Eugene McCarthy

Eugene Joseph McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and poet from Minnesota. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the United States Senate from 1959 to 1971. McCarthy sought the Democratic nomination in the 1968 presidential election, challenging incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson on an anti-Vietnam War platform. McCarthy sought the presidency five times, but never won.

Born in Watkins, Minnesota, McCarthy became an economics professor after earning a graduate degree from the University of Minnesota. He served as a codebreaker for the United States Department of War during World War II. McCarthy became a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (the state affiliate of the Democratic Party) and won election to the House of Representatives in 1948. He served until winning election to the Senate in 1958. McCarthy was a prominent supporter of Adlai Stevenson II for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1960 and was himself a candidate for the Democratic vice presidential nomination in 1964. He co-sponsored the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, though he later expressed regret about the impact of the bill and became a member of the Federation for American Immigration Reform.

As the 1960s progressed, McCarthy emerged as a prominent opponent of President Johnson's handling of the Vietnam War. After Robert Kennedy declined the request of a group of anti-war Democrats to challenge Johnson in the 1968 Democratic primaries, McCarthy entered the race on an anti-war platform.[2] Though he was initially given little chance of winning, the Tet Offensive galvanized opposition to the war and McCarthy finished in a strong second place in the New Hampshire primary. After that primary election, Kennedy entered the race and Johnson announced that he would not seek re-election. McCarthy and Kennedy each won several primaries before Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. The 1968 Democratic National Convention chose Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Johnson's preferred candidate, as its presidential nominee.

McCarthy did not seek re-election in the 1970 Senate election. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1972 but fared poorly in the primaries. He ran in several more races after that, but never won election to another office. He ran as independent in the 1976 presidential election and won 0.9% of the popular vote. He was a plaintiff in the landmark campaign finance case of Buckley v. Valeo and supported Ronald Reagan in the 1980 presidential election.

Eugene McCarthy
EugeneMcCarthy
United States Senator
from Minnesota
In office
January 3, 1959 – January 3, 1971
Preceded byEdward John Thye
Succeeded byHubert Humphrey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 4th district
In office
January 3, 1949 – January 3, 1959
Preceded byEdward Devitt
Succeeded byJoseph Karth
Personal details
Born
Eugene Joseph McCarthy

March 29, 1916
Watkins, Minnesota, U.S.
DiedDecember 10, 2005 (aged 89)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyDemocratic-Farmer-Labor
Spouse(s)
Abigail Quigley
(m. 1945; died 2001)
ResidenceWoodville, Virginia, U.S.[1]
Alma materSaint John's University (BA)
University of Minnesota (MA)
ProfessionProfessor

Early life

McCarthy was born in Watkins, Minnesota. He was the son of a deeply religious Roman Catholic mother of German ancestry, Anna Baden McCarthy, and strong-willed father of Irish descent, Michael J. McCarthy,[3][4] who was a postmaster and cattle buyer.

McCarthy grew up in Watkins with his parents and three siblings. He attended St. Anthony's Catholic School in Watkins, and spent hours reading his aunt's Harvard Classics.[2] He was influenced by the monks at nearby St. John's Abbey and University in Collegeville, Minnesota, and attended prep school there, at Saint John's Preparatory School, from which he graduated in 1932.[5] He also went to college at Saint John's University, graduating in 1935. McCarthy earned his master's degree from the University of Minnesota in 1939. He taught in public schools in Minnesota and North Dakota from 1935 to 1940, when he became a professor of economics and education at St. John's, working there from 1940-43.

In 1943, considering the contemplative life of a monk, he became a Benedictine novice at Saint John's Abbey.[2] After nine months as a monk he left the monastery, causing a fellow novice to say, "It was like losing a 20-game winner".[6] He enlisted in the Army, serving as a code breaker for the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department in Washington, D.C. in 1944.[7] He was then an instructor in sociology and economics at the College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota from 1946-49.

United States Congressman

McCarthy became a member of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. In 1948 he won election to the United States House of Representatives with labor and Catholic support,[8] representing Minnesota's 4th congressional district until 1959. He became the leader of young liberals, predominately from the Midwest, called "McCarthy's Marauders".[9]

In 1952 he engaged Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy (no relation) in a nationally televised debate in which he parodied the Senator's arguments to "prove" that General Douglas MacArthur had been a communist pawn.[9] In 1958 he won election to the U.S. Senate.

United States Senator

He served as a member of (among other committees) the powerful Senate Foreign Relations Committee. McCarthy became known to a larger audience in 1960 when he supported twice-defeated presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson for the Democratic nomination. He pleaded during his speech, "Do not reject this man who made us all proud to be called Democrats!" He joked about his own merits as a candidate, "I'm twice as liberal as Hubert Humphrey, twice as intelligent as Stuart Symington, and twice as Catholic as Jack Kennedy."[9] He was considered as a possible running mate for Lyndon Johnson in 1964, only to see fellow Minnesota Senator Humphrey chosen for that position.[10]

Along with Ted Kennedy, McCarthy was one of the original co-sponsors of the Immigration Act of 1965. He later regretted this, noting that "unrecognized by virtually all of the bill's supporters, were provisions which would eventually lead to unprecedented growth in numbers and the transfer of policy control from the elected representatives of the American people to individuals wishing to bring relatives to this country".[11]

Taking a turn to the right, McCarthy became a member of the Board of Advisors of the Federation for American Immigration Reform.[12]

McCarthy met with Marxist-Leninist revolutionary Che Guevara in New York City in 1964 to discuss repairing relations between the US and Cuba.[13] The two met in journalist Lisa Howard's apartment on Park Avenue in Manhattan. The film Che: Part One depicts this event.

