Eugenio Garza Sada

Eugenio Garza Sada (January 11, 1892 – September 17, 1973) was an industrialist in the city of Monterrey, Mexico best known for founding the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESM in Spanish) school system in the country. Garza was born into a business family, with his father founding the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in Monterrey in 1890. After Garza graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he began to work at the brewery, working his way up in the company to eventually take over as director after his father died. Garza and his brother Roberto grew the company into a conglomerate and instituted various innovations including benefits and social services for employees. Garza’s inspiration for founding ITESM came from his experience at MIT, as well as the desire to decrease Mexico’s dependence on foreign expert help. He remained the head of ITESM’s board until his death in 1973, as a result of a failed kidnapping attempt.

Eugenio Garza Sada
Eugenio Garza Sada Memorial
Memorial to Garza Sada at the Monterrey campus
BornJanuary 11, 1892
September 17, 1973 (aged 81)
OccupationBusinessman, philanthropist
Known forFounder, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education

Life

Cervecería Cuauhtemoc Monterrey 1890
Cuauhtémoc Brewery founded by Garza's father

Eugenio Garza Sada was born on January 11, 1892 in Monterrey, Mexico. He was the fourth of children of Isaac Garza Garza and Consuelo Sada Muguerza de Sada.[1][2] Both parents came from highly influential business families. His paternal grandfather, Juan de la Garza Martinez, was mayor of Monterrey in the mid 19th century, building the Templo del Roble church in 1853.[3] His father founded the Cuauhtémoc Brewery along with José Calderón Muguerza in 1890 with the help of foreign capital.[4] His birth and early upbringing coincided with the industrialization that was taking place under the Porfirio Díaz regime at the end of the 19th century and very early 20th.[5]

Garza’s upbringing was religious and conservative, initially attending Marist schools.[6] It also revolved around the brewery business, visiting his father at the plant often.[7] He attended primary school at the Colegio de San Juan in Saltillo, Coahuila, two days away from the family home. He attended middle school in Monterrey at the Colegio Hidalgo.[6] Their religious background also led the family to a history of philanthropy, especially supporting hospices such as Melitón Villareal and León Ortigosa in Monterrey, which Eugenio continued later in his life.[5][8] In 1909, Monterrey experience severe flooding. The Garza house, which survived, became a shelter for the homeless and the company helped with reconstruction efforts.[9]

This disaster was followed shortly after by the Mexican Revolution, which required the family to leave Mexico in 1913 and seek asylum in the United States, living in Brownsville and St. Louis .[2][10] He continued high school and graduated from Western Military Academy, a military academy in Alton, Illinois [5] He then went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, obtaining a bachelors in civil engineering in 1916.[5] Along with going to school, Eugenio worked as a store clerk and an usher in a theater.[2] During the war, the family house survived but not the original brewery which was destroyed or left in disrepair.[10] Although the family continued to regain control of their properties, Garza’s father felt it was best that Eugenio and his younger brother Roberto continue their education in the United States, not only because of the advanced technology but also because there was more order there.[11] This experience left an impression that would later led to the formation of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education .[5]

In 1917, he returned to Mexico with his brother Roberto and both began working to rebuild the Cuauhtémoc Brewery, which the family had recovered. However, despite being the son of one of the principal founders and a MIT graduate, he was relegated to an inferior position and had to work his way up.[12]

In 1921, he married Consuelo Lagüera Zambrano. The couple had eight children.[5] Garza's career was focused on the brewery, which he eventually directed and grew into a conglomerate called Grupo Valores Industriales, S.A. He is considered to be one of the most responsible for the growth of the state of Nuevo León in the 20th century.[2] Most of what he founded still remains. However, he is best known as the founder of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, a private high school/university system in Mexico.[2] He was described as modest, austere, frugal and of few words by various people, including his children.[5][13] Although he was a millionaire, he rode in an antique car, had only three suits in his closet, all the same cut and color and generally wore cheaper shoes. He reinvested his money rather than spend it on lavish things.[14] His hobbies were gardening and music.[5]

