Saint Eulogius of Córdoba (Spanish: San Eulogio de Córdoba (died March 11, 857) was one of the Martyrs of Córdoba. He flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan emirs Abd-er-Rahman II and Muhammad I (mid-9th century).
Saint Eulogius of Córdoba
The Martyrdom of Saint Eulogius of Cordova, at Cordova Cathedral, by an unknown artist of the 17th century.
|Priest and Martyr|
|Born||prior to 819|
Córdoba, Caliphate of Cordoba (modern day Spain)
|Died||March 11, 857|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church|
|Major shrine||Cathedral of Oviedo|
In the ninth century, the Muslim conquerors of Spain made Cordoba their capital. They allowed Christians to live in relative peace and, subject to a monthly tax, permitted them to worship. Some, like Eulogius’s younger brother, even rose to high positions in the government. In the large cities like Toledo and Córdoba, the civil rule of the Christians did not differ from that of the Visigothic epoch. The government was exercised by the comes (count), president of the council of senators.
During this time, the faithful could, it is true, worship freely, and retained their churches and property on condition of paying a tribute for every parish, cathedral, and monastery; frequently such tribute was increased at the will of the conqueror, and often the living had to pay for the dead. Many of the faithful then fled to Northern Spain; others took refuge in the monasteries of Sierras, and thus the number of Christians shrank eventually to small proportions.
Under Abd-er Rahman II there came a change in the attitude of the Arab rulers, and a fierce persecution ensued, during which many Christians were accused of abusing the memory of Mohammed, of entering mosques, and of conspiracy against the Government.
It is not certain on what date or in what year of the 9th century he was born; it must have been before 819, because in 848 he was a highly esteemed priest among the Christians of Catalonia and Navarre, and priesthood was conferred only on men thirty years of age.
The family of the saint was of the senatorial class and held land in Córdoba from Roman times. The saint, like his five brothers, received an excellent education in accord with his good birth and under the guardianship of his mother Isabel. The youngest of the brothers, Joseph, held a high office in the palace of Abd-er-Rahman II; two other brothers, Alvarus and Isidore, were merchants and traded on a large scale as far as Central Europe. Of his sisters, Niola and Anulona, the first remained with her mother; the second was educated from infancy in a monastery where she later became a nun.
After completing his studies in the monastery of St. Zoilus, St. Eulogius continued to live with his family the better to care for his mother; also, perhaps, to study with famous masters, one of whom was Abbot Speraindeo, an illustrious writer of that time.He distinguished himself, by his virtue and learning, and, being made priest, was placed at the head of the chief ecclesiastical school at Cordova.
In the meantime he found a friend in the celebrated Alvarus Paulus, a fellow-student, and they cultivated together all branches of science, sacred and profane, within their reach. Their correspondence in prose and verse filled volumes; later they agreed to destroy it as too exuberant and lacking in polish. Alvarus married, but St. Eulogius preferred the ecclesiastical career, and was finally ordained a priest by Bishop Reccafred of Cordova.
St. Eulogius’s friend and biographer Paulus Alvarus affectionately described him as gentle, reverent, well-educated, steeped in Scripture, and so humble that he freely submitted to opinions of others less informed than he. He said that Eulogius had a pleasant demeanor and conducted his relationships with such kindness that everyone regarded him as a friend. A gifted leader, the most prominent among his charisma was the ability to give encouragement. As a priest serving in an occupied country, he used this gift to strengthen his friends in the face of danger.
This humility shone particularly on two occasions. In his youth he had decided to make a foot pilgrimage to Rome; notwithstanding his great fervour and his devotion to the sepulchre of the Prince of the Apostles (a notable proof of the union of the Mozarabic rite Church with Rome), he gave up his project, yielding to the advice of prudent friends. Again, during the Muslim persecution, in 850, after reading a passage of the works of St. Epiphanius he decided to refrain for a time from saying Mass that he might better defend the cause of the martyrs; however, at the request of his bishop, Saul of Córdoba, he put aside his scruples. His extant writings are proof that Alvarus did not exaggerate.
They give an account of what is most important from 848 to 859 in Iberian Christianity, both without and within the Muslim dominions, especially of the lives of the martyrs who suffered during the Muslim persecution, quorum para ipse magna fuit.
