Eurasian collared dove

The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is a dove species native to Europe and Asia, which has been introduced to North America. Because of its vast global range and increasing population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2014.[1]

It is also called collared dove,[2][3][4] and spelled Eurasian collared-dove.[5]

Collared doves are sometimes kept in aviculture, and form strong relationships with each other.

The genus name Streptopelia is derived from Ancient Greek streptos meaning "collar" and peleia meaning "dove". The specific name decaocto is a latinisation of the Greek word for "eighteen".[6]



Collared Dove -upper body profile-8
Profile of a collared dove
A paif of Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar
A pair of a collared doves from Mangaon, Maharashtra, India

It is a medium-sized dove, distinctly smaller than the wood pigeon, similar in length to a rock pigeon but slimmer and longer-tailed, and slightly larger than the related turtle dove, with an average length of 32 cm (13 in)[7] from tip of beak to tip of tail, with a wingspan of 47–55 cm (19–22 in), and a weight of 125–240 g (4.4–8.5 oz). It is grey-buff to pinkish-grey overall, a little darker above than below, with a blue-grey under wing patch. The tail feathers are grey-buff above, and dark grey tipped white below; the outer tail feathers also tipped whitish above. It has a black half-collar edged with white on its nape from which it gets its name. The short legs are red and the bill is black. The iris is red, but from a distance the eyes appear to be black, as the pupil is relatively large and only a narrow rim of reddish-brown iris can be seen around the black pupil. The eye is surrounded by a small area of bare skin, which is either white or yellow. The two sexes are virtually indistinguishable; juveniles differ in having a poorly developed collar, and a brown iris.[4][2]


There are two subspecies, Streptopelia decaocto decaocto in most of the range (including all of the 20th century colonisations), and Streptopelia decaocto xanthocyclus in the southeast of the range from Burma east to southern China. The latter differs in having yellow skin around the eye (white in the nominate subspecies).[5] Two other subspecies formerly sometimes accepted, Streptopelia decaocto stoliczkae from Turkestan in central Asia, and Streptopelia decaocto intercedens from southern India and Sri Lanka,[2] are now considered synonyms of S. d. decaocto.[5]

It is closely related to the island collared dove of southeast Asia and the African collared dove of sub-Saharan Africa, forming a superspecies with these.[5] Identification from African collared dove is very difficult with silent birds, with the African species being marginally smaller and paler, but the calls are very distinct, a soft purring in African collared dove quite unlike the Eurasian collared dove's cooing.[4]


Streptopelia decaocto -Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain -juvenile-8
Juvenile before collar formation
Streptopelia decaocto zoom
Juvenile with early collar development

The collared dove is not migratory, but is strongly dispersive. Over the last century, it has been one of the great colonisers of the bird world, travelling far beyond its native range to colonise colder countries, becoming a permanent resident in several. Its original range at the end of the 19th century was warm temperate and subtropical Asia from Turkey east to southern China and south through India to Sri Lanka. In 1838 it was reported in Bulgaria, but not until the 20th century did it expand across Europe, appearing in parts of the Balkans between 1900–1920, and then spreading rapidly northwest, reaching Germany in 1945, Great Britain by 1953 (breeding for the first time in 1956), Ireland in 1959, and the Faroe Islands in the early 1970s. Subsequent spread was 'sideways' from this fast northwest spread, reaching northeast to north of the Arctic Circle in Norway and east to the Ural Mountains in Russia, and southwest to the Canary Islands and northern Africa from Morocco to Egypt, by the end of the 20th century. In the east of its range, it has also spread northeast to most of central and northern China, and locally (probably introduced) in Japan.[4][3][2][5] It has also reached Iceland as a vagrant (41 records up to 2006), but has not colonised successfully there.[8]

Invasive status in North America

In 1974, fewer than 50 Eurasian Collared Doves escaped captivity in Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas.[9] From the Bahamas, the species spread to Florida, and is now found in nearly every state in the US, as well as in Mexico.[10][11] In Arkansas (United States), the species was recorded first in 1989 and since then has grown in numbers and is now present in 42 of 75 counties in the state. It spread from the southeast corner of the state in 1997 to the northwest corner in 5 years, covering a distance of about 500 km (310 mi) at a rate of 100 km (62 mi) per year.[12] This is more than double the rate of 45 km (28 mi) per year observed in Europe.[13] As of 2012, few negative impacts have been demonstrated in Florida, where the species is most prolific.[14][15] However, the species is known as an aggressive competitor, and there is concern that as populations continue to grow, native birds will be outcompeted by the invaders.[14] However, one study found that Eurasian collared doves are not more aggressive or competitive than native mourning doves, despite similar dietary preferences.[16]