Career at Cuauhtémoc Brewery

Garza’s career was dedicated to the economic development of the city of Monterrey, starting from his family’s Cuauhtémoc Brewery.[5] After graduating college, he began to work at the company as an assistant in the sales department, having to work his way up.[2][5] He and his brother introduced the use of carbonation to increase the head, the use of cardboard cases instead of wood and steel barrels instead of wood.[15] The brothers also worked to diversify the company getting into the production of raw materials and packaging, changing the name to Grupo Monterrey.[11][16] In World War II, the United States began to ration tin, a material that the company imported. In response, Grupo Monterrey began a new company called Hojalata y Lámina, S.A. to produce its own cans and bottles. After his father died, the family decided that Eugenio should take over directorship.[11] The company continued to grow and diversify under Garza, changing name again to Grupo Valores Industriales, S.A. (VISA). At the time of his death in 1973, the enterprise consisted of Cuauhtémoc, Fábricas de Monterrey (founded 1920), Malta, S.A.(1929), Empaques de Cartón Titán (1936), Hojalata y Lámina, S.A. (1942), Grafo Regia, S.A. (1957), and Cevecería Cuauhtémoc Toluca (1969) created by Garza and his brother as well as companies bought by the group including Cevecería Central in 1929, Cervecería Oeste in 1933, Cevecería Tecate, Cevecería Humaya in 1954 and Cevecería Cruz Blanca (1965) .[17][18]

Along with technological and administrative innovations, Garza also implemented social ones. One of his innovations in business was to form an internal communications system, which at the time was a novelty. This included a publication called "El abanderado" and later "Trabajo y ahorro" which began in 1918 and published twice a month. He also wrote regular bulletins for workers at the factories he managed. He also developed the "Ideario Cuauhtémoc, a set of seventeen principles set for both the company and its employees, a predecessor to codes of ethics.[5] Concepts in the ideario included "respect for others," "control of temperament" and "Not mock others."[11] This document was not only distributed to employees but also posted prominently in production areas and offices.[5]

Garza and his brother continued and expanded on policies of his father in regards to worker welfare, providing social service and other benefits as well as cutting the work day down from the normal twelve hours to nine. One reason behind this was the family’s experience with the Mexican Revolution. Working for the welfare of their employees helped to foster loyalty to the company.[11][19]

Two years after starting work with the company, the two brothers began the Sociedad Cuauhtémoc y Famosa, open to workers and managers of the enterprise. The organization offered health care services, courses to employees, scholarships for their children and a recreational center.[5][19] In 1957, this organization created the Colonia Cuauhtémoc, a housing development for workers with subsidized mortgages offered by the company, which resulted in 334 homes over forty hectares. The inauguration of the project was attended by Mexican president Adolfo Ruiz Cortines. The project led to the creation of a program to help finance worker home construction which was reorganized in 1972 as the Patrimonio de Vivienda del Grupo Industrial.[5][20] As part of the Sociedad Cuauhtémoc y Famosa, he established the radio station XET as well as Televisión Independiente de México. The latter eventually merged with another television company to form Televisa after Garza’s death.[21] However, these activities were criticized as a kind of "white syndicate" (sindicato blanco) aimed at controlling workers and containing unionism.[22]

In business he believed that authority should be centralized and clearly defined.[23] Garza maintained the Monterrey tradition of an industrial class in which families maintained control of industry by handing down key roles through the generations.[24] He felt that honest work brought men to liberty and culture. For him it gave humans dignity. He felt that one of his social obligations as a businessman was to create as many jobs as possible. He is quoted as saying "I do not distribute riches: I distribute jobs. In this way, you will raise the standard of living of the people."[2][5]

He was not politically involved, believing more in economic development for Mexico’s problems than social or political ones. He rejected state intervention in the affairs of private companies. His conservative and authoritarian views put him at odds with many by the end of the 1960s, including students, especially after the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre .[25] His belief in keeping government out of business also put him at odds with Mexican president Luis Echeverría, but it was not public.[26] Politically motivated businessmen allied with Echeverría were interested in a control over the Cadena García Valseca, which published thirty seven local newspapers in Mexico. Garza was against this move on economic and political grounds and offered the publishing group financing to stay solvent and resist takeovers by those sympathetic to the government. However, Garza died before the transaction took place.[27]

Tec de Monterrey

ITESM Femsa Biotechology Center
The Femsa Biotechnology Center at the Monterrey Institute of Technology, Monterrey