However, in 850 the Muslims began to persecute Christians because some had spoken against Mohammed and converted Muslims to Christianity. They imprisoned the bishop and priests of Cordoba, including Eulogius. In jail, the saint read the Bible to his companions, exhorting them to faithfulness.
In 857, a virgin named Leocritia of a noble family of the Moors was converted and sought his protection against her irate parents. St. Eulogius hid her among friends for a time, but eventually they were all discovered and condemned to death. St. Eulogius was beheaded on March 11, 857, and St. Leocritia four days later on March 15, 857. Paul Alvarus' 'Life of Eulogius' records that a dove was seen flying above his martyred body, portraying his peacefulness and innocence, which could not be killed despite the attempts of the angered Muslims.
St. Eulogius was chosen to fill the vacant Archepiscopal See of Toledo, but could not be consecrated as Archbishop of Toledo, owing to his imprisonment shortly before his execution by beheading. St. Eulogius left a perfect account of the orthodox doctrine which he defended, the intellectual culture which he propagated, the imprisonment and sufferings which he endured; in a word, his writings show that he followed to the letter the exhortation of St. Paul: Imitatores mei estote sicut et ego Christi.
The Abbey of San Pedro de Siresa (Aragonese: Monesterio de Sant Per de Ciresa, Spanish: Monasterio de San Pedro de Siresa) is a monastery in the Valle de Hecho, (Aragon, Spain). It was constructed between the 9th and 13th centuries, and is the northernmost monastery in Aragon.Andalusians
The Andalusians (Spanish: andaluces) are the citizens of Andalusia, an autonomous community in southern Spain. Andalusia's statute of autonomy defines Andalusians as the Spanish citizens who reside in any of the municipalities of Andalusia, as well as those Spaniards who reside abroad and had their last Spanish residence in Andalusia, and their descendants. Since the 2007 reform, the statute also identifies the region as a "historic nationality" but this statement is in the preamble and thus has no legal value. The Spanish Language Academy recognizes Andalusian Spanish as a distinct dialect.
The genesis of modern Andalusian culture can be traced to the last phase of the Reconquista and the two centuries that followed (13th to 17th century) which brought about a greater adoption of Catholicism and, more specifically various Marian cults, as other religions which had been found in the region during the prior seven or eight centuries declined (notably Sunni Islam and Sephardic Judaism). It also coincides with the arrival of the Romani people in the mid 15th century, who also contributed to the culture of modern Andalusia. The degree to which the region's particularly long Islamic history is central to Andalusia's modern singularity is controversial and largely a matter of ideology, particularly considering Andalusia was heavily re-settled by Castilians, Leonese and others from central and northern regions of Spain.
Blas Infante, the creator of Andalusian regionalism and nationalism, drew heavily from Islamic, Latin and Jewish heritage as defining elements of the Andalusian identity. Nevertheless, local Catholic cults act as the primary vehicle of Andalusian cultural cohesion and identity.
Paradoxically, religious fervor in Andalusia seems not to clash with the region being among the most left-leaning and anti-clerical in the entire country, with below average levels of mass attendance and very little interest in orthodox Catholic doctrine. The peculiar form and role of religion in Andalusia has been subject to significant ethnographic and anthropological study.
A cultural divide exists between what is known as "high Andalusia" (what used to be the Kingdom of Granada) and Low or Western Andalusia (the heavily populated Guadalquivir valley). Significant differences exist between the culture and the accents of all of eight provinces of Andalusia, but the widest difference is between these two regions. Some Andalusians of High Andalusia (notably Granada and Almería) complain that since the beginning of democracy and Andalusia's autonomy in 1981, Andalusian political power has been heavily centered around Seville and, as a result, Andalusian culture and identity has been built around this region, ignoring the unique culture and traditions of other parts of Andalusia. Calls for a separate Autonomy for eastern Andalusia have been made since the advent of democracy, yet have never attracted enough support to endanger Andalusia's integrity.The Andalusians have a rich culture which includes the Semana Santa (see Holy Week in Spain) and flamenco style of music and dance.Flora and Maria
Flora and María were the first two of nine female Christian Martyrs of Córdoba. After denouncing Islam before an Islamic judge, they were imprisoned. Though threatened "with being thrown upon the streets as prostitutes", they were eventually beheaded. They are commemorated on Nov. 24.General Roman Calendar
For historical forms of the General Roman Calendar, see Tridentine Calendar, General Roman Calendar of 1954, General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII, General Roman Calendar of 1960, and General Roman Calendar of 1969.The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use. These celebrations are a fixed annual date; or occur on a particular day of the week (examples are the Baptism of the Lord in January and the Feast of Christ the King in November); or relate to the date of Easter (examples are the celebrations of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary). National and diocesan liturgical calendars, including that of the diocese of Rome itself as well as the calendars of religious institutes and even of continents, add other saints and mysteries or transfer the celebration of a particular saint or mystery from the date assigned in the General Calendar to another date.