Population growth has ceased in areas where they’ve been established the longest, such as Florida, and in these regions recent observations suggest the population is in decline.[17] The population is still growing exponentially in areas of more recent introduction.[18] Carrying capacities appear to be highest in areas with higher temperatures and intermediate levels of development, such as suburban areas and some agricultural areas.[18]

While the spread of disease to native species has not been recorded in a study, Eurasian Collared Doves are known carriers of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae as well as Pigeon Paramyxovirus.[10][14] Both Trichomonas gallinae and Pigeon Paramyxovirus can spread to native birds via commingling at feeders and by consumption of doves by predators. Pigeon Paramyxovirus is an emergent disease and has the potential to affect domestic poultry, making the Eurasian Collared Dove a threat to not only native biodiversity, but a possible economic threat as well.[10]


Eurasian Collared Dove at Kutch
Courtship of Eurasian Collared Dove at Kutch
Streptopelia decaocto; Szczecin, Poland 3
Collared doves can become hand-tame in urban areas. Photograph taken in Szczecin, Poland.
Tourterelle turque MHNT
Streptopelia decaocto egg

Collared doves typically breed close to human habitation wherever food resources are abundant and there are trees for nesting; almost all nests are within 1 km (0.62 mi) of inhabited buildings. The female lays two white eggs in a stick nest, which she incubates during the night and which the male incubates during the day. Incubation lasts between 14 and 18 days, with the young fledging after 15 to 19 days. Breeding occurs throughout the year when abundant food is available, though only rarely in winter in areas with cold winters such as northeastern Europe. Three to four broods per year is common, although up to six broods in a year has been recorded.[2] Eurasian Collared Doves are a monogamous species, and share parental duties when caring for young.[19]

The male's mating display is a ritual flight, which, as with many other pigeons, consists of a rapid, near-vertical climb to height followed by a long glide downward in a circle, with the wings held below the body in an inverted "V" shape. At all other times, flight is typically direct using fast and clipped wing beats and without use of gliding.

The collared dove is not wary and often feeds very close to human habitation, including visiting bird tables; the largest populations are typically found around farms where spilt grain is frequent around grain stores or where livestock are fed. It is a gregarious species and sizeable winter flocks will form where there are food supplies such as grain (its main food) as well as seeds, shoots and insects. Flocks most commonly number between ten and fifty, but flocks of up to ten thousand have been recorded.[2]

The song is a goo-GOO-goo. The collared dove also makes a harsh loud screeching call lasting about two seconds, particularly in flight just before landing. A rough way to describe the screeching sound is a hah-hah.

Collared doves cooing in early spring are sometimes mistakenly reported as the calls of early-arriving cuckoos and, as such, a mistaken sign of spring's return.[2]

20180614-IMG 0546
A pair of collared doves foraging in the Springtime. Photo taken on the Central Coast of California.


