Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation PLC (ENRC) (LSE: ENRC, KASE: GB_ENRC) is a private, Kazakhstan/Central African-focused, multinational leading diversified natural resources company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It has activities in integrated mining, processing, energy, logistics and marketing.
ENRC was formed in 1994,[ENRC 3] listed on the London Stock Exchange in 2006 delisted after a near six-year spell in November 2013. A secondary listing and subsequent de-listing also took place on the Kazakhstan Stock Exchange.
ENRC is now fully owned by ERG (Eurasian Resources Group), a private natural resources company headquartered in Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It incorporates the assets of former FTSE-100 group, ENRC PLC, which it acquired in November 2013.
|Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation PLC|
|Industry||Metals and Mining|
|Founded||1994 (in its current form from 2006)|
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
|Revenue||US$ 6,320 million (2012)[ENRC 1]|
|US$ (374) million (2012)[ENRC 1]|
|US$ (852) million (2012)[ENRC 1]|
Number of employees
|Over 72,000 (2011)[ENRC 2]|
The company in its present form was established in 2006 as part of a re-organisation to consolidate a series of businesses into one Group.[ENRC 4] In its regulatory report ENRC claimed revenues of US$3,256 million for the year ended 31 December 2006 and US$1,856 million for the six months ended 30 June 2007. By then ENRC was "the world's sixth largest iron ore exporter by volume and world's fifth largest supplier of traded alumina by volume.
In December 2009 the Company completed acquisition of the Central African Mining Exploration Company (CAMEC). CAMEC's operations incorporate the assets of copper and cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the development projects of coal in Mozambique, bauxite in Mali, platinum in Zimbabwe, and fluorspar in South Africa, as well as trucking and logistics business across the African continent.[ENRC 5] CAMEC's Mukondo Mine may be the richest cobalt reserve in the world. Copper from Mukondo is refined at the Luita plant, with planned capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year of copper cathode. In July 2009 CAMEC announced a long term agreement under which CAMEC would deliver its entire annual production of cobalt in concentrate from Mukondo Mountain to Zhejiang Galico Cobalt & Nickel Materials of China.
In February 2010 ENRC acquired a 90% interest in Chambishi Metals PLC, a smelting facility in Zambia, together with a 100% interest in Comit Resources FZE, a Dubai-based marketing and sales company that historically has handled Chambishi’s copper and cobalt sales. In August 2010 company acquired 50.5% of Camrose Resources Limited ('Camrose'). Camrose held five high quality copper and cobalt mining permits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).[ENRC 5] They include the Kolwezi tailings project, which the DRC government had confiscated from First Quantum Minerals (FQM). FQM had spent C$750 million developing the Kolwezi assets. ENRC paid $175 million for its majority stake in Camrose.
In September 2010 ENRC acquired the outstanding 50% interest in Bahia Minerals BV and in October 2010 – 100% of Mineração Minas Bahia SA (MIBA) and 51% of Mineração Peixe Bravo SA (MPB).
In March 2013 ENRC was forced to write down a US$1.5bn (£1bn) loss due largely to an "onerous" locked in contract with the Russian aluminium company, Rusal with whom they must provide aluminium at what is now below market price (Telegraph 2013).
On 21 April 2013, The Sunday Times revealed that three founders, Alexander Mashkevitch, Patokh Chodiev and Alijan Ibragimov, were behind a possible takeover bid for ENRC.  Following this news, three senior executives resigned, and a fourth announced a leave of absence. These included the Head of Human Resources and the Company Secretary. On 23 April Mehmet Dalman, the chairman of ENRC, also resigned and next day the group confirmed that Gerhard Ammann, a non-executive director of ENRC and president of Bank Von Roll, a Swiss private bank, would replace Mr Dalman.
ENRC annual report released on 30 April said that UK authorities are investigating whether ENRC breached Britain's rules for listed companies, specifically with acquisitions made in the Democratic Republic of Congo and a 2012 sale of railway line repair company Zhol Zhondeushi to a company connected to the family of one of the miner's co-founders.
In November 2013 ENRC de-listed from the LSE after the Groups founders gained acceptances from 96.7 percent of shareholders for their offer - of $2.65 in cash and 0.23 of a Kazakhmys share for each one in ENRC - to acquire the company along with the Kazakh government.