Garza is considered to be one of Mexico’s second generation of industrialists, mostly distinguished from their Porfirian era predecessors by having a formal education.[28] Garza founded the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education with the aim of forming highly qualified administrators and technical workers in Mexico, decreasing Mexican businesses’ dependency of foreign experts.[11][29] His first project in this area was the creation of the Escuela Politécnica Cuauhtémoc, which provided elementary and high school education along with technical skills. The need for a university level institution seemed more urgent with the outbreak of World War II among countries that normally provided expertise in Mexico. Another issue was that the state and federal authorities refounded the University of Nuevo León, but there were political conflicts in its operation, which Garza wanted to avoid.[29] Garza’s experience at MIT was the basis for the organization of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, originally named Enseñanza e Investigación Superior, A.C. which he founded along with a group of Monterrey businessmen. It began in a house in the center of Monterrey in 1943, with 350 students and a number of professors.[2][5][29] The federal government publicly declared that it would respect private educational initiatives, which was crucial for certification purposes and the organization’s incorporation as a civil association.[30]

He called the school "his ninth child."[31] From that point on, he dedicated a significant amount of his time to the institution, being president of the board from 1943 until his death.[5] Like he did for Cuauhtémoc, he created bulletins and other communications for the school as well as student newspapers. However, he did not permit political activism on the campus believing that the school should not be antagonistic to the government. However, this had the effect of alienating a good part of the student population and it also led to conflicts with the more liberal administrators.[32] At the end of the 20th century, the school system had more than 80,000 students at the undergraduate and graduate levels.[14]

Death

On the morning of September 17, 1973, Garza was on his way to work. At a red light in Monterrey, his car was blocked by another. Two young men got out and a struggle ensued. Garza’s driver and assistant were killed, as was Garza as he reached for his own pistol. Two of the men were also killed, identified as Javier Rodriguez Torres and Hilario Juarez Garcia. It was a failed kidnapping attempt organized by a political group called the Liga Comunista 23 de Septiembre.[33]

Garza’s funeral was attended by over 200,000 people, including the then President Luis Echeverría.[18][34] He was buried at the Panteón del Carmen in Monterrey.[18]

An investigation in 2011 by the Excélsior newspaper into government records at the time showed that the Echeverría government was aware of a plot by the group to kidnap Garza for a year and a half before it occurred but did nothing.[35] WikiLeaks also published a censored book with another theory.[36]

Eugenio Garza Sada Award

The Eugenio Garza Sada Award was created in the memory of Garza to preserve his values and ideas. This award is financed by FEMSA, the holding company of the Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery, and by the Monterrey Institute of Technology.[37]

References

  1. ^ Ortiz p.13
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Don Eugenio Garza Sada Un hombre de obras trascendentes" [Eugenio Garza Sada A man of momentous works]. El Porvenir (in Spanish). Mexico City. September 17, 2012. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  3. ^ Ortiz p.16
  4. ^ Ortiz p.18
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Don Eugenio Garza Sada" (in Spanish). Mexico: ITESM. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Ortiz p.13-15
  7. ^ Ortiz p.20
  8. ^ Ortiz p.57
  9. ^ Ortiz p.22
  10. ^ a b Ortiz p.22-26
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Don Eugenio Garza Sada 1892-1973" (PDF) (in Spanish). Monterrey: Centro Escolar Cuauhtémoc. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  12. ^ Ortiz p.52-53
  13. ^ Ortiz p.11
  14. ^ a b Ortiz p.12
  15. ^ Ortiz p.67-68
  16. ^ Ortiz p.69
  17. ^ Ortiz p.72
  18. ^ a b c "Aniversario luctuoso por muerte de Don Eugenio Garza Sada" [Mournful anniversary of the death of Eugenio Garza]. Milenio (in Spanish). Monterrey. September 17, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  19. ^ a b Ortiz p.58
  20. ^ Ortiz p.60
  21. ^ Ortiz p.99-103
  22. ^ Ortiz p.61
  23. ^ Ortiz p.108
  24. ^ Ortiz p.62
  25. ^ Ortiz p.115-122
  26. ^ Ortiz p.128-129
  27. ^ Ortiz p.104-106
  28. ^ Ortiz p.54-55
  29. ^ a b c Ortiz p.77-81
  30. ^ Ortiz p.82-83
  31. ^ Ortiz p.3
  32. ^ Ortiz p.97, 109
  33. ^ Ortiz p.9-10
  34. ^ Ortiz p.10
  35. ^ "El asesinato de Garza Sada trascendentes" [The murder of Garza Sada]. Excelsior (in Spanish). Mexico City. September 19, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  36. ^ "Irma Salinas Rocha Book".
  37. ^ "Crónica Intercampus". Itesm.mx. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2010-07-31.