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2018). "Streptopelia decaocto". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2018: e.T22727811A86083415. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22727811A86083415.en. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Cramp, S. (1985). "Streptopelia decaocto Collared Dove". Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: the birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 4: Terns to woodpeckers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 340−353. ISBN 978-0-19-857507-8.
  3. ^ a b Hagemeijer, W. J. M.; Blair, M. J. (1997). The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds. London: Poyser. ISBN 0-85661-091-7.
  4. ^ a b c d Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. (1998). "Streptopelia decaocto Collared Dove". The Birds of the Western Palearctic (Concise ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
  5. ^ a b c d e Baptista, L. F.; Trail, P. W.; Horblit, H. M.; Boesman, P.; Garcia, E. F. J.; Kirwan, G. M. (1997). "Eurasian Collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. p. 137. ISBN 84-87334-22-9.
  6. ^ Jobling, J. A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 131, 367. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  7. ^ Campbell, D. (2000). "Collared Dove". The Encyclopedia of British Birds. Bath: Parragon. p. 95. ISBN 0752541595.
  8. ^ Birding Iceland: Eurasian Collared Dove
  9. ^ Hengeveld, R (Autumn 1993). "What to Do about the North American Invasion by the Collared Dove?". Journal of Field Ornithology. 64 (4): 477–489. JSTOR 4513859.
  10. ^ a b c Schuler, Krysten; Green, David; Justice-Allen, Anne; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy; Spalding, Marilyn; Ip, Hon (June 2012). "Expansion of an Exotic Species and Concomitant Disease Outbreaks: Pigeon Paramyoxovirus in Free-Ranging Eurasian Collared Doves". EcoHealth. 9 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1007/s10393-012-0758-6. PMID 22476688.
  11. ^ Almazán-Núñez, R. C. (2014). "Nuevos registros de la paloma turca (Streptopelia decaocto) en el estado de Guerrero, México". Acta Zoológica Mexicana. 30 (3): 701–706.
  12. ^ Fielder, J. M., R. Kannan, D. A. James, and J. C. Cunningham (2012). Status, dispersal, and breeding biology of the exotic Eurasian Collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) in Arkansas. J. Arkansas Academy of Science 66: 55-61. Available at
  13. ^ Hengeveld, R. (1988). Mechanisms of biological invasions. Journal of Biogeography 15:819-828.
  14. ^ a b c Johnson, Steve; Donaldson-Fortier, Gay. "Florida's Introduced Birds: Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)". University of Florida IFAS Extension. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation: University of Florida. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  15. ^ Bonter, David N., Benjamin Zuckerberg, and Janis L. Dickinson. "Invasive Birds in a Novel Landscape: Habitat Associations and Effects on Established Species." Ecography 33 (2010): 494-502. Project Feeder Watch. Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
  16. ^ Poling, Trisha D., and Steven E. Hayslette. "Dietary Overlap and Foraging Competition Between Mourning Doves and Eurasian Collared-Doves." Journal of Wildlife Management 70.4 (2006): 998-1004.
  17. ^ "The 116th Christmas Bird Count Summary". National Audubon Society. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  18. ^ a b Scheidt SN, Hurlbert AH (2014) Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). PLoS ONE 9(10): e111510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111510
  19. ^ Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Winkler, Hans; Oliveira, Rui F. (2003). "Comparative analysis of male androgen responsiveness to social environment in birds: the effects of mating system and paternal incubation" (PDF). Hormones and Behavior. 43 (4): 508–519. doi:10.1016/s0018-506x(03)00027-8.

See also

External links

African collared dove

The African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) is a small dove found in the Sahel, northern parts of the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. Although it lives in arid lands, it is found around water sources.

This bird is typically around 26 cm in length. Its upper body, from shoulders to tail, is a pale grayish brown, though the wing edge has a bluish tinge. Flight feathers are darker, and nearly black. Head, neck and breast are pinkish shading to white on the chin and belly. There is little sexual dimorphism.

The African collared dove is the species thought to be the wild ancestor of the domestic Barbary dove, though some suggest the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) may also have been involved. The African collared dove is able to hybridise with the Barbary dove, and it is thought that the increase in the range of colours of Barbary doves available that occurred in the later twentieth century was the result of the importation of African collared doves into the United States for interbreeding.

It is reported to have been introduced into New Zealand, but it is more likely that the birds there are descended from domestic Barbary doves.

Barbary dove

This is about the bird also called the ring dove; for other definitions, see Ring dove.

The Barbary dove, ringed turtle dove, ringneck dove, ring-necked turtle dove, or ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) is a domestic member of the dove family (Columbidae).

Although the Barbary dove is normally assigned its own systematic name, as Streptopelia risoria, considerable doubt exists as to its appropriate classification. Some sources confidently assert that it is a domestic form of the Eurasian collared dove, S. decaocto, but the majority of evidence points to it being a domesticated form of the African collared dove, S. roseogrisea. It appears that it can hybridise freely with either species, and its status as a species must therefore be regarded as doubtful. However, because of the wide use of both the common and systematic names, it is best to consider it separately from either of the putative parent species. Their time of domestication is also uncertain. While Linnaeus described them in 1756, they may have been imported into Italy from North Africa in the late 16th century.Barbary doves are easily kept and long-lived in captivity, living for up to 12 years. However, there have been cases of doves living over 20 years, and, in one case, of a dove living for 29 years In recent years they have been used extensively in biological research, particularly into the hormonal bases of reproductive behaviour, because their sequences of courtship, mating and parental behaviour have been accurately described and are highly consistent in form. Dove fanciers have bred them in a great variety of colours; the number of colours available has increased dramatically in the latter half of the twentieth century, and it is thought that this has been achieved by interbreeding with S. roseogrisea. Some of these doves carry a mutation that makes them completely white. These white Barbaries are most commonly used in stage magic acts. White Barbary doves are traditionally released in large public ceremonies, since it is a peace symbol in several cultures, and "dove releases" are also sometimes found at weddings and funerals. However, a release dove is, in fact, usually a homing pigeon, as Barbary doves lack the homing instinct and will die left out in the wild.