These liturgical calendars also indicate the degree or rank of each celebration: Memorial (which can be merely optional), Feast, or Solemnity. Among other differences, the Gloria is said or sung at the Mass of a Feast but not at that of a Memorial, and the Creed is added on Solemnities.
The last general revision of the General Roman Calendar was in 1969 and was authorized by the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis of Pope Paul VI. The motu proprio and the decree of promulgation were included in the book Calendarium Romanum, published in the same year by Libreria Editrice Vaticana. This contained also the official document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, and the list of celebrations of the General Roman Calendar. Both these documents are also printed (in their present revised form) in the Roman Missal, after the General Instruction of the Roman Missal. The 1969 book also provided a detailed unofficial commentary on that year's revision of the calendar.
The contents of the General Roman Calendar and the names in English of the celebrations included in it are here indicated in the official English version of the Roman Missal.List of saints
This is an incomplete list of Christian saints in alphabetical order by Christian name, but, where known and given, a surname, location, or personal attribute (included as part of the name) may affect the ordering.
One list says there are 810 canonized Roman Catholic saints (who have been through the formal institutional process of canonization), although some give numbers in the thousands. (Pope John Paul II alone canonized 110 individuals, plus many group canonizations such as 110 martyr saints of China, 103 Korean martyrs, 117 Vietnamese martyrs, Mexican Martyrs, Spanish martyrs and French revolutionary martyrs.) Among the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Communions, the numbers may be even higher, since there is no fixed process of "canonization" and each individual jurisdiction within the two Orthodox communions independently maintains parallel lists of saints that have only partial overlap. Note that 78 popes are considered saints.The Anglican Communion recognizes pre-Reformation saints, as does the United Methodist Church. Persons who have led lives of celebrated sanctity or missionary zeal are included in the Calendar of the Prayer Book "without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church". Similarly, any individuals commemorated in the Lutheran calendar of saints will be listed as well.
Wikipedia contains calendars of saints for particular denominations, listed by the day of the year on which they are traditionally venerated, as well as a chronological list of saints and blesseds, listed by their date of death.March 11
March 11 is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 295 days remaining until the end of the year.March 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
March 10 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - March 12
All fixed commemorations below are observed on March 24 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For March 11th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on February 26 (February 27 on leap years).Medieval Christian views on Muhammad
During the Early Middle Ages, Christendom largely viewed Islam as a Christological heresy and Muhammad as a false prophet. By the Late Middle Ages, Islam was more typically grouped with heathenism, and Muhammad was viewed as inspired by the devil. A more relaxed or benign view of Islam only developed in the modern period, after the Islamic empires ceased to be an acute military threat to Europe. See Orientalism.
The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources, written shortly after Muhammad's death in 632. With the Crusades of the High Middle Ages, and the wars against the Ottoman Empire during the Late Middle Ages, the Christian reception of Muhammad became more polemical, moving from the classification as a heretic to depiction of Muhammad as a servant of Satan or as the Antichrist, who will be suffering tortures in Hell.Mozarabs
The Mozarabs (Spanish: mozárabes [moˈθaɾaβes]; Portuguese: moçárabes [muˈsaɾɐβɨʃ]; Catalan: mossàrabs [muˈsaɾəps]; Arabic: مستعرب trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus. Although their descendants remained unconverted to Islam, they were mostly fluent in Arabic and adopted elements of Arabic culture. The local Romance vernaculars, heavily permeated by Arabic, spoken by Christians and Muslim alike has also come to be known as Mozarabic language. Mozarabs were mostly Roman Catholics of the Visigothic or Mozarabic Rite.