1968 presidential campaign

McCarthy challenges Johnson

In 1968, Allard K. Lowenstein and his anti-Vietnam War Dump Johnson movement recruited McCarthy to run against incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson. Reportedly, Lowenstein first attempted to recruit Senator Robert F. Kennedy, who declined to run, then Senator George McGovern, who also declined to run against Johnson (Kennedy would decide to run after the primary on March 16, 1968,[14] and McGovern also later briefly entered the race). McCarthy entered and almost defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire Democratic primary, with the intention of influencing the federal government — then controlled by Democrats — to curtail its involvement in the Vietnam War. A number of anti-war college students and other activists from around the country traveled to New Hampshire to support McCarthy's campaign. Some anti-war students who had the long-haired, counterculture appearance of hippies chose to cut their long hair and shave off their beards, in order to campaign for McCarthy door-to-door, a phenomenon that led to the informal slogan "Get clean for Gene".[15]

McCarthy's decision to run arose partly as an outcome of opposition to the war by Wayne Morse of Oregon, one of the two Senators to vote against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of August 1964. Morse gave speeches denouncing the war before it had entered the consciousness of most Americans. Following that, several politically active Oregon Democrats asked Robert Kennedy to run as an anti-war candidate. McCarthy had also encouraged Kennedy to run as well.[16] Initially Kennedy refused, so the group asked McCarthy to run, and he responded favorably. After Kennedy entered the race and Johnson withdrew, however, McCarthy shifted his focus towards the New York Senator.[16]

McCarthy declared his candidacy on November 30, 1967, saying, "I am concerned that the Administration seems to have set no limit to the price it is willing to pay for a military victory." Political experts and the news media dismissed his candidacy, and he was given little chance of making any impact against Johnson in the primaries.[17] But public perception of him changed following the Tet Offensive (January 30-February 23, 1968), the aftermath of which saw many Democrats grow disillusioned with the war, and quite a few interested in an alternative to LBJ. McCarthy said, "My decision to challenge the President's position and the administration's position has been strengthened by recent announcements out of the administration. The evident intention to escalate and to intensify the war in Vietnam, and on the other hand, the absence of any positive indication or suggestion for a compromise or for a negotiated political settlement."[18]

On December 3, 1967 Senator McCarthy addressed The Conference of Concerned Democrats in Chicago, accusing the current administration of ignoring and bungling opportunities for bring the war to a conclusion,[19].

On December 11, 1967 Senator McCarthy suggested that some areas of South Vietnam should be surrendered to the Viet Cong [20]

On February 17, 1968 it was reported that McCarthy's campaign had only raised one quarter of the funds it had hoped to raise nationally.[21]

On May 11, 1968 McCarthy's questionable record on Civil Rights was attacked by Senator Robert Kennedy.[22]

On June 24, 1968 McCarthy was beaten by Hubert Humphrey as the latter secured significant delegates in their home state of Minnesota. [23]

As his volunteers (led by youth coordinator Sam Brown) went door to door in New Hampshire, and as the media began paying more serious attention to the Senator, McCarthy began to rise in the opinion polls. When McCarthy scored 42% to Johnson's 49% in the New Hampshire popular vote (and 20 of the 24 N.H. delegates to the Democratic national nominating convention) on March 12 it became clear that deep division existed among Democrats on the war issue. By this time, Johnson had become inextricably defined by Vietnam, and this demonstration of divided support within his party meant his reelection (only four years after winning the highest percentage of the popular vote in modern history) seemed unlikely. The folk trio Peter, Paul and Mary released a record "Eugene McCarthy For President (If You Love Your Country)", endorsing McCarthy, who they said had stood alone against Johnson over "more timid men" now echoing him.[24]

Kennedy enters the race

On March 16, Kennedy announced that he would run; many Democrats saw Kennedy as a stronger candidate than McCarthy. On March 31, in a surprise move, Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection. Following that, McCarthy won in Wisconsin,[25] where the Kennedy campaign was still getting organized. McCarthy also won in Oregon against a well-organized Kennedy effort; it was even considered his first official victory over Kennedy as well.[16]

Even as McCarthy styled himself the clean politician, however, he dished it out, too. Known for his wit, when asked if Michigan governor George Romney's comment that he had been "brainwashed" about the Vietnam War had ended his presidential hopes, McCarthy remarked, "Well . . . er no, not really. Anyway, I think in that case a light rinse would have been sufficient." [26] He mocked Robert Kennedy and his supporters. A major gaffe occurred in Oregon, when McCarthy sniffed that Kennedy supporters were "less intelligent" than his own and belittled Indiana (which had by then gone for Kennedy) for lacking a poet of the stature of Robert Lowell—a friend of McCarthy's who often traveled with him.[27]

Some of those who joined McCarthy's effort early on were Kennedy loyalists. Now that Kennedy was in the race, many of them jumped ship to his campaign, urging McCarthy to drop out and support Kennedy for the nomination. However, McCarthy resented the fact that Bobby had let him do the "dirty work" of challenging Johnson, and then only entered the race once it became apparent that the President was vulnerable. As a result, while he initially entered the campaign with few illusions of winning, McCarthy now devoted himself to beating Kennedy (and Hubert Humphrey, who entered the race after LBJ removed himself), and gaining the nomination.[16]

Vice President Hubert Humphrey, long a champion of labor unions and of civil rights, entered the race with the support of the party "establishment", including most members of Congress, mayors, governors and labor unions. Humphrey entered the race too late to enter any primaries, but had the support of the president and of many Democratic insiders.

