Eugeni d’Ors i Rovira (Catalan pronunciation: [əwˈʒɛni ˈðɔɾs]; Barcelona, 28 September 1881 – Vilanova i la Geltrú, 25 September 1954) was a Spanish writer, essayist, journalist, philosopher and art critic. He wrote in both Catalan and Spanish, sometimes under the pseudonym of Xènius (pronounced [ˈʃɛnius]).
He collaborated from 1906 on in La Veu de Catalunya and was a member of Catalan Noucentisme. He was the secretary of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans in 1911 and director of the Instrucció Pública de la Mancomunitat de Catalunya (Commonwealth of Catalonia) in 1917, but he left in 1920 after Enric Prat de la Riba's death. In 1923 he moved to Madrid where he became a member of the Real Academia Española in 1927. In 1938, during Spanish Civil War he was the General Director on Fine Arts in the Francoist provisional government in Burgos.
In Catalan:Arriba España (newspaper)
Arriba España was a Spanish newspaper published in Pamplona during the Spanish Civil War and in Francoist Spain, within the Prensa del Movimiento. The name of the publication came from the cry ¡Arriba España!, a motto that was associated with the Falangist ideology. In its early days, it coined the motto Por Dios y el César.Cadaqués
Cadaqués (Catalan pronunciation: [kəðəˈkes]) is a town in the Alt Empordà comarca, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is on a bay in the middle of the Cap de Creus peninsula, near Cap de Creus cape, on the Costa Brava of the Mediterranean. It is two-and-a-quarter-hour drive from Barcelona, and thus it is accessible not only to tourists but also to people who want a second home for weekends and summers. In 2002, Cadaqués had an official population of 2,612, but up to ten times as many people can live in the town during the peak of the summer tourism season.
Cadaqués has a special place in art history. Commanding charcoals, by local artist Eliseu Meifrèn, of the 19th century Cadaqués beleaguered by a winter tramontane, can be seen at the Cadaqués museum. Fren was the first modern artist to live in Cadaqués and gave the town many of his works and a marble top table on which he sketched many of its turn-of-the-century fishermen.
Salvador Dalí often visited Cadaqués in his childhood, and later kept a home in Port Lligat, a small village on a bay next to the town. A summer holiday here in 1916, spent with the family of Ramon Pichot is seen as especially important to Dalí's artistic career. Other notable artists, including Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Richard Hamilton, Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Antoni Pitxot, Henri-François Rey, Melina Mercouri and Maurice Boitel also spent time here. Cadaqués is mentioned in the story "Tramontana" by Gabriel García Márquez.
The interesting submarine life of this sleepy fishing village was studied for several years by phycologist Françoise Ardré, long before Cadaqués was discovered and transformed into a tourism destination. On Mondays there is a travelling market in Cadaqués, located near the parking lot. This market has a wide variety of products.Carles Buïgas
Carles Buïgas i Sans (18 January 1898 in Barcelona – 27 August 1979 in Cerdanyola del Vallès) was a Catalan architect, engineer, inventor and author.Carles Fages de Climent
Carles Fages de Climent (1902 in Figueres – 1968) was a writer, poet and journalist from the Empordà, a historical region of Catalonia, Spain. He was born in Figueres on May 16, 1902. In Figueres' high school, he met Salvador Dalí, starting a friendship that would last all their lives.