Most of the Mozarabs were descendants of Hispanic Christians and were primarily speakers of Mozarabic (late Latin of Iberia) under Islamic rule. They also included those members of the former Visigothic ruling elite who did not convert to Islam or emigrate northwards after the Muslim conquest.
A few were Arab and Berber Christians coupled with Muslim converts to Christianity who, as Arabic speakers, naturally were at home among the original Mozarabs. A prominent example of Muslims who became Mozarabs by embracing Christianity is the Andalusian rebel and Anti-Umayyad military leader, Umar ibn Hafsun. The Mozarabs of Muslim origin were descendants of those Muslims who converted to Christianity, following the conquest of Toledo and perhaps also, following the expeditions of king Alfonso I of Aragon. These Mozarabs of Muslim origin, who converted en masse at the end of the 11th century, many of them Muladi (ethnic Iberians previously converted to Islam), are totally distinct from the Mudéjars and Moriscos who converted gradually to Christianity between the 12th and 17th centuries. Some Mozarabs were even Conversos Sephardi Jews who likewise became part of the Mozarabic milieu.
Separate Mozarab enclaves were located in the large Muslim cities, especially Toledo, Córdoba, Zaragoza, and Seville.Muhammad and the Bible
Arguments that prophecies of Muhammad in the Bible presaged his birth, teachings, and death have formed part of Muslim tradition from the early history of Muhammad's Ummah (Arabic: أُمَّـة, Community), although Christians like John of Damascus, Martin Luther and John Calvin have interpreted Muhammad as being the Antichrist. However, many other Christian figures have taken alternate approaches.
Muslim writers have expanded on these viewpoints and have argued that they can specifically identify references to Muhammad in the text of the Bible, both in the Jewish Tanakh and in the Christian New Testament. Several verses in the Quran, as well as several Hadiths, state that Muhammad is described in the Bible. On the other hand, scholars have generally interpreted these verses as referring to the community of Israel or Yahweh's personal soteriological actions regarding the Israelite's or members of the faithful community. The apocryphal Gospel of Barnabas, which explicitly mentions Muhammad, has also been identified as an ancient prediction about the Prophet, but this book is widely recognized by scholars as a fabrication from the Early Modern Age.Nunilo and Alodia
Saints Nunilo and Alodia (died c. 842/51) were a pair of child martyrs from Huesca. Born of a mixed marriage, they eschewed the Islam of their father in favour of their mother's Christianity. They were executed by the Muslim authorities of Huesca in accordance with sharia law as apostates. Their feast day is 22 October.
The girls were arrested during the persecutions conducted by Abd ar-Rahman II, the Emir of Córdoba. When they refused to disavow their faith they were placed in a brothel and later beheaded. Their relics were revered at the monastery of Leyre in the tenth and eleventh centuries, when a portal was fashioned bearing their image, which still survives.
The Translatio sanctarum Nunilonis et Alodiae, a short account of the translation of their relics to the monastery of Leyre in 851, survives in two tenth-century manuscripts. The children's relics were translated from Huesca to Leyre by Oneca, the wife of Íñigo Arista, King of Navarre. There are some discrepancies between the account of the martyrdom in the Translatio and that recorded by Eulogius of Córdoba.Oviedo Cathedral
The Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of the Holy Saviour or Cathedral of San Salvador (Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana Basílica de San Salvador, Latin: Sancta Ovetensis) is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica in the centre of Oviedo, in the Asturias region of northern Spain.
The Cathedral of San Salvador of Oviedo today displays an array of architectural styles, from Pre-Romanesque to Baroque, including Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance parts. It began as a large Pre-Romanesque basilica in the present location of the Gothic cathedral, but nothing more is known about that first building, built by order of King Alfonso II of Asturias.Theodemir (saint)
Saint Theodemir, Martyr, Patron of Carmona, was a Spanish Benedictine monk who died July 25, 851 in Córdoba.Vita Mahumeti
A number of Latin works on the Life of Muhammad (Vita Mahumeti, Vita Machometi, etc.) were written during the 11th to 13th centuries.