Kennedy, like his brother before him, planned to win the nomination through popular support in the primaries. McCarthy and Kennedy squared off in California, each knowing that the state would make or break them. They both campaigned vigorously up and down the state, with many polls showing them neck-and-neck, and a few even predicting a McCarthy victory.

However, a televised debate between them began to tilt undecided voters away from the Minnesota Senator. McCarthy made two ill-considered statements: That he would accept a coalition government including Communists in Saigon, and that only the relocation of inner-city blacks would solve the urban problem. Kennedy pounced, portraying the former idea as soft on communism, and the latter diagnosis as a scheme to bus tens of thousands of ghetto residents into white, conservative Orange County.[27]

Kennedy took the crucial California primary on June 4, but was shot after his victory speech at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and died soon afterwards. In response, McCarthy refrained from political action for several days, but did not remove himself from the race. One aide recalled him sneering about his fallen rival, "Demagoguing to the last". Another heard him say that Kennedy "brought it on himself"—implying that because Kennedy had promised military support to the state of Israel, he had somehow provoked Sirhan Sirhan, the Palestinian gunman convicted of killing him.[27]

Despite strong showings in several primaries — indeed, he won more votes than any other Democratic candidate — McCarthy garnered only 23 percent of the delegates at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, largely due to the control of state-party organizations over the delegate-selection process. After the Kennedy assassination, many delegates for Kennedy chose to support George McGovern rather than McCarthy.

Moreover, although the eventual nominee, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, was not clearly an anti-war candidate, some anti-war Democrats hoped that Humphrey as President might succeed where Johnson had failed — in extricating the United States from Vietnam. McCarthy eventually gave a lukewarm endorsement of Humphrey. Although McCarthy did not win the Democratic nomination, the anti-war "New Party", which ran several candidates for President that year, listed him as their nominee on the ballot in Arizona, where he received 2,751 votes. He also received 20,721 votes as a write-in candidate in California.

Politics after the Senate

Presidential campaign 1972

McCarthy returned to politics as a candidate for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 1972, but he fared poorly in New Hampshire and Wisconsin and soon dropped out.

Illinois was the only primary in which McCarthy actively participated. He got 38% of the vote against the, then, leading contender Edmund Muskie's 59% (3% of others). A better showing than McGovern got against Muskie two weeks earlier in New Hampshire. But McCarthy's Illinois campaign was ignored by the media.

Presidential campaign 1976

After the 1972 campaign, he left the Democratic Party, and ran as an Independent candidate for President in the 1976 election. During that campaign, he took a libertarian stance on civil liberties, promised to create full employment by shortening the work week, came out in favor of nuclear disarmament, attacked the Internal Revenue Service,[28] and declared whom he would nominate to various Cabinet postings if elected. Mainly, however, he battled ballot access laws that he deemed too restrictive and encouraged voters to reject the two-party system.[29]

His numerous legal battles during the course of the election, along with a strong grassroots effort in friendly states, allowed him to appear on the ballot in 30 states and eased ballot access for later third party candidates. His party affiliation was listed on ballots, variously, as "Independent," "McCarthy '76," "Non-Partisan," "Nom. Petition," "Nomination," "Not Designated," and "Court Order". Although he was not listed on the ballot in California and Wyoming, he was recognized as a write-in candidate in those states. In many states, he did not run with a vice presidential nominee, but he came to have a total of 15 running mates in states where he was required to have one. At least eight of his running mates were women.[30]

Nationally, McCarthy received 740,460 votes for 0.91% of the total vote finishing third in the election.[30] His best showing came in Oregon where he received 40,207 votes for 3.90% of the vote.[30]

Further activism

He opposed Watergate-era campaign finance laws, becoming a plaintiff in the landmark case of Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976), in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that certain provisions of federal campaign finance laws were unconstitutional.[31] McCarthy, along with the New York Civil Liberties Union, philanthropist Stewart Mott, the Conservative Party of New York State, the Mississippi Republican Party, and the Libertarian Party, were the plaintiffs in Buckley, becoming key players in killing campaign spending limits and public financing of political campaigns.

In 1980, dismayed by what he saw as the abject failure of the Jimmy Carter presidency (he would later say "he was the worst president we ever had"),[32] he appeared in a campaign ad for Libertarian candidate Ed Clark, and also wrote the introduction to Clark's campaign book.[33] He eventually endorsed Ronald Reagan for the presidency.[34]

Final campaigns

In 1982, he ran for the U.S Senate but lost the Democratic primary to businessman Mark Dayton by 69% to 24%.