Fages de Climent contributed to the literary mythification of his native region, taking the Empordà, the northern wind, the tramuntana and its people as a thematic basis of a multiple literary production (poetry, prose, theater and journalism). Thus, he created literary characters like the Cobbler of Ordis – comparable, according to Eugeni d'Ors to Don Quixote of Cervantes. He also contributed in a decisive way to conferring determinate attributions to certain villages of the Empordà like (Llers, land of witches; or Vila-sacra, capital of the world).Carmen Karr
Carme Karr i Alfonsetti (Spanish, Carmen Karr; Barcelona, 16 March 1865 – 29 December 1943) was a Catalan feminist, journalist, writer, musicologist and song-composer.Karr was one of the most ardent Catalan feminists of the early 20th century, together with Dolors Montserdà with whom she collaborated. Her feminist philosophy, which promoted giving women the necessary tools for a profession, as well as equal rights, was frequently a subject in the journal Feminal, which she edited from 1907 to 1917. She frequently signed articles with the pseudonym Joana Romeu. She also wrote for Diario de Barcelona, La Veu de Catalunya, Or y Grana,(1906-1907, where she promoted Catalan solidarity), Ofrena (1916–17), La Mainada (1922-23), La Actualidad, Día Gráfico and Las Provincias of Valencia, where she sometimes used the pseudonym Xènia in reference to the name Xènius used by Eugeni d'Ors, with whom she argued in Joventut.Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc
The Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈseɾklə əɾˈtistiɡ də ˈsaɲ ˈʎuk], meaning in English "Saint Lluc Artists' Circle") is an arts society which was founded in Barcelona (Catalonia) in 1893 by Joan Llimona, Josep Llimona, Antoni Utrillo, Alexandre de Riquer, the city councillor Alexandre M. Pons and a group of artists who were followers of bishop Josep Torras i Bages, as a reaction to the anticlerical current present in modernisme and in the Cercle Artístic de Barcelona, which they considered to be frivolous. The society was typified by its vigorous defence of Catholic morals (even going so far as to prohibit the artistic nude) and of family virtue, and its desire to follow in the path of humility that was pursued by the mediaeval guilds.
Its president was Lluís Serrahima, and its members included Dionisio Baixeras Verdaguer, Iu Pascual, Enric Clarasó, Antoni Gaudí, Joaquim Vancells i Vieta, Joaquim Renart i Garcia and Ramon Sunyer i Clarà, as well as Joaquín Torres García, Josep Pijoan, Feliu Elias, Darius Vilàs, Francesc d'Assís Galí, Eugeni d'Ors and other artists without religious commitment who attended drawing classes there including Joan Miró. It is considered to have been very influential in defining the noucentisme movement.
After the Spanish Civil War it was reorganized and it protected the activities of the Agrupació Dramàtica de Barcelona and the Coral Sant Jordi, as well as the early performances by Els Setze Jutges and Els Joglars. It created the Joan Miró Drawing Prize and in 1993 it received the highest honour awarded by the Catalan government, the Creu de Sant Jordi.Galeries Dalmau
Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery in Barcelona, Spain, from 1906 to 1930 (also known as Sala Dalmau, Les Galeries Dalmau, Galería Dalmau, and Galeries J. Dalmau). The gallery was founded and managed by the Symbolist painter and restorer Josep Dalmau i Rafel. The aim was to promote, import and export avant-garde artistic talent. Dalmau is credited for having launched avant-garde art in Spain.In 1912, Galeries Dalmau presented the first declared group exhibition of Cubism worldwide, with a controversial showing by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin and Marcel Duchamp. The gallery featured pioneering exhibitions which included Fauvism, Orphism, De Stijl, and abstract art with Henri Matisse, Francis Picabia, and Pablo Picasso, in both collective and solo exhibitions. Dalmau published the Dadaist review 391 created by Picabia, and gave support to Troços by Josep Maria Junoy i Muns.Dalmau was the first gallery in Spain to exhibit works by Juan Gris, the first to host solo exhibitions of works by Albert Gleizes, Francis Picabia, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí and Angel Planells. It was also the first gallery to exhibit Vibrationism.The gallery presented native pre-avant-garde artists, tendencies and manifestations new to the Catalan art scene, while also exporting Catalan art abroad, through exhibition-exchange projects, such as promoting the first exhibition by Joan Miró in Paris (1921). Aware of the difficulty and marginality of the innovative art sectors, their cultural diffusion, and promotion criterion beyond any stylistic formula, Dalmau made these experiences the center of the gallery's programming. Dalmau is credited for having introduced avant-garde art to the Iberian Peninsula. Due to Dalmau's activities and exhibitions at the gallery, Barcelona became an important international center for innovative and experimental ideas and methods.Gaziel