In February 2014, it was reported that the firm would have to sell its international assets, including its lucrative copper mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo, after the company’s founders came under increased pressure to repay the large loan they had taken out to privatise ENRC.
ENRC operates in Kazakhstan, China, Russia, Brazil and Africa (the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Mozambique and South Africa).[ENRC 2] The Group incorporates six Divisions (ENRC 2013): Ferroalloys, Iron Ore, Alumina and Aluminium, Energy, Other Non-ferrous, Logistics [ENRC 6]
ENRC’s largest division is its Ferroalloys Division (ENRC 2013).[ENRC 7] ENRC is one of the world’s largest ferrochrome producers (ENRC 2013).[ENRC 7] ENRC's Kazchrome in the Republic of Kazakhstan, integrates four operating companies: Donskoy Ore Mining & Processing Plant, Aktobe Ferroalloys Plant, Aksu Ferroalloys Plant and Kazmarganets Mining Enterprise.[ENRC 7] ENRC's Zhairem GOK, one of the "largest manganese ore mining and processing plants" in Kazakhstan, is a "major supplier of manganese and ferromanganese concentrates to customers throughout Russia, Ukraine, Central Asia and China (ENRC 2013)."[ENRC 7]
The ENRC is one of the largest electricity providers in Kazakhstan, accounting for approximately 16.3% of the country's recorded electricity production in 2011.
ENRC is one of the world’s largest ferrochrome producers (ENRC 2013).[ENRC 7] ENRC's Kazchrome in the Republic of Kazakhstan, integrates four operating companies: Donskoy Ore Mining & Processing Plant, Aktobe Ferroalloys Plant, Aksu Ferroalloys Plant and Kazmarganets Mining Enterprise.[ENRC 7]
Contributing significantly to Kazakhstan's GDP, one of the world's significant exporters of iron ore; the world's ninth largest producer of traded alumina; and one of the largest electricity providers in Kazakhstan.[ENRC 8]
ENRC is one of Kazakhstan's largest companies, accounting for approximately 3% of Kazakhstan's GDP in 2009. ENRC currently employs over 70,000 people, of which 65,000 are located in Kazakhstan.[ENRC 2]
In December 2009 ENRC acquired 95.40% of the shares of Central African Mining Exploration Company (CAMEC) CAMEC's operations incorporate the assets of copper and cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the development projects of coal in Mozambique, bauxite in Mali, platinum in Zimbabwe, and fluorspar in South Africa, as well as trucking and logistics business across the African continent.[ENRC 5] ENRC had made a £584-million cash offer in September 2008 (Webb 18 September 2009). The chairperson Phillippe Edmonds and CEO Andrew Groves both resigned when the deal was closed in November 2009.
CAMEC's Mukondo Mine may be the richest cobalt reserve in the world. Copper from Mukondo is refined at the Luita plant, with planned capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year of copper cathode. In July 2009 CAMEC announced a long term agreement under which CAMEC would deliver its entire annual production of cobalt in concentrate from Mukondo Mountain to Zhejiang Galico Cobalt & Nickel Materials of China.
ENRC's acquisition 50.5% of Kolwezi Mine Tailings (KWT) a "multi-billion dollar copper and cobalt tailings reprocessing facility"  that had been expropriated in 2009 by the DRC from Vancouver, Canada-based First Quantum Minerals through Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds, was the last of a series of ENRC of Congolese mining asset acquisitions in roughly an 11-month period. First Quantum Minerals had completed 75 per cent of the construction and the lucrative facility was almost ready to be operational when it was seized by the government and handed to  This led to First Quantum Minerals v Highwinds and others, a case concerning the expropriation of mining licences in the Democratic Republic of Congo. DRC passed the concession to a new joint venture Metalkol Sarl, encompassing state-owned Gecamines (30%) and Dan Gertler's newly formed British Virgin Island-based company, Highwinds (70%).
Camrose Resources Limited ('Camrose') "owned British Virgin Island-based new company, Highwind Group which had a 70% interest in the Metalkol Sarl, which in turn owned the exploitation licence for the Kolwezi tailings site (Law Expert March 2, 2012)."  Camrose's other assets included a "64% stake in Canada listed Africo Resources which held a 75% interest in Kalukundi exploitation licence as well as 56% indirect interest in Comide Sprl, which held the exploitation licence for Mashitu, Pangalume and Kii tenements."