In the 1988 election, his name appeared on the ballot as the presidential candidate of a handful of left-wing state parties, specifically the Consumer Parties in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and the Minnesota Progressive Party in Minnesota. In his campaign he supported trade protectionism, Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative and the abolition of the two-party system.[35] He received 30,905 votes.[36]

In 1992, returning to the Democratic Party, he entered the New Hampshire primary and campaigned for the Democratic Presidential nomination, but was excluded from the first and therefore most important televised debate by its moderator, Tom Brokaw of NBC. McCarthy, along with other candidates who had been excluded from the 1992 Democratic debates (including two-time New Alliance Party Presidential candidate Lenora Fulani, former Irvine, California mayor Larry Agran, Billy Jack actor Tom Laughlin, and others) staged protests and unsuccessfully took legal action in an attempt to be included in the debates. Unlike the other excluded candidates mentioned, McCarthy was a longstanding national figure and had mounted credible campaigns for President in previous elections. McCarthy ended up winning 108,679 votes in the 1992 primaries.[37]

Publishing

After leaving the Senate in 1971, McCarthy became a senior editor at Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishing and a syndicated newspaper columnist.

McCarthy took up writing poetry in the 1960s, and his increased political prominence led to increased interest in his published works. "If any of you are secret poets, the best way to break into print is to run for the presidency", he wrote in 1968.[9] He published a collection of poetry entitled Cool Reflections: Poetry For The Who, What, When, Where and Especially Why of It All (ISBN 1-57553-595-5.)

Personal life

McCarthy and his wife, Abigail Quigley McCarthy, had five children, Christopher Joseph McCarthy (April 30, 1946 – April 30, 1946), Eleanor McCarthy Howell, Mary Abigail McCarthy (April 29, 1949 – July 28, 1990), Michael Benet McCarthy, and Margaret Alice McCarthy.

In 1969, McCarthy left his wife after 24 years of marriage, but the two never divorced. McCarthy was a restless, moody, and often caustic man who neglected his family for politics, and the couple had led largely separate lives for the majority of their 24 years together. The young McCarthy children stayed with their mother following the separation.[38] According to Dominic Sandbrook, McCarthy biographer, it was CBS News correspondent Marya McLaughlin[39] (December 29, 1929 – September 14, 1998) with whom McCarthy was actually involved in a long-term relationship that lasted until McLaughlin's death in 1998.[40][41]

Death and legacy

McCarthy died of complications from Parkinson's disease at the age of 89 on December 10, 2005, in a retirement home in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., where he had lived for the previous few years. His eulogy was given by former President Bill Clinton.

Following his death the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University dedicated their Public Policy Center the Eugene J. McCarthy Center for Public Policy.[42] The Democratic party memorialized his death during the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, on August 28, 2008. The memorial included pictures of several prominent Democrats who had died during the 4-year period since the 2004 Convention displayed on a large screen. During Senator McCarthy's tribute, the screen displaying his photograph left off his first name but included his middle name, calling him "Senator Joseph McCarthy"; Joseph McCarthy was a notable Republican Senator from Wisconsin famous for his anti-Communist campaigning and sparring with journalist Edward R. Murrow.[43]

In 2009, his alma mater, St. John's University, honored McCarthy by establishing the Eugene McCarthy Distinguished Public Service Award.[44]

McCarthy's files as U.S. congressman (Democratic Farmer-Labor) from Minnesota's fourth district (1949–1958) and as U.S. senator from Minnesota (1959–1970) are available for research use. They include executive files, general files, legislative files, personal files, political and campaign (including senatorial, vice presidential, and presidential) files, public relations files, sound and visual materials (with photographs), and speeches.[45]

Presidential election results

McCarthy's presidential campaign results
Election Party votes %
1968 Democratic Party 25,634 0.04%
1976 independent 740,460 0.91%
1988 Consumer 30,905 0.03%

Books by Eugene McCarthy

  • Frontiers in American Democracy (1960)
  • Dictionary of American Politics (1962)
  • A Liberal Answer to the Conservative Challenge (1964)
  • The Limits of Power: America's Role in the World (1967)
  • The Year of the People (1969)
  • Mr. Raccoon and His Friends (1977; Academy Press Ltd., Chicago, IL); children's stories, illustrated by James Ecklund
  • A Political Bestiary, by Eugene J. McCarthy and James J. Kilpatrick (1979) ISBN 0-380-46508-6
  • The Ultimate Tyranny: The Majority Over the Majority (1980) ISBN 0-15-192581-X
  • Gene McCarthy's Minnesota: Memories of a Native Son (1982) ISBN 0-86683-681-0
  • Complexities and Contrarities (1982) ISBN 0-15-121202-3
  • Up Til Now: A Memoir (1987)
  • Required Reading: A Decade of Political Wit and Wisdom (1988) ISBN 0-15-176880-3
  • Nonfinancial Economics: The Case for Shorter Hours of Work, by Eugene McCarthy and William McGaughey (1989) ISBN 0-275-92514-5
  • A Colony of the World: The United States Today (1992) ISBN 0-7818-0102-8
  • Eugene J. McCarthy: Selected Poems by Eugene J. McCarthy, Ray Howe (1997) ISBN 1-883477-15-8
  • No-Fault Politics (1998) ISBN 0-8129-3016-9
  • 1968: War and Democracy (2000) ISBN 1-883477-37-9
  • Hard Years: Antidotes to Authoritarians (2001) ISBN 1-883477-38-7
  • From Rappahannock County (2002) ISBN 1-883477-51-4
  • Parting Shots from My Brittle Bow: Reflections on American Politics and Life (2005) ISBN 1-55591-528-0