They are ultimately based on the tradition of the Chronographia of Theophanes the Confessor (d. 818), translated into Latin in the 9th century by Anastasius Bibliothecarius, which contained a chapter on the life of Muhammad. The earliest original Latin composition is Eulogius of Córdoba (c. 857).While Latin biographies of Muhammad in the 11th to 12th century are still in the genre of anti-hagiography, depicting Muhammad as an heresiarch, the tradition develops into the genre of picaresque novel, with Muhammad in the role of the trickster figure, in the 13th century.
The Vita Mahumeti by Embrico of Mainz (Embricho Moguntinus) is an early example of the genre. The text is in rhyming leonine hexameters, extending to 1,148 lines.
It was modelled on the verse hagiography of contemporaries such as Hildebert of Le Mans. It was most likely written between 1072 and 1090. The author of the Vita has been identified with the future provost of Mainz Cathedral, Embricho II by Rotter (1994).
Embrico's text is roughly contemporary with the Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent. Both texts are the tradition of the biography the Chronographia of Theophanes, including the account of Muhammad's epilepsy and his body being eaten by pigs after his death.A 12th-century versions include Otia Machometi by Gautier de Compiègne (c. 1155)
and Vita Machometi by Adelphus-
13th-century works of the romance type, written in Old French, include The Romance of Muhammad (1258) and The Book of Muhammad's Ladder (1264).Wiliesind
Wiliesind was a bishop of Pamplona (floruit 848–67). His episcopate falls in a very obscure period in Pamplonan history. His predecessor, Opilano (floruit 829), is the first bishop mentioned in source after 693, and no successor of his is known before Jimeno in the 880s. Wiliesind's name is Gothic in origin, although the diocese of Pamplona was predominantly Basque at the time. It probably indicates that Pamplona still looked at Toledo as its spiritual guide, rather than across the Pyrenees.In 848, Wiliesind hosted the visiting priest Eulogius of Córdoba, who subsequently wrote him a letter from prison in Córdoba on 15 November 851. He also sent him relics of the saints Acisclus and Zoilus. The letter survives and is an important record of the monasteries of the diocese of Pamplona and their libraries during the mid-ninth century. The letter also records that on account of war, Eulogius was unable to cross the Pyrenees. The letter was carried to Wiliesind by Galindo Enneconis (Íñiguez), probably a son of Íñigo Arista, the king of Pamplona, who died on 9 July 851. If this identification is correct, then Galindo was probably returning to Pamplona because of his father's death when he was asked to carry with him Eulogius' letter for the bishop.According to a document dated to 867, a bishop of Pamplona named Gulgesind, probably the same person as Wiliesind, co-founded the monastery of Santa María de Fuenfría (Fontfrida) at Salvatierra de Esca with King García Íñiguez and Abbot Fortún of Leire.Álvaro of Córdoba (Mozarab)
Paulus Alvarus (also known as Paul Alvarus, Paul Albar, Álvaro de Córdoba), c. 800 – 861 CE, was a ninth-century Mozarab scholar, poet, and theologian who lived in Southern Iberia during the period of Muslim rule. He is most notable for his writings around the time of a rising high civilization of Islam, owing to the Caliph's efforts. He also wrote the Vita Eulogii (‘The Life of Eulogius’), a biography of his close friend and fellow theologian Saint Eulogius of Cordoba. Although Christians living in Córdoba and the rest of Muslim Iberia during his time lived under relative religious freedom, Alvarus was amongst the Christians who perceived the many restrictions on the practice of their faith to be unacceptable persecution; they regarded with extreme scorn Christians who participated in the Muslim government, converted to Islam, or simply concealed their true beliefs. As a result of these religious tensions Alvarus's writings are characterized by contempt of all things Muslim and he considered Muhammed to have been the precursor to the Antichrist.Íñigo Arista of Pamplona
Íñigo Arista (Basque: Eneko, Arabic: ونّقه, Wannaqo, c. 790 – 851 or 852) was a Basque leader, considered the first King of Pamplona. He is thought to have risen to prominence after the defeat of local Frankish partisans in 816, and his rule is usually dated from shortly after the defeat of a Carolingian army in 824.
He is first attested by chroniclers as a rebel against the Emirate of Córdoba from 840 until his death a decade later. Remembered as the nation's founder, he would be referred to as early as the 10th century by the nickname "Arista", coming either from Basque Aritza (Haritza/Aiza, literally 'the oak', meaning 'the resilient') or Latin Aresta ('the considerable').