The Kolwezi tailings project, is a lucrative copper- and cobalt-extractions projects mining older mines' tailings ponds, partly owned and operated by First Quantum Minerals Ltd., a Vancouver, British Columbia based mining and metals company, until its forced closure in September 2009 when the DRC government revoked its license and confiscated the holdings. First Quantum spent $750 million on acquiring and developing the property. First Quantum took out an action against the DRC government in the International Chamber of Commerce Court of Arbitration.
Fasken Martineau, a leading international business law and litigation firm recovered an almost unprecedented US$1.25B in the dispute between First Quantum Minerals and the DRC. As part of the settlement Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) purchased First Quantum's residual claims and assets in the DRC.
In August 2010 ENRC acquired 50.5% of Camrose Resources Limited ('Camrose'), which at that time held a 70% indirect interest in Metalkol Sarl, owner of the Kolwezi copper tailings project.[ENRC 5] In 2010 ENRC paid $175 million for its majority stake in Camrose. On 28 December 2012, 99 percent of Eurasian Natural Resources Corp shareholders approved the US$550 million purchase of the remaining 49.5% per cent of Camrose Resources Limited still held by Dan Gertler's Gibraltar-registered (Wild et al. 2013 page 68) Fleurette Properties Ltd.
On 4 April 2008 Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation PLC finalized the purchase, first signed on 4 December 2007, of the controlling interest in Serov Ferrochrome Producer (Serov SPA) in Sverdlovsk region, eastern Russia for US$210 million from various entities affiliated with Mr. P Chodiev, Mr. An Ibragimov and Mr. A Machkevitch, founding shareholders in ENRC. Sir David Cooksey, the Non-Executive Chairman of ENRC noted this was ENRC's first transaction outside of Kazakhstan. The purchase agreement (4 December 2007) gives ENRC the economic benefit from all dividends and distributions made after 4 December 2007. The acquisition will provide a strong platform for ENRC in Russia. The purchase provided vertical integration with companies that ENRC operates: Serov Ferrochrome Factory, Saranovskaya Mine Rudnaya and Serov Metalconcentrate Works. Dr. Johannes Sittard, Chief Executive Officer of ENRC, described how the purchase of Serov gave ENRC an asset base and strong platform in Russia.[ENRC 9]
In April 2008 the Founder Shareholders of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation Group "ultimately indirectly owned equally" Industrial Metals Technology Limited, Chesswood Holdings Limited, Blackmore Holdings Limited, Prentice Holdings Limited, Cretown Corporate Advisory BV, International Mineral Resources BV ('IMR') Serov Ferrochrome Producer (Serov SPA).[ENRC 9] Mr. P Chodiev, Mr. An Ibragimov and Mr. A Machkevitch were Founder Shareholders of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation Group. Johannes Sittard, was the Chief Executive Officer of ENRC and Sir David Cooksey was the Non-Executive Chairman of ENRC.[ENRC 9]
ENRC's senior management team consisted of:[ENRC 10]
|Mr Mehmet Dalman||Chairman and non-executive Director|
|Mr Felix Vulis||Chief Executive Officer|
|Ms Zaure Zaurbekova||Chief Financial Officer|
|Mr Jim Cochrane||Chief Commercial Officer, Head of Sales & Marketing and Logistics|
|Mr Beat Ehrensberger||General Counsel|
|Mrs Victoria Penrice||Company Secretary|
|Ms Mounissa Chodieva||Head of Investor & Public Relations|
Upon the acquisition by ERG, many of the previous senior management did not transfer to the new group, left their positions or were replaced in a new structure.
Alexander Antonovich Mashkevich (Hebrew: אלכסנדר משקביץ; also transliterated Alexandr Mashkevic; Russian: Александр Антонович Машкевич; born 23 February 1954) is a businessman and investor. He has major holdings and close political relationships in Kazakhstan. He holds both Kazakh and Israeli citizenship; according to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, he usually travels on his Israeli passport and "rarely spends more than a week each month in Kazakhstan."Alferon Management
Alferon Management Limited of London is a management company responsible for running the International Mineral Resources (IMR) in Kazakhstan. International Mineral Resources (IMR) is a Zurich-based holding subsidiary of the Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), one of the world’s largest private mining and metals group owned by three Kazakh businessmen Alexander Mashkevich, Patokh Chodiev (or Shodiev) and Alijan Ibragimov (or Alidzhon Ibragimov).