See also

References

  1. ^ Eugene McCarthy Obituary | Eugene McCarthy Funeral | Legacy.com Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  2. ^ a b c O’Donnell, Lawrence (2017). Playing with Fire – The 1968 Elections and the Transformation of American Politics (1st ed.). Penguin Press. ISBN 9780399563140.
  3. ^ Post, Tim (2006-01-24). "St. John's remembers Sen. Eugene McCarthy". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  4. ^ Sandbrook, Dominic (2007). Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 3. ISBN 9780307425775.
  5. ^ Roske, Peggy (2010). "Eugene McCarthy's Days at St. John's" (PDF). Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  6. ^ Eisele, Albert (December 13, 2005). ws/10430-his-time-was-then--and-now "His time was then — and now" Check |url= value (help). TheHill.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  7. ^ "Who is Eugene J. McCarthy? â€" CSB/SJU". www.csbsju.edu. College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  8. ^ Lubell, Samuel (1956). The Future of American Politics (2nd ed.). Anchor Press. p. 223.
  9. ^ a b c d Senator Eugene McCarthy obituary, telegraph.co.uk, December 12, 2005.
  10. ^ "Eugene McCarthy". Times of London. 2005-12-12. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
  11. ^ McCarthy, Eugene J. (1992), A Colony of the World: The United States Today, Hippocrene Books, p. 57, ISBN 978-0781801027
  12. ^ "A Personal Note on the Passing of Eugene McCarthy" (PDF). December 2005/January 2006 Immigration Report. Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2006. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  13. ^ Eisele, Al (2009-03-25) "When Gene McCarthy Met Che Guevara", Huffington Post; retrieved 2010-01-29.
  14. ^ "Remembering Eugene McCarthy". NPR. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  15. ^ Get Clean For Gene: Eugene McCarthy's 1968 Presidential Campaign - George Rising
  16. ^ a b c d https://books.google.com/books?id=wMqSzTPXl7QC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=eugene+mccarthy+robert+kennedy+whose+candidacy+mccarthy+encourage&source=bl&ots=3QrEfF8wx2&sig=ACfU3U3eezRrDbqarLJdqAGEGmkpJ0UXKQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit5Nz4jbLgAhUi4IMKHcLgB4EQ6AEwE3oECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=eugene%20mccarthy%20robert%20kennedy%20whose%20candidacy%20mccarthy%20encourage&f=false
  17. ^ Marlow, James (1967-12-01). "McCarthy Is Unlikely to Alter LBJ Policy". Kentucky New Era. Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Associated Press. p. 4. Retrieved 2015-06-14 – via Google News Archive. At this point it is not likely many people, including McCarthy, think he has a chance to get the nomination away from Johnson although, if he can generate enough heat, somebody else might.
  18. ^ "1967 Year In Review". UPI.com.
  19. ^ "Message of fear attributed to LBJ". Lewiston Morning Tribune. December 3, 1967 – via Google News Archive.
  20. ^ "McCarthy urges letting Cong have some Southern Districts". Lewiston Morning Tribune. December 11, 1967 – via Google News Archive.
  21. ^ Allen, Robert S. (February 17, 1968). "Senate Ethics Committee Dragging Feed". The Lewiston Daily Sun – via Google News Archive.
  22. ^ Allen, Robert S. (May 11, 1968). "McCarthy did vote against Poll Tax repeal". Lewiston Daily Sun. p. 3 – via Google News Archive.
  23. ^ "The Lewiston Daily Sun - Google News Archive Search".
  24. ^ "1968 45-RPM Eugene McCarthy Campaign Recording: Peter, Paul, & Mary". YouTube. 2010-09-04. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  25. ^ https://madison.com/democratic-winner-eugene-mccarthy/article_349d5b25-ad8b-5676-9415-7b96907a625e.html
  26. ^ Lewis Chester; Godfrey Hodgson; Bruce Page (1969). An American melodrama: the presidential campaign of 1968. Viking Press. p. 101. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
    as cited in: Campbell, W. Joseph (September 4, 2012). "Recalling George Romney's "brainwashing" and Gene McCarthy's "light rinse" retort". Media Myth Alert. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
  27. ^ a b c Greenberg, David (June 4, 2008). "After the Assassination: How Gene McCarthy's response to Bobby Kennedy's murder crippled the Democrats". Slate.com. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  28. ^ Walker, Jesse (2009-11-01) "Five Faces of Jerry Brown", The American Conservative, November 1, 2009.
  29. ^ "Eugene McCarthy for President 1976 Campaign Brochure". 4president.org. 2007-09-22. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  30. ^ a b c Leip, David (2005). "1976 Presidential General Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
  31. ^ "Campaignfinancesite.org".
  32. ^ Hitchens, Christopher (2007-05-21). "The latest absurdities to emerge from Jimmy Carter's big, smug mouth. - By Christopher Hitchens - Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
  33. ^ Walker, Jesse (2010-08-31) The Cold, Crisp Taste of Koch, Reason
  34. ^ MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour (2005-12-12). Online NewsHour: Remembering Sen. Eugene McCarthy — December 12, 2005. PBS.
  35. ^ Cline, Francis X. (December 11, 2005). "Eugene J. McCarthy, Senate Dove Who Jolted '68 Race, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  36. ^ Leip, David (2005). "1988 Presidential General Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
  37. ^ Leip, David (2016). "1992 Presidential General Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
  38. ^ Sandbrook, Dominic (2007-12-18). Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307425775.
  39. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths MCLAUGHLIN, MARYA - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1998-09-16. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  40. ^ Kilpatrick, James (2005). "The Life And Career Of Gene McCarthy Politician". LawCrossing.com. Universal Press Syndicate. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  41. ^ "Marya McLaughlin Dead At 68". CBSNews.com. September 16, 1998. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  42. ^ "The Eugene J. McCarthy Center for Public Policy and Civic Engagement". College of Saint Benedict. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
  43. ^ "Dems Confuse Joe, Eugene McCarthy". NPR.org. August 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
  44. ^ "Eugene McCarthy Public Service Award". The Eugene J. McCarthy Center. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  45. ^ Eugene J. McCarthy Papers at Minnesota Historical Society; accessed June 14, 2017.