Bibliography

  • Ortiz Rivera, Alicia (2011). Eugenio Garza Sada (in Spanish). Mexico City: Planeta DeAgostini. ISBN 970 726 095 5.

External links

Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery

Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma / Heineken México) (English: Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery) is a major brewery based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, founded in 1890. It is a subsidiary of Heineken International.

The company operates brewing plants in Monterrey, Guadalajara, Toluca, Tecate, Orizaba and, beginning in 2017, Meoqui. The plants produce, among other brands, Dos Equis, Sol, Bohemia, Superior, Carta Blanca, Noche Buena, Indio, Casta and Tecate. It has an annual production of 3.09 GL (gigalitres).

Ernesto Martens

Ernesto Martens Rebolledo (born January 28, 1933 in Tilapan, Veracruz) is a Mexican chemical engineer, who has occupied several high-profile business positions and was Secretary of Energy during Vicente Fox's government.

He was born in a small town close to the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve in Veracruz. He received his bachelors in chemical engineering from Tec de Monterrey, Campus Monterrey in 1956, where he met the founder of the school Eugenio Garza Sada. He did postgraduate studies in the Technological Institute of Karlsruhe in Germany and in Harvard Business School .His first position was with Union Carbide Headquarters where he remained for eighteen years, becoming its CEO.In 1977, he began with a Monterrey glass company called Vitro, becoming its first non-family CEO in 1985. During his tenure, he expanded the company’s business from glass bottles into plastic containers, suitcases and washing machines with joint ventures with Ford, Corning, Samsonite and Whirlpool. He led Vitro into the U.S. glass market in the early 1980s, when Mexican demand for its products slowed down and led the only hostile takeover of a U.S. company by a Mexican company when Vitro took over Anchor Glass Container Corporation in 1989. However, he made some controversial decisions including a 1992 decision to lay off 3,000 workers, where before the company used to claim that it gave workers “a way of life.”In 1994, he became president of the board of Cintra (Corporación Internacional de Transporte Aereo), the entity which ran Mexico’s two state airlines, Aeromexico and Mexicana. He restructured the finances and operations of the two airlines and was credited with saving them.In 2000, Martens was named Secretary of Energy by President Vicente Fox, a position which he held until 2003. His nomination by Fox was something of a surprise and Martens had not considered a career in government before. His appointment as energy chief was thought to be last-minute and that Fox might keep his predecessor, Luis Téllez in the position. When he became energy secretary, PEMEX faced problems with the inability to refine oil and gas taken from Mexico’s deposits, selling mostly crude.Today, Martens is a member of the faculty of the Tec de Monterrey and the Thunderbird School of Global Management.

Eugenio

Eugenio (e(u)-ge-nio) is an Italian and Spanish masculine given name deriving from the Greek 'Eugene'. The name is Eugénio in Portuguese and Eugênio in Brazilian Portuguese.

The name's translated literal meaning is well born, or of noble status. Similar derivative names such as Gino come from Eugenio, or Eugene. Similar names include Eugenios, Efigenio and Eugenius.

Eugenio Garza Lagüera

Eugenio Garza Lagüera (18 December 1923 – 24 May 2008) was a Mexican businessman and philanthropist who served as chairman of the board of the Monterrey Institute of Technology (ITESM) and Femsa, Latin America's largest beverage corporation. In February 2008 he was laureated with the Business Social Responsibility Award from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, a nonpartisan institution created by the U.S. Congress within the Smithsonian Institution.

Garza (surname)

Garza is a Galician and Basque noble surname and the Spanish language equivalent of heron (bird). Garza has also become a part of many placenames.