Alferon Management Limited of London is a mining acquisition company that has acquired many mining
operations in different countries such as Zambia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Russia, in Kosovo, and other countries that lack corporate governance.
Alexander Mashkevich, Patokh Chodiev and Alijan Ibragimov, better known as the Troika or Trio, are the owners of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), International Mineral Resources (IMR) and Alferon Management. The Trio hired well known metallurgic expert, Dr. Johannes Sittard to head Alferon Management, International Mineral Resources, Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (known as Eurasian Group), Arduina Holdings and preside over J&W Investments, a Swiss mining company owned by Alferon. Before joining Alferon, Sittard was world steel magnate Lakshmi Mittal’s right-hand man.After working for Mittal for several years, Sittard confessed that Mittal had paid the Trio US $100 million in order to facilitate business in Kazakhstan.After much controversy, Alferon Management recently acquired Ferronikeli Complex, LLC, a nickel plant based in Kosovo.
The controversy behind the acquisition stemmed from Alferon receiving the approval on the acquisition from the Kosovo Trust Agency (KTA) despite the fact that they were not the highest bidder; US- Albanian company, Adi Nickel was the highest bidder offering 49.5 million Euros.
Ferki Karaxha, the head of Ferronikeli trade union, also stated that since Adi-Nickel won the first tender, it was no fair to declare IMR a provisional winner.. He also stated that he "has always been against the sale of the company and is convinced that the sale is a great crime against the national economy".The sale agreement also includes an investment commitment from IMR-Alferon of €20 million, plus a guarantee to employ at least 1,000 people at Ferronikeli.Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General (DSRSG), Joachim Ruecker, said the sale sent “a very strong signal to international investors”. Mr Ruecker added: “Kosovo is a stable and mature society, which welcomes international investment.”Alijan Ibragimov
Alijan Ibragimov (also known as Alidjan or Alidzhon Ibragimov; born 5 June 1954 in Kyrgyz SSR) is an Uyghur oligarch with Kazakh citizenship who is a member of a well-known circle of oligarchs in Kazakhstan known as the "Trio." The "Trio" comprises Ibragimov and his business partners, Alexander Mashkevich and Patokh Chodiev, active in the mining, oil & gas, and banking sectors in Kazakhstan. Ibragimov has been ranked #382 on Forbes’ list of world billionaires.
With his partners Chodiev and Mashkevich, Ibragimov is a major shareholder in Eurasian National Resources Corporation (ENRC), now one of the world's leading natural resources groups. ENRC, based in London, operates a number of metals assets in Kazakhstan and Africa, having acquired numerous mining operations in Eastern Europe and Africa. In 2009, ENRC generated a $1,462 million profit on sales of $13.8 billion.
ENRC was floated on the London Stock Exchange in December 2007, with a market capitalisation on Admission of approximately £60.8 billion.Camrose Resources
Camrose Resources Limited (Camrose) was a company owned by Dan Gertler, an Israeli businessman, the founder and President of the DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies. Camrose's other assets included a "64% stake in Canada listed Africo Resources which held a 75% interest in the Kalukundi Mine's exploitation licence as well as a 56% indirect interest in Comide Sprl, which held the exploitation licence for Mashitu, Pangalume and Kii tenements."By August 2010, Camrose, acquired British Virgin Island-based Highwind Group.In 2012 Fasken Martineau, a prestigious international business law and litigation firm recovered an almost unprecedented US$1.25B in the "First Quantum Minerals v Highwinds and others", a case concerning the expropriation of First Quantum Minerals' mining licences in the Kolwezi tailings project (KMT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. As part of the settlement Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) who had gained control of the project through Camrose Resources Limited subsidiary Highwinds, purchased First Quantum's residual claims and assets in the DRC.Central African Mining and Exploration Company
The Central African Mining and Exploration Company (CAMEC) was a mining company active in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in other parts of Africa. It was acquired by ENRC in 2009.Eurasia Insurance Company
Eurasia Insurance Company (Russian: Евразия Страховая компания) is a Kazakhstan-based insurance company, established in 1995 and headquartered in Almaty. As of 2013, Eurasia Insurance company maintained its position as the largest insurance company in Kazakhstan in terms of assets, insurance reserves, equity and authorized capital, as well as the volume of insurance premiums.
