek akros, "highest", and kephale, "head". It is possible that Naumann and Naumann thought akros meant "sharp-pointed".

African reed warbler

The African reed warbler or African marsh warbler (Acrocephalus baeticatus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds in much of Africa south of the Sahara. It is migratory within the continent, with southern breeding population moving to the tropics in the southern hemisphere’s winter.

This bird is sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the Eurasian reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

This is a common species of marshy areas, with reeds sedges or rank vegetation. When not breeding, it may enter gardens.

Black-browed reed warbler

The black-browed reed warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps) is a species of marsh-warbler (family Acrocephalidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found from eastern Mongolia and south-eastern Russia to eastern China and Japan.The black-browed reed warbler is similar and closely related to the more common and widespread Eurasian reed warbler. The bird spends its time foraging close to the ground inside undisturbed reed beds. Like many other wetland birds, it is of conservation concern owing to habitat loss-destruction of native marsh vegetation and its replacement by rice paddies and fishponds.

Cape Verde warbler

The Cape Verde warbler (Acrocephalus brevipennis) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It is also known as the Cape Verde cane warbler or Cape Verde swamp warbler, and in Creole as tchota-de-cana, chincherote, (also tchintchirote). It breeds on Santiago, Fogo, and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde Islands. It previously bred on Brava. This species is found in well-vegetated valleys, avoiding drier areas. It nests in reedbeds, two to three eggs being laid in a suspended nest.

Catalogue d'oiseaux

Catalogue d'oiseaux ("Catalogue of birds") is a work for piano solo by Olivier Messiaen composed of thirteen pieces, written between October 1956 and September 1958. It is devoted to birds and dedicated to his second wife Yvonne Loriod.

Common cuckoo

The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

This species is a widespread summer migrant to Europe and Asia, and winters in Africa. It is a brood parasite, which means it lays eggs in the nests of other bird species, particularly of dunnocks, meadow pipits, and reed warblers. Although its eggs are larger than those of its hosts, the eggs in each type of host nest resemble the host's eggs. The adult too is a mimic, in its case of the sparrowhawk; since that species is a predator, the mimicry gives the female time to lay her eggs without being seen to do so.

Englemere Pond

Englemere Pond is a local nature reserve near North Ascot in Berkshire. The reserve is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The site is owned by Crown Estate and managed by Bracknell Forest Borough Council.

John Callion

John Cragg Callion is an award-winning British ornithologist. His 25-year study of the European stonechat and his findings on the Eurasian dotterel have revealed much previously unknown information about both species.

Kolansko blato

Kolansko Blato is a ornithological reserve on the Croatian island of Pag. It was established in 1988 and covers an area of 535 ha of swamps. It is located on the south coast of the island of Pag between Novalja and Kolan.

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of San Marino

This is a list of the bird species recorded in San Marino. The avifauna of San Marino include a total of 96 species, none of which are introduced or endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the Association of European Rarities Committees.

Northeim Lake District

Northeim Lake District is a series of lakes near Northeim, Lower Saxony.

It has its origin in gravel extraction by open-pit mining. Digging for gravel began in 1852 in order to build the Royal Hanoverian State Railways. After World War II mining was intensified. Gravel that is found there is composed of greywacke, radiolarite and sand.

It is located where the Rhume river flows into the Leine river. Highway 3 crosses the Federal Motorway 7 there as well. The site is also crossed by the Leine-Heide Cycle Path.

It is now a recreation area. Persons can use the lakes for swimming, diving or windsurfing. It is also a good site for persons with sailboats.

The area is also a conservation area in order to protect the birds that breed there like the great crested grebe, water rail, yellow wagtail or the Eurasian reed warbler.

Paddyfield warbler

The paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola) is a species of marsh warbler (family Acrocephalidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage. The Manchurian reed warbler (A. tangorum) was (and sometimes still is) included in A. agricola as a subspecies.

The genus name Acrocephalus is from Ancient Greek akros, "highest", and kephale, "head". It is possible that Naumann and Naumann thought akros meant "sharp-pointed". The specific agricola is from Latin and means "farmer".It breeds in temperate central Asia. It is migratory, wintering in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe although there are small breeding populations along the western shores of the Black Sea around the border between Bulgaria and Romania. This passerine bird is a species found in low vegetation such as long grass, reeds and rice. 4-5 eggs are laid in a nest in grass.

At 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long with a wingspan of 15–17.5 centimetres (5.9–6.9 in), Paddyfield is close in size to the Eurasian reed warbler but with shorter bill and wingspan. The adult has an unstreaked pale brown back and buff underparts, with a warm brown rump. There is a clearer whitish supercilium and the bill is short and pointed. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers, but young birds are richer buff below. Like most warblers, it is insectivorous.

The song is fast and similar to marsh warbler, with much mimicry and typically acrocephaline whistles added. Its song is weaker and more rhythmic than that of its relative.

Plaiaundi

The Plaiaundi Ecology Park is a 24 -hectare coastal wetland lying where the Bidasoa River meets the sea in the Bay of Biscay. This is in the Basque country of northern Spain, close to the border with France. It is near Irun and Hondarribia in Gipuzkoa, Spain, and Hendaia in France. The confluence of the sea and river have made it one of the most important sites for migratory birds in Europe, with up to 175 species seen visiting the park each year. It is a natural flora and fauna reserve. The park contains three lagoons, two of which are tidal, and a beach.

Plasmodium homonucleophilum

Plasmodium homonucleophilum is a parasitic apicomplexan of the genus Plasmodium, subgenus Novyella whose parasitic hosts are birds.

Rack Marsh

Rack Marsh is a nature reserve on the edge of the hamlet of Bagnor in Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is under the management of the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust. Part of the reserve is in the Kennet and Lambourn Floodplain, a Biological Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Sedge warbler

The sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It is a medium-sized warbler with a brown, streaked back and wings and a distinct pale supercilium. Sedge warblers are migratory, crossing the Sahara to get from their European and Asian breeding grounds to spend winter in Africa. The male's song is composed of random chattering phrases and can include mimicry of other species. The sedge warbler is mostly insectivorous.

Population densities of Eurasian reed warblers (mean±SD) in Europe
Country Method Pairs/ha Birds/ha Nests/ha Ref.
UK Nest - - 17.9±10.4 [5]
Spain Census point - 3.9 - [6]
Spain Transect - 7.8 - [4]
Slovakia Nest - - 29.1±31.1 [7]
Spain Nest 12.6±11.3 - - [8]
Romania Nest 21.0±26.9 - - [8]
Romania Nest - - 21.0±26.9 [8]
France Nest - - 40.0 [8]
Romania Nest - - 21.0±26.9 [8]
France Nest - - 40.0 [8]
Czech Republic Nest - - 63. [8]
Germany Nest - - 44.0±15.6 [8]
Poland Nest - - 57.0 [8]
Lithuania Nest - - 5.0 [8]
Denmark Nest - - 25.0 [8]
Norway Nest - - 8.0 [8]

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