Garza was the surname of many Sephardic Jews that settled in Monterrey, Nuevo León, and the name is still found in many famous people from that Mexican state. Other Garzas settled in the neighboring states of Coahuila in Mexico and Texas in the United States.

Isaac Garza Garza

Isaac Garza Garza (June 3, 1853 – May 1, 1933) was a Mexican businessman.

Jorge Fernández Menéndez

Jorge Fernández Menéndez is a Mexican journalist.

List of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education faculty

This list of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education faculty includes current and former instructors and administrators of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, a university and high school system located in various parts of Mexico.

Eugenio Garza Sada Founder of ITESM

List of members of the Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame

The membership of Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame includes 199 individuals through 2014. The first members were inducted in 1939, followed by selections in 1964, and since 1971 by elections in most of the following years. Members are listed below with their year of selection, field position or other area of accomplishment, and nationality.

List of people from Monterrey

This is a list of notable people from Monterrey, Mexico.

Milenio

Milenio is a major national newspaper in Mexico, owned by Grupo Multimedios.

It is published in 11 cities across Mexico, including Monterrey, Mexico City, Guadalajara, León, Pachuca, Puebla, Villahermosa, Tampico, Torreón, Toluca, and Xalapa. In each local edition they include local content and national news developed by the media group, not only from their newspaper reporters, but also from Multimedios Televisión and Multimedios Radio.

It started in Monterrey as Diario de Monterrey, and expanded to other cities in the first decade of the 21st century.

During elections, Milenio publishes the acclaimed María de las Heras poll, that was the only poll in Mexico to predict the victory of Vicente Fox in 2000.

The newspaper also publishes a biweekly magazine distributed nationwide, and operates the 24-hour news channel Milenio Televisión, which is distributed throughout Mexico via cable and satellite, and over-the-air in Multimedios's main region of Northern Mexico through subchannels of Multimedios Televisión.

The newspaper was criticized for publishing a daily poll which gave President Enrique Peña Nieto an 18-point lead over Andrés Manuel López Obrador 5 days before the election, while the real difference was 6.46%. Ciro Gómez Leyva printed a public apology, adding that they would "retire from electoral polling."

Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) (in English: Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education), also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or simply as Tec, is a private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico. Founded in 1943 by industrialists in the city of Monterrey, ITESM has since grown to include 31 campuses in 25 cities throughout the country, becoming the most recognized in Latin America. ITESM was the first university to be connected to the Internet in Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world, having the top-ranked business school in the region according to the Economist and being one of the leaders in patent applications among Mexican universities. The medical school offers the only MD-PhD program available in Mexico, in partnership with the Houston Methodist Hospital.

Monterrey Mexico Temple

The Monterrey Mexico Temple is the 110th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

The Monterrey Mexico Temple was the 12th LDS temple to be built in Mexico. It serves over 91,000 members in the city of Monterrey and the northeast of the country in general. Prior to the construction of the temple, members had to travel as long as 25 hours and cross the U.S.–Mexico border to attend Spanish-speaking sessions at the church's Mesa Arizona Temple.

Due to local resistance to the original site chosen for the temple, ground was not broken for five years following the announcement of the temple. Although the church won a three-year legal suit, officials decided to relocate the temple site to appease neighbors of the original site. The new temple site is located in the Huajuco zone of Monterrey along the National Highway. Construction on the temple began on November 4, 2000.

A two-week open house prior to the dedication of the temple attracted about 40,000 people. Among the attendees were business, government, civic leaders, and officials from other religious faiths. On April 28, 2002, LDS Church president Gordon B. Hinckley dedicated the Monterrey Mexico Temple, the 75th temple he had dedicated.

The Monterrey Mexico Temple has a classic modern design with a single-spire. The exterior is finished with white granite. It has a total of 16,498 square feet (1,532.7 m2), two ordinance rooms, and two sealing rooms.

Pablo Reimers Morales

Pablo Carlos Reimers Morales (b. July 13, 1946 - d. January 29, 2014) was an entrepreneur from the state of Zacatecas, Mexico.