As part of its overall business strategy, Eurasia Insurance places emphasis on the geographic diversification of risks and developing partnerships with companies around the world to achieve a good spread of premium income and exposure. Eurasia reinsurance portfolio has spread its risks so that it is located over 150 countries. As of 1 January 2013, Eurasia underwrote 49% of the total reinsurance placements in Kazakhstan insurance market, and about 97% of the total reinsurance placements from abroad. The premium income of Eurasia in 2013 amounted to KZT27.238bn, claim payments totaled to KZT12.057bn, with retained earnings of KZT4.016bn.Eurasian Bank
Eurasian Bank JSC is the ninth largest lender in Kazakhstan, headquartered in Almaty, It was founded in 1994 as a closed joint-stock company, and reregistered in 2003 as a joint stock company due to joint stock company law changes.
The Bank is owned 100% by Eurasian Financial Company JSCwhich is 100% owned by three equal shareholders: Alexander Mashkevich, Alijan Ibragimov, Patokh Shodiyev (aka Patokh Chodiev)Felix Vulis
Felix Jeff Vulis (born 11 October 1955) is a Russian-born American businessman. He is the Chief Executive of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation plc (ENRC), a British multinational natural resources company.Gécamines
La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines) is a Congolese commodity trading and mining company headquartered in Lubumbashi, in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is a state-controlled corporation founded in 1966 and a successor to the Union Minière du Haut Katanga. Gecamines is engaged in the exploration, research, exploitation and production of mineral deposits including copper and cobalt.
One of the largest mining companies in Africa, and the biggest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gécamines sits on the world's greatest deposit of cobalt and has some of the world's largest deposits of copper. Copper mines in which Gécamines has a major interests include, but are not limited to, Kambove, Kipushi, Kamfundwa and Kolwezi.
Located in the mineral-rich Katanga Province, Gécamines is currently going through a multi-year, multi-billion reorganization strategic development plan with the main objective of repositioning itself as one of the world's top mining majors, mainly by focusing on core strategic assets in which the company has majority shares. Among others, Gécamines has forged partnerships and joint ventures with companies such as Anglo-Swiss Glencore International, American giant Freeport-McMoran and London-based Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation. Seeking to enhance profitability by creating lucrative competitive partnerships, in 2013 the Congolese firm appointed US businessman and American Jewish Congress President Jack Rosen on its Board of Directors.In 2015, Gécamines signed a strategic copper and cobalt cooperation accord with Hong-Kong-listed China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining.In 2016, Gécamines and China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining signed a memorandum of understanding
for the construction of two factories, one of which includes Gécamines flagship property project of Deziwa, projected to produce 200.000 tons of copper per year.Johannes Sittard
Johannes Sittard (born 27 September 1943) is a former non-executive director and chairman of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), having been the chief executive officer of the company until 20 August 2009. Sittard has extensive experience in the Natural Resources and Steel Industry, having worked in the business for over twenty five years. Prior to joining ENRC in 2001, Sittard was the president and chief operating officer of ISPAT International NV (now known as ArcelorMittal). He is also a chairman of International Mineral Resources (IMR).Sittard commenced his career as an assistant professor at the Institute for Iron and Steel at the Technical University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany (1971–1978). He has a bachelor's degree in iron and steelmaking from Technical University, Berlin. Sittard also has a doctorate in metallurgy and a master's degree in iron and steelmaking from Clausthal University of Technology.Khromtau
Khromtau (Kazakh: Хромтау, Hromtaý) is a town in Aktobe Region of Kazakhstan, the administrative center of Khromtau District. It was formed in 1967. Population: 21,740 (2009 Census results); 24,089 (1999 Census results).Khromtau has important Chromium deposits, which are currently exploited in underground mines by Kazchrome, a subsidiary of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC). Previously, Chromite ore was mined in open cast mines, which left enormous pits behind.
The newly built mosque and the also new Russian orthodox church are juxtaposed on the main square of town.
FC Gornyak soccer team played in the Kazakhstan First Division. They are now defunct.