Agustí Calvet Pascual (Catalan pronunciation: [əɣusˈti kəlˈβɛt]; Sant Feliu de Guíxols; October 7, 1887 – Barcelona; April 12, 1964), known as Gaziel (pronounced [ɡəziˈɛl]), was a Spanish journalist, writer and publisher.Juan d'Ors
Juan d'Ors was born in Madrid, Spain, December 8, 1957. His grandfather was the philosopher and art critic Eugeni d'Ors. He is the son of Juan Pablo d'Ors Pérez, a humanist doctor, and María Luisa Fuhrer, a philologist. He is a singer, musician, actor, writer, film-maker, and “Tintin” expert (“Tintinologist”).List of artists from the MNAC collection
This is an alphabetical list of the names of artists with one or more works in the MNAC Collection in Barcelona, of the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (MNAC), or its funds, as of 2012.List of people of the Spanish Civil War
This is a list of notable people associated with the Spanish Civil War.National Archive of Catalonia
The National Archive of Catalonia (ANC), is a body created by the Generalitat of Catalonia by decree 28 November 1980. Located in Sant Cugat del Vallès, it is the Catalonia government's official archive, and holds both government and private documents relating to Catalonia's society, politics, economics and history.
As government's historical archive, the ANC collects, preserves and disseminates the most relevant records of Catalonia's political and administrative activity of the departments, institutions and companies that make up the Government of Catalonia.Normes ortogràfiques
The Normes ortogràfiques are a list of 24 rules which were promulgated by the Institut d’Estudis Catalans on January 24, 1913, with the purpose of regularizing Catalan spelling. They were born out of the necessity to establish a graphic codification for the Catalan language, which at the moment did not have a unitary spelling.These rules formed, until the publication in 2017 of Ortografia catalana, the basis for the spelling of modern Catalan. They were published by the end of January 1913, and disseminated by the press. For instance, they were fully reproduced in the article "For the unit of the language. The Orthographic Norms of the Institute of Catalan Studies", published in La Veu de Catalunya on January 31, 1913 (p.3-4).Noucentisme
Noucentisme in Catalonia (Catalan pronunciation: [ˌnɔwsənˈtizmə], noucentista being its adjective) was a Catalan cultural movement of the early 20th century that originated largely as a reaction against Modernisme, both in art and ideology, and was, simultaneously, a perception of art almost opposite to that of avantgardists. In 1906, Eugeni d'Ors coined the term following the Italian tradition of naming styles after the centuries (for example, Quattrocento, Cinquecento, etc.) and using the phonetically equivalent words nou (nine) and nou (new) to suggest it was a renovation movement. The same year two essential works for Noucentisme were published: "Els fruits saborosos" by poet Josep Carner and "La nacionalitat catalana" by the Conservative politician Enric Prat de la Riba.Spanish literature
Spanish literature generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. Its development coincides and frequently intersects with that of other literary traditions from regions within the same territory, particularly Catalan literature, Galician intersects as well with Latin, Jewish, and Arabic literary traditions of the Iberian peninsula. The literature of Spanish America is an important branch of Spanish literature, with its own particular characteristics dating back to the earliest years of Spain’s conquest of the Americas (see Latin American literature).
The Roman conquest and occupation of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the 3rd century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish territories. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the cultures of the Middle and Far East. In Medieval Spanish literature, the earliest recorded examples of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, and Christian culture. One of the notable works is the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid, written in 1140. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes popular poems and the courtly poetry of the nobles. During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurred and literary production increased greatly. In the Renaissance important topics were poetry, religious literature, and prose. In the Baroque era of the 17th century important works were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián. A notable author was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, famous for his masterpiece Don Quixote de la Mancha.