The coo of the Barbary dove is created by muscles that vibrate air sent up from the dove's lungs. These muscles belong to the fastest known class of vertebrate muscles, contracting as much as ten times faster than muscles vertebrates use for running. This class of muscles is usually found in high speed tissue such as a rattlesnake's tail. Barbary doves are the first bird species to have been found to have this class of muscle.Feral populations of Barbary doves establish themselves readily as a result of escapes or releases from captivity, but they will merge with local populations of Eurasian collared doves if they exist.

Bioparco di Roma

Bioparco di Roma is a 17-hectare (42-acre) zoological garden located on part of the original Villa Borghese estate in Rome, Italy. There are 1,114 animals of 222 species maintained.

Desert owl

The desert owl or desert tawny owl (Strix hadorami), formerly known as Hume's owl, is a species of owl. It is closely related to the more widespread tawny owl and to the range-restricted Omani owl.

This species is a part of the family Strigidae, commonly known as typical owls, which contains most species of owl. The other owl family is the barn owls, Tytonidae.

The desert owl breeds in Israel, northeast Egypt, Jordan, and the Arabian peninsula. Its habitat includes desert, semi-desert, rocky ravines, and palm groves. It nests in crevices and holes in cliffs. Its diet consists of voles, mice and large insects.

This is a medium-sized earless owl, smaller than the tawny owl at 29–33 cm in length. It is largely nocturnal and sedentary. Its stocky body and round head recall a small tawny owl, but it is paler, less streaked, particularly on the underparts, and has yellow eyes.

The call of the desert owl is a hoooo-ho-ho-ho-ho, described as similar in rhythm to Eurasian collared dove. The female version is deeper and less distinct than the male’s.

Geno Biosphere Reserve

The Geno Biosphere Reserve, with a total area of 27,500 hectares, situated in the Hormozgan province of Iran. It has been designated as a protected area by the Iranian Department of Environment in 1976.Geno has mountains as high as 3,000 meters above sea level, and in light of this, has a unique climatic and biosphere conditions within the Persian gulf region.

UNESCO reported about 40,300 people living within the boundaries of the biosphere reserve in 2000.Beside a number of hot springs situated in the area, flora and fauna include:

Flora: pomegranate, date palm, black maidenhair fern, caraway, common yarrow, pennyroyal, milkweed, primrose


mammals: gazelle, gray wolf, bear, fox, leopard, wild boar, hyena, jackal, rabbit,

birds: grey partridge, eagle, falcon, Eurasian collared dove, see-see partridge, common wood pigeon, cinereous vulture, lark, pipit, common house martin, white-eared bulbul

Kheoni Sanctuary

Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Kannod Tehsil of Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh. It is spread over an area of 132 square kilometers. It is connected to Ratapani Tiger Reserve through corridors. The dry deciduous forest consists of teak, tendu and bamboo.

It has a presence of tigers, which have apparently migrated from Ratapani and colonized Kheoni. Leopards are present in significant numbers. Other commonly found carnivores are jungle cats, jackals and striped hyena. The dominant herbivore species are nilgai, blackbuck, chinkara and chital (spotted deer). Sambar, wild boar, barking deer, four-horned antelope, and palm civet are also present but rarely sighted.

According to the recent bird survey concluded in April, 2018, in which around 32 participants from Indore, Dewas, Ujjain and Bhopal, Kheoni has around 125 species of birds, including the state bird of Madhya Pradesh Indian paradise flycatcher.. The other birds in abundance are plum-headed parakeet, Eurasian collared dove, laughing dove, chestnut shouldered petronia, common crow and black drongo.

Kongur wetland

Kongur is a freshwater wetland located in Tirupur District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Some of the birds which can be seen here are painted stork, Oriental ibis, common sandpiper, spot-billed duck, common coot, rosy starling, little cormorant, cattle egret, intermediate egret, little egret, southern coucal, rose-ringed parakeet, white-breasted kingfisher, pied kingfisher, darter, little grebe, spotted owlet, Indian roller, ashy prinia, common hoopoe, common moorhen, common myna, pied wagtail, grey wagtail, pied bushchat green bee-eater, black-winged kite, Asian koel, pond heron, black drongo, pied cuckoo, blue-faced malkoha, Indian robin, purple sunbird, purple-rumped sunbird, white-headed babbler, common flameback, open-bill stork, greater egret, grey heron, Eurasian collared dove, glossy ibis, rock pigeon, white-breasted waterhen, Indian paradise flycatcher, paddy-field pipit, Indian silverbill, northern shoveller.