Sources

  • Dominic Sandbrook, Eugene McCarthy and The Rise and Fall of American Liberalism (2005).

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Edward Devitt
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 4th congressional district

1949–1959
Succeeded by
Joseph Karth
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Edward John Thye
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Minnesota
1959–1971
Served alongside: Hubert Humphrey, Walter Mondale
Succeeded by
Hubert Humphrey
Party political offices
Preceded by
William E. Carlson
Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party from United States Senator (Class 1) from Minnesota
1958, 1964
Succeeded by
Hubert Humphrey
1958 United States Senate election in Minnesota

The 1958 United States Senate election in Minnesota took place on November 4, 1958. Democratic U.S. Representative Eugene McCarthy defeated incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Edward John Thye, who sought a third term.

1964 United States Senate election in Minnesota

The 1964 United States Senate election in Minnesota took place on November 3, 1964. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Eugene McCarthy defeated Republican challenger Wheelock Whitney, Jr., to win a second term.

1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1968 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1968 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey was selected as the nominee in the 1968 Democratic National Convention held from August 26 to August 29, 1968, in Chicago, Illinois.

1968 United States elections

The 1968 United States elections was held on November 5, and elected members of the 91st United States Congress. The election took place during the Vietnam War, in the same year as the Tet Offensive, the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the protests of 1968. The Republican Party won control of the presidency and picked up seats in the House and Senate, although the Democratic Party retained control of Congress.In the presidential election, Republican former Vice President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon won the popular vote by less than one point, but took most states outside the Northeast and comfortably won the electoral vote. Former Alabama Governor George Wallace of the American Independent Party took 13.5% of the popular vote and won the electoral votes of the Deep South. After incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson declined to seek re-election, Humphrey won the Democratic nomination over Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy and South Dakota Senator George McGovern at the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention. Nixon won the Republican nomination over New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller and California Governor Ronald Reagan. As of 2016, Wallace is the most recent third party candidate to win a state's entire share of electoral votes. Nixon became the only former (non-sitting) vice president to win a presidential election.

The Republican Party won a net gain of five seats in both the House and the Senate. However, the Democratic Party retained strong majorities in both houses of Congress.

In the gubernatorial elections, the Republican Party picked up a net gain of five governorships.

1968 United States presidential election

The 1968 United States presidential election was the 46th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968. The Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Analysts have argued the election of 1968 was a major realigning election as it permanently disrupted the New Deal Coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years.

Incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson had been the early front-runner for his party's nomination, but he announced his withdrawal from the race after anti–Vietnam War candidate Eugene McCarthy finished second in the New Hampshire primary. McCarthy, former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and Vice President Humphrey emerged as the three major candidates in the Democratic primaries until Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. Humphrey won the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which saw numerous anti-war protests. Nixon entered the 1968 Republican primaries as the front-runner, and he defeated Nelson Rockefeller, Ronald Reagan, and other candidates at the 1968 Republican National Convention to win his party's nomination. Governor George Wallace of Alabama ran on the American Independent Party ticket, campaigning in favor of racial segregation.

The election year was tumultuous; it was marked by the assassination of Civil Rights Movement leader Martin Luther King Jr., subsequent King assassination riots across the nation, the assassination of Kennedy, and widespread opposition to the Vietnam War across university campuses. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation's cities and provide new leadership in the Vietnam War. A year later, he would popularize the term "silent majority" to describe those he viewed as being his target voters. He also pursued a "Southern strategy" designed to win conservative Southern white voters who had traditionally supported the Democratic Party. Humphrey promised to continue Johnson's War on Poverty and to support the Civil Rights Movement. Humphrey trailed badly in polls taken in late August but narrowed Nixon's lead after Wallace's candidacy collapsed and Johnson suspended bombing in the Vietnam War.