The colours of the bandy team Gornyak are green and white. They played a test match against Akzhaiyk at Medeu before the 2011 Asian Winter Games, but have no adult team in league as they used to. Nowadays young players is the focus. The town sent a bandy team to the Spartakiade 2009. Aktobe Region, made up by players from Khromtau, won the Spartakiade in 2013. For the 2014-15 season, two youth teams were allowed to participate in the leagues of Sverdlovsk Oblast. Two players from Khromtau, Sultan Kadyrzhanov and Kuanysh Tiemiralin has played in Kazakhstan's only professional club, Akzhaiyk from Oral. Sultan was also part of the Kazakh team at the 2011 Asian Winter Games and his World Championship debut came in 2018. A national youth championship has been organised. 2016 Gornyak won the national championship for junior players born in 1999-2000 on home ice and in 2017 there was a victory in Oral.Kolwezi tailings project
The Kolwezi tailings project is a major project in the Kolwezi mining area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to recover copper from the tailings, or processed ore, from mining in the region since the 1950s.
The project was developed by the Canadian mining companies Adastra Minerals and then First Quantum Minerals between 2004 and 2009, when the DRC government revoked First Quantum's license.List of Israelis by net worth
The following is a list of Israeli billionaires based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine.Lonshi Mine
Lonshi Mine is a copper mine in Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the southeast of Ndola, Zambia.Mineral industry of Africa
The mineral industry of Africa is the largest mineral industries in the world. Africa is the second largest continent, with 30 million km² of land, which implies large quantities of resources. For many African countries, mineral exploration and production constitute significant parts of their economies and remain keys to economic growth. Africa is richly endowed with mineral reserves and ranks first or second in quantity of world reserves of bauxite, cobalt, industrial diamond, phosphate rock, platinum-group metals (PGM), vermiculite.
The Central African Mining and Exploration Company (CAMEC), one of Africa's primary mining enterprises, is criticized for its unregulated environmental impact and minimal social stewardship. In the spring of 2009, retired British cricket player Phil Edmonds' assets were seized by the United Kingdom's government due to CAMEC's illicit association with former self-appointed Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe.
CAMEC recently sold 95.4% of its shares to the Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation. It is under restructuring and is no longer trading under the CAMEC brand.African mineral reserves rank first or second for bauxite, cobalt, diamonds, phosphate rocks, platinum-group metals (PGM), vermiculite and zirconium. Many other minerals are present in quantity. The 2012 share of world production from African soil was bauxite 7%; aluminium 5%; chromite 38%; cobalt 60%; copper 9%; gold 20%; iron ore 2%; steel 1%; lead (Pb) 2%; manganese 38%; zinc 1%; cement 4%; natural diamond 56%; graphite 2%; phosphate rock 21%; coal 4%; mineral fuels (including coal) & petroleum 47%; uranium 18%.platinum 69.4%.Mukondo Mine
Mukondo Mine is a copper and cobalt mine in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. As of 2011 it was operated by the Central African Mining and Exploration Company (CAMEC). It may be the richest cobalt reserve in the world.Patokh Chodiev
Patokh Chodiev (Russian: Фа́ттох Каюмович Шо́диев; Fáttoh Kayúmovich Shódiev; born 15 April 1953, in Jizzakh (Uzbek SSR), is a London-based Uzbek oligarch with Belgian citizenship who, with Alexander Mashkevich and Alijan Ibragimov, is part of the "Trio," a group of Central Asian businessmen who made their fortune through deals in minerals, oil, gas, and banking in Kazakhstan. Chodiev is currently ranked #275 on the Forbes list of billionaires.Richard Sykes (biochemist)
Sir Richard Brook Sykes, HonFREng (born 7 August 1942) is chairman of the Royal Institution and Imperial College Healthcare, and Chancellor of Brunel University. Sykes also chairs the UK Stem Cell Foundation and is Non-executive director of Lonza AG.Vostochny Coal Mine
Vostochny (from Russian language: "Eastern") Coal Mine is a coal mining company located in Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan. The company is included in the JSC Eurasian Energy Corporation.
The Vostochny Coal Mine was commissioned on 19 September 1985 and has produced more than 240 million tons of coal since the start of operations. The projected capacity of the mine defined by the institute "Karagandagiproshaht" is 20 million tons of coal a year.
On October 1, 1996 Vostochny Mine became one of the companies of Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation. In 2008, 19.8 million tons of coal were extracted from the mine.