In 2012 two greater flamingos arrived here as winter visitors.

A huge number of babool trees attract birds for roosting. The lake receives the water from Shanmuga Nadhi which is originated from Palani Hills. The lake is 25 km from Palani.

Some of the resident birds such as peafowls, grey francolins can also be seen here.

Destruction of babool and palm trees are threatening the birds' habitat.


Koshigaya (越谷市, Koshigaya-shi) is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 337,071, and a population density of 5,610 persons per km². Its total area is 60.24 square kilometres (23.26 sq mi). It is famous for producing daruma dolls.

List of birds of North America (Columbiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Columbiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Tamil Nadu

This article lists the birds found in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Over 508 species of birds have been spotted in Tamil Nadu. The list also sometimes includes the local Tamil name in italics following the English common name.

List of invasive species in California

Invasive species in California, the introduced species of fauna−animals and flora−plants that are established and have naturalized within California.

Native plants and animals can become threatened endangered species from the spread of invasive species in natural habitats and/or developed areas (e.g. agriculture, transport, settlement).

List of invasive species in Florida

Invasive species in Florida are introduced species of fauna−animals and flora−plants that are established and have naturalized within Florida.Native plants and animals can become threatened endangered species from the spread of invasive species in natural habitats and/or developed areas (e.g. agriculture, transport, settlement).

List of official city birds

The following is an incomplete list of official city birds, organized by country.

Mayureshwar Wildlife Sanctuary

Mayureswar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Tehsil Baramati in Pune district in Maharashtra, India. It is 72 km from Pune and 35 km from Daund.

Model Town Humak

Humak is also the name of the Union Council governing this town, as well as the nearby Kotha Kalan and NaizianModel Town Humak is a suburb town of Islamabad, Pakistan started in 1984. Located in Islamabad Capital Territory on Kahuta Road, Model Town is situated on Humak village land near the Swaan River.

The area was formerly a jungle. According to the District Rawalpindi gazette of 1893, Humak was on the main railway line from Jhelum to Rawalpindi; those lines have since been relocated. The community now has more than 1500 homes laid out in an organised way, following the map provided by Capital Development Authority.

Ringed dove

Ringed dove may refer to:

Columba palumbus, the common wood pigeon

Streptopelia decaocto, the Eurasian collared dove

Saitama Prefecture

Saitama Prefecture (埼玉県, Saitama-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region. The capital is the city of Saitama.This prefecture is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, and many of Saitama's cities can be described as suburbs of Tokyo, to which a large number of residents commute each day.


Streptopelia is a genus of birds in the dove family. The name Streptopelia is from Ancient Greek streptos, "collar" and peleia, "dove". These are mainly slim, small to medium-sized species. The upperparts tend to be pale brown, and the underparts are often a shade of pink. Many have a characteristic black-and-white patch on the neck, and monotonous cooing songs.

The heartland of this genus is Africa, but several species occur in tropical southern Asia. As a group, this genus is highly successful; many species are abundant in a range of habitats in the tropics, and two now have a much more extensive distribution.

The Eurasian collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto, naturally expanded out of its original range of the warmer temperate regions from south east Europe to Japan to colonise the rest of Europe, reaching as far west as Great Britain by 1960, and Ireland soon after. It has also been introduced into the US and, as of 1999 it had been reported from 22 states and was still spreading rapidly.

A DNA sequence analysis has concluded that the genus consists of three distinct lineages. One contains the laughing dove and the spotted dove, which have long been recognized as having distinct morphology and behavior. The second group contains most of the other species, except the Malagasy turtle dove and the pink pigeon, which appear to be the surviving species of an endemic Madagascar/Mascarenes radiation and have at times been placed in other genera. The two-species lineages appear to be each other's closest relatives and cannot be firmly assigned to either Columba or Streptopelia (although overall they seem to be close to the latter). Thus, it might be best to split the two minor lineages off as distinct genera, namely Spilopelia for the first (which although not having priority over Stigmatopelia, which occurs earlier on the page, is chosen on the first reviser principle) and Nesoenas for the last.

Sunda collared dove

The Sunda collared dove (Streptopelia bitorquata) sometimes referred to as island collared dove, Javanese collared dove, or Indonesian collared dove is a species of bird in the family Columbidae. Sometimes confused with the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) which is very similar in looks. The Sunda collared dove is a small to medium-sized bird, native to the tropical and subtropical islands of Indonesia.

Birds (class: Aves)
Fossil birds
Human interaction


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.