In the Enlightenment era of the 18th century, notable works include the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the lyric of Juan Meléndez Valdés, Tomás de Iriarte and Félix María Samaniego), and the theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Ramón de la Cruz and Vicente García de la Huerta. In Romanticism (beginning of the 19th century) important topics are: the poetry of José de Espronceda and other poets; prose; the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra (Duke of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and other authors. In Realism (end of the 19th century), which is mixed with Naturalism, important topics are the novel, with Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and other poets; the theater, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and other dramatists; and the literary critics, emphasizing Menéndez Pelayo.
In Modernism several currents appear: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), made changes to literature's form and content. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field. Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañon, Manuel Azaña, Eugeni d'Ors, and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Around 1920 a younger group of writers—mostly poets—began publishing works that from their beginnings revealed the extent to which younger artists were absorbing the literary experimentation of the writers of 1898 and 1914. Poets were closely tied to formal academia. Novelists such as Benjamín Jarnés, Rosa Chacel, Francisco Ayala, and Ramón J. Sender were equally experimental and academic.
The Spanish Civil War had a devastating impact on Spanish writing. Among the handful of civil war poets and writers, Miguel Hernández stands out. During the early dictatorship (1939–1955), literature followed dictator Francisco Franco's reactionary vision of a second Spanish golden age. By the mid-1950s, just as with the novel, a new generation which had only experienced the Spanish civil war in childhood was coming of age. By the early 1960s, Spanish authors moved towards a restless literary experimentation. When Franco died in 1975, the important work of establishing democracy had an immediate impact on Spanish letters. Over the next several years a wealth of young new writers, among them Juan José Millás, Rosa Montero, Javier Marías, Luis Mateo Díez, José María Merino, Félix de Azúa, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Enrique Vila-Matas, Carme Riera, and later Antonio Muñoz Molina and Almudena Grandes, would begin carving out a prominent place for themselves within the Spanish cultural field.The Cobbler of Ordis
The Cobbler of Ordis ("el sabater d'Ordis" in the Catalan language) is a literary character created by the Catalan poet Carles Fages de Climent, who in 1954 published The ballad of the Cobbler of Ordis, a book of poems with a prologue by the Catalan writer and philosopher Eugeni d'Ors, and illustrated – including an epilogue – by Salvador Dalí, a former classmate and close friend of the author. The character, who Eugeni d'Ors compared with Don Quixote, used to walk through the dusty paths and alleys of the Catalan county of Ampurdan, while directing the tramuntana, the north wind, with a cane.Vell i Nou
Vell i Nou was a Catalan magazine dedicated to arts that was established in March 1915. Its owner and editor-in-chief was Santiago Segura i Burguess. Later, the magazine was edited by other people, such as Joaquim Folch i Torres, Romà Jori, and Joan Sacs. The format of the magazine was 4 pages measuring 367x270 mm with 3 columns each. It was published weekly until April 10, when it started to appear every fortnight. The editorial office was situated in the Galeries Laietanes (Barcelona). Initially it was printed by F. Borràs, but later changed to other printers such as Oliva de Vilanova.The magazine was interrupted on December 15, 1919, and a second period started in April 1920. From then on, the magazine was published monthly and it was more eclectic. This second period continued until December 1921. In total, 131 issues were published in these two periods.Later, the magazine continued as a book collection under the title Biblioteca d’art Vell i nou.Xenia (name)
Xenia (also Xeniya, Ksenia, Kseniya, Ksenija or Xena; derived from Greek ξενία xenia - "hospitality") is a female name used mainly in Russia, Ukraine and Greece. In Spain, although it started to become more popular during the 1990s, it appears mainly in Galician Xenia [ˈʃenia], and in Catalan Xènia [ˈʃɛniə]. Related names include Oksana (Ukrainian: Ксенія, Оксана; Russian: Ксения, Оксана), Axana (Belarusian: Ксенiя, Аксана), Ksenija (Slovenia, Croatia); Xénia (Hungary); Senja (Finland), and Ksenija (Ксенија) (Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia), Аксиния Bulgaria.Name days:
Greece: January 24
Czech Republic: November 27
Slovakia: June 2
Hungary: July 30
Finland: January 24
Russia: February 6
Poland: April 16