Nixon won a plurality of the popular vote by a narrow margin, but won by a large margin in the Electoral College, carrying most states outside of the Northeast. Wallace won five states in the Deep South and ran well in some ethnic enclave industrial districts in the North; he is the most recent third party candidate to win a state. This was the first presidential election after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had led to mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. Nixon's victory marked the start of a period of Republican dominance in presidential elections, as Republicans won seven of the next ten elections.

1970 United States Senate election in Minnesota

The 1970 United States Senate election in Minnesota took place on November 3, 1970. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Eugene McCarthy opted not to seek reelection. Former Democratic U.S. Senator, Vice President and 1968 presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey defeated Republican U.S. Representative Clark MacGregor.

1976 United States presidential election in Colorado

The 1976 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election. Voters chose seven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Colorado was won by incumbent President Gerald Ford (R–Michigan). with 54.1% of the popular vote, against Jimmy Carter (D–Georgia), with 41.6% of the popular vote. None of the third-party candidates amounted to a significant portion of the vote, but Eugene McCarthy (I–Minnesota) won 2.4% of the popular vote and came third overall in the nation. Despite losing in Colorado, Carter went on to win the national election and became the 39th president of the United States. Colorado had previously voted Republican fifteen times, Democrat nine times, and Populist once (for James B. Weaver in 1892). As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Dolores County, Prowers County, Phillips County, and Cheyenne County voted for the Democratic candidate.

1976 United States presidential election in Delaware

The 1976 United States presidential election in Delaware took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election. Voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Delaware was won by Jimmy Carter (D–Georgia), with 51.98% of the popular vote. Carter defeated incumbent President Gerald Ford (R–Michigan), who finished with 46.57% of the popular vote. No third-party candidate amounted 1% of the vote, but Eugene McCarthy (Independent–Minnesota) finished third in Delaware with 1.03% of the statewide popular vote.

Jimmy Carter went on to become the 39th president of the United States.

1976 United States presidential election in Iowa

The 1976 United States presidential election in Iowa took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Iowa was won by incumbent President Gerald Ford (R–Michigan). with 49.47% of the popular vote, against Jimmy Carter (D–Georgia), with 48.46% of the popular vote. This race was one of the tightest in the nation, with the two men being separated by just 1.01% of the vote and a mere thirteen thousand votes. None of the third-party candidates amounted to a significant portion of the vote, but Eugene McCarthy (I–Minnesota) won 1.57% of the popular vote and came third overall in the nation.

Despite losing in Iowa, Carter went on to win the national election and became the 39th president of the United States. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time a Democrat won the presidency without Iowa

1976 United States presidential election in Maine

The 1976 presidential election in Maine took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election, which took place across all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Voters chose 4 representatives, or electors to the electoral college, to vote for president and vice president.

Maine narrowly voted for incumbent Republican president Gerald Ford over his Democratic opponent, Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. Ford took 48.91 percent of the vote to Carter’s 48.07 percent, a victory margin of .84%. The anti-war former Democratic senator from Minnesota, Eugene McCarthy, received 2.21 percent of the vote in Maine, which possibly helped Ford carry the state, as he most likely siphoned more votes from Carter than Ford.

Despite his narrow loss nationwide, Ford actually managed to carry four of the six New England states. Carter only won the heavily Democratic states of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, which made New England Ford's second strongest region in the nation after the West.

1976 United States presidential election in Nebraska

The 1976 United States presidential election in Nebraska took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election. Voters chose five representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nebraska was won by incumbent President Gerald Ford (R–Michigan), with 59.19% of the popular vote, against Jimmy Carter (D–Georgia), with 38.46% of the popular vote. None of the third-party candidates amounted to a significant portion of the vote, but Eugene McCarthy (I–Minnesota) won 1.55% of Nebraska's popular vote and came third overall in the nation. Despite losing in Nebraska, Carter went on to win the national election and became the 39th president of the United States. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Butler County, Sherman County, and Greeley County voted for the Democratic candidate.

With 59.19% of the popular vote, Nebraska would prove to be Ford's fourth strongest state in the 1976 election after Utah, Idaho and Wyoming.

1976 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1976 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all 50 states and D.C. Voters chose 4 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

New Hampshire was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Gerald Ford of Michigan and his running mate Senator Bob Dole of Kansas. Ford and Dole defeated the Democratic nominees, Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia and his running mate Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota.

Ford took 54.75% of the vote to Carter's 43.47%, a margin of 11.28%.

Anti-war former Democratic Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota, running as an Independent presidential candidate, came in a distant third, with 1.21%.

New Hampshire in this era normally leaned Republican, having not gone Democratic since the nationwide Democratic landslide of 1964.

The Northern moderate Republican Ford easily triumphed in New Hampshire over the Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter.

On the county map, Ford won 9 of New Hampshire's 10 counties, with only rural Coos County in the far north of the state giving a 51-49 majority to Carter. In a sign of the state's Republican trend that would occur in the 1970s and 1980s, even while narrowly losing the national race, Ford won 2 of the state's traditional New Deal Democratic counties, with a majority win in Hillsborough County and a plurality win Strafford County. Since 1932, both of these counties, along with Coos County, had gone Democratic in every close presidential election or Democratic victory, voting every time for Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Hubert H. Humphrey.