He was born July 13, 1946 and raised in Zacatecas until 1961, when he left the state to attend high school at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education in Monterrey in 1961. He continued at the school for university, graduating in 1970 with a degree in business administration, with the aim of returning to his home state to be an entrepreneur. He chose to study at the Tec because of its educational model and the respect held in Zacatecas for the industry in Monterrey. One of his aims in high school was to meet the Tec founder Eugenio Garza Sada which he was able to do.In the very early 1980s, Guillermo Jones Pereda, Juan De Santiago Ortega and Reimers founded Cerámica Santo Niño, today known as Cesantoni. The business began by making ceramic tiles but has since branched out into other ceramic products. The traditional means of making tile in Mexico requires two firings, but he decided to work to find a way to create the product in one firing, succeeding by the end of the 1980s. In 1998, the company worked to automate the process as much as possible, which included replacing many of the existing facilities. Much of the work is now done by robots. The plant works 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is an important source of employment in the state, not only in the plants but also through its demand for raw materials from mines in the state of Zacatecas.He has been quoted as saying that making more money is not the purpose of life, but rather go beyond what already exists. In 1985, Reimers was approached by his alma mater to organize and find resources to found a campus of Tec de Monterrey in Zacatecas. A short time later, he became an advisor to the new institution. Today, he is also the president of the Consejo de Enseñanza e Investigación Superior in Zacatecas.Reimers was married to Gabriela Campos de Reimers and has three sons, Pablo Yaco Reimers Campos, Bernardo Reimers Campos and Hermann Reimers Campos, who work in the company.Mr. Reimers died in Zacatecas on January 29th 2014.

Prepa Tec

PrepaTec is a group of high schools located through Mexico, which branch off from the Tec de Monterrey system. The first high school, Campus Eugenio Garza Sada, was launched in 1975 as a preparation for the university program. Eugenio Garza Sada died shortly before the first school began operations and the campus was named after him. Students are offered between three study plans: Bilingual, which is directed towards students that still need to improve their English skills, and take that subject as an intensive course, with the remaining subjects in Spanish, Multicultural, in which classes are offered in English and students can take up a third language if they prove their English skills are sufficient through a TOEFL test, or the IB Diploma, which is an educational program developed by the International Baccalaureate Organization recognized around the globe.

Sada

Sada as a name may refer to:

Daniel Sada (born 1953), Mexican writer

Eugenio Garza Sada (1892-1973), Mexican businessman and philanthropist

Georges Sada (born 1939?), Iraqi author and statesman

Masashi Sada (born 1952), Japanese folk singer

Musa Mohammed Sada (born 1957), Nigerian politician

Sada Abe (1905–after 1971), Japanese convicted murderer, prostitute and actress

Sotaro Sada (born 1984), Japanese football player

Shigeri Sada (born 1954), Japanese football player

Tokuhei Sada (1909-1933), Japanese swimmer

Víctor Sada (born 1984), Spanish basketball player

Sada or Sadha (born 1984), Indian actress

Sada Jacobson (born 1983), American Olympic fencing silver and bronze medalist

Sada Walkington, contestant on the first UK series of Big Brother

Sada Vidoo (born 1977), Danish singer and songwriterSada as a place may refer to:

Şada, Azerbaijan

Sada, Mayotte, France

Sada, Shimane, Japan

Sada, Galicia, Spain

Sada, Navarre, Spain

Sada, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Sada, now Waddams Grove, Illinois, United States

Sa'dah Governorate, Yemen

Sada, Western Ghats, Goa, IndiaSADA as initials may refer to:

South Australian Debating Association

Savannah Accelerated Development AuthoritySada may also refer to Sayyid or Ba'Alawi sada

Televisión Independiente de México

Televisión Independiente de México (Independent Mexican Television, known on air as TIM or Cadena TIM) was a Mexican national television network founded in 1965 by Eugenio Garza Sada. It operated until 1973, when it merged with its primary competitor, Telesistema Mexicano, owned by Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, to form the Televisa conglomerate. Televisa absorbed all of TIM's assets, including its television transmitters and its series, including pioneering programs such as El Chavo del Ocho.

Western Military Academy

Western Military Academy was a private military preparatory school located in Alton, Illinois, in the United States. Founded in 1879, Western Military Academy closed in 1971. The campus is located in the National Register of Historic Places District (ID.78001167). The school motto was Mens Sana in Corpore Sano ("A sound mind in a sound body").

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.