Ford's decisive victory in New Hampshire, while narrowly losing the national race, would make the state over 13% more Republican than the national average in the 1976 election. This is also the most recent presidential election when New Hampshire would back the losing Republican candidate as well.

1976 United States presidential election in Oregon

The 1976 United States presidential election in Oregon took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States presidential election. Voters chose six representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Oregon was won by incumbent President Gerald Ford (R–Michigan) with 47.78 percent of the popular vote, against Jimmy Carter (D–Georgia), with 47.62 percent of the popular vote. Oregon was to prove the closest state in the nation, and this also is the closest presidential election in Oregon since statehood in 1859.

None of the third-party candidates amounted to a significant portion of the vote, but Eugene McCarthy (I–Minnesota) won 3.90 percent of the popular vote and came third overall in the nation. Despite losing in Oregon, Carter went on to win the national election and became the 39th president of the United States.

This is the last occasion when Crook County, Wheeler County and Linn County have voted for a Democratic presidential candidate. It was to end almost a century as a bellwether for Crook County, which was to become solidly Republican following the "Reagan Revolution".

1976 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1976 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 2, 1976, as part of the 1976 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all fifty states and the District of Columbia. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Vermont voted for incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford of Michigan and his running mate Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, defeating Democratic Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia and his running mate Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota.

Ford took 54.34 percent of the vote to Carter’s 43.14 percent, a victory margin of 11.20%. Anti-war former Democratic Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota, running as an Independent presidential candidate, came in a distant third, with 2.13 percent.

Vermont historically was a bastion of liberal Northeastern Republicanism, and by 1976 the Green Mountain State had gone Republican in every presidential election since the founding of the Republican Party, except in the Democratic landslide of 1964, when the GOP had nominated staunch conservative Barry Goldwater. Gerald Ford, a moderate Northern Republican from Michigan, was easily able to continue the Republican tradition in Vermont, carrying the state comfortably and sweeping every county in the state against Southerner Jimmy Carter. This was the first election since 1892 when Grand Isle County had backed a losing candidate. In addition, this was also the most recent presidential election when sparsely populated Essex County did not vote for/back the overall winning candidate.

As the Republican Party would lurch to the right with Ronald Reagan four years later in 1980, Vermont would prove to be the only state in the nation where the moderate Ford would outperform the conservative Reagan. Ford won the state by a larger margin and won more counties than Reagan, reflecting the process of realignment going on at the time both within the party and within the state.

1976 was the last time that a losing Republican candidate would carry the state of Vermont, and the last time that the state would vote Republican in a close election. It was also the last election in which Vermont was more Republican than the nation as a whole, with Ford winning the state by over 11 points despite losing the national race by 2, making Vermont 13 percent more Republican than the national average in the 1976 election. Vermont would vote more Democratic than the nation in every election that has followed beginning in 1980.

Electoral history of Eugene McCarthy

Electoral history of Eugene McCarthy, United States Senator (1959–1971) and Congressman (1949–1959) from Minnesota. He was a member of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (Democratic Party on the national level).

McCarthy was also a candidate for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination, coming first in the primaries. He later ran for President four times.

Eugene McCarthy 1968 presidential campaign

The Eugene McCarthy presidential campaign of 1968 was launched by Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota in the latter part of 1967 to vie for the 1968 Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States. The focus of his campaign was his support for a swift end to the Vietnam War through a withdrawal of American forces. The campaign appealed to youths who were tired of the establishment and dissatisfied with government.

Early on, McCarthy was vocal in his intent to unseat the incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson. Following McCarthy's 42% showing in New Hampshire, Senator Robert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.) entered the race. Kennedy's entrance forced President Johnson to withdraw. After Johnson's withdrawal, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey entered the contest but avoided the primaries.

Kennedy fought it out with McCarthy in the primaries, as Humphrey used favorite son stand-ins to help him win delegates to the Democratic National Convention. Kennedy was assassinated, leaving Humphrey as McCarthy's main challenger. But Humphrey's organization was too strong for McCarthy to overcome, and his anti-war campaign was split after the late entrance of Senator George McGovern of South Dakota just ahead of the Democratic National Convention. Despite winning the popular vote, McCarthy lost to Humphrey at the convention amidst protests and riots.

Jeremy Larner

Jeremy Larner (born March 20, 1937) is an author, poet, journalist and speechwriter. He won an Academy Award in 1972 for Best Original Screenplay, for writing The Candidate.

Minnesota's 4th congressional district

Minnesota's 4th congressional district covers nearly all of Ramsey County, including all of St. Paul and its suburbs. The district is solidly Democratic with a CPVI of D + 14. It is currently represented by Betty McCollum, of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). The DFL has held the seat without interruption since 1949, and all but one term (1947-9) since the merger of the Democratic and Farmer-Labor Parties.

Victor-Eugene McCarty

Victor-Eugene McCarty (also Macarty, McCarthy or Macarthy, born between 1817 and 1823), a Louisiana Creole, was one of the first of several prominent free black composers in New Orleans, best known for publishing Fleurs de salon: 2 Favorite Polkas in 1854. In the 1840s he was among the first black men to study music abroad, at the Paris Conservatory.McCarty did not publish as widely as many of his fellow Creole composers of the era, but he was well known for performing and organizing other musicians, and playing a role in Reconstruction-era politics.

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