Eugen Weber

Eugen Joseph Weber (April 24, 1925 in Bucharest, Romania – May 17, 2007 in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California) was a Romanian-born American historian with a special focus on Western Civilization.

Weber became a historian because of his interest in politics, an interest dating back to at least the age of 12. He described his political awakening as a realization of social injustices: "It was my vague dissatisfaction with social hierarchy, the subjection of servants and peasants, the diffuse violence of everyday life in relatively peaceful country amongst apparently gentle folk".[1]

Weber's books and articles have been translated into several languages. He earned many accolades for his scholarship, including membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Guggenheim Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies and the Fulbright Program. His 1,300-page Modern History of Europe: Men, Cultures, and Societies from the Renaissance to the Present (1971) was described "a phenomenal job of synthesis and interpretation that reflects Eugen's wide and deep learning," by his UCLA history colleague Hans Rogger.[2] In addition to his distinguished American Awards and honors, he was awarded the Ordre des Palmes Académiques in 1977 for his contribution to French culture.

Eugen Weber
BornApril 24, 1925
DiedMay 17, 2007 (aged 82)
Alma materCambridge University
OccupationScholar, Author, Professor of History at UCLA
Known forModernization, "The Western Tradition" (lecture series)
Notable work
Peasants into Frenchmen, etc.


He was born the son of Sonia and Emmanuel Weber, a well-to-do industrialist. When he was ten, his parents hired a private tutor. But the tutor did not stay long. From the age of 10 Weber was already reading The Three Musketeers by Alexander Dumas, adventure novels by Karl May, poetry by Victor Hugo and Homer. He was also reading George Sand, Jules Verne and "every cheap paperback I could afford". At age 12, he was sent to boarding school in Herne Bay, in south-eastern England, and later to Ashville College, Harrogate.[3]

During World War II, he served with the British Army in Belgium, Germany and India between 1943 and 1947 rising to the rank of captain. Afterward, Weber studied history at the Sorbonne and Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) in Paris.[3]

In 1950, Weber married Jacqueline Brument-Roth. He graduated with a BA in 1950 and an MA from the University of Cambridge in 1954. He then taught at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (1953–1954) and the University of Alberta (1954–1955) before settling in the United States, where he taught first at the University of Iowa (1955–1956) and then, until 1993 on his retirement, at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).[4]

At Cambridge University, Eugen Weber studied with the historian David Thomson. He studied for his PhD but the dissertation was refused because the outside examiner, Alfred Cobban, of the University of London, gave a negative review of his dissertation, saying it lacked sufficient archival sources.

Eugen Weber wrote a column titled "LA Confidential" for the Los Angeles Times.[5] He also wrote for several French popular newspapers and, in 1989, presented an American public television series, The Western Tradition, which consisted of fifty-two lectures of 30 minutes each.


Weber took a pragmatic approach to history. He once observed:

Nothing is more concrete than history, nothing less interested in theories or in abstract ideas. The great historians have fewer ideas about history than amateurs do; they merely have a way of ordering their facts to tell their story. It isn’t theories they look for, but information, documents, and ideas about how to find and handle them.[6]


Weber is associated with several important academic arguments. His book: Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France 1870-1914 is a classic presentation of modernization theory. Although other historians such as Henri Mendras had put forward similar theories about the modernization of the French countryside, Weber's book was amongst the first to focus on changes in the period between 1870 and 1914. Weber emphasizes that well into the 19th century few French citizens regularly spoke French, but rather regional languages or dialects such as Breton, Gascon, Basque, Catalan, Flemish, Alsatian, and Corsican. Even in French-speaking areas provincial loyalties often transcended the putative bond of the nation. Between 1870 and 1914, Weber argued, a number of new forces penetrated the previously isolated countryside. These included the judicial and school systems, the army, the church, railways, roads, and a market economy. The result was the wholesale transformation of the population from "peasants," basically ignorant of the wider nation, to Frenchmen.

His book Apocalypses: Prophecies, Cults, and Millennial Beliefs through the Ages chronicles "apocalyptic visions and prophecies from Zarathustra to yesterday ... . beginning with the ancients of the West and the Orient and, especially ... the Jews and earliest Christians," finding that "an absolute belief in the end of time, when good would do final battle with evil, was omnipresent," inspiring "Crusades, scientific discoveries, works of art, voyages such as those of Columbus, rebellions" and reforms including American abolitionism.[7]

Weber proclaimed in "The Western Tradition" lectures of 1989:

"... here we are at the end of the 20th century with a lot of people lonely in a Godless world—and now they are denied not only God but the solid substance of judgment and perception". "The world has always been disgracefully managed but now you no longer know to whom to complain."

After he traversed the whole spectrum of western thought, tradition, civilization, and progress in The Western Tradition, Weber pointed at some of the profound ancient lessons from the Bible and laments the fact that many people today do not read it themselves. As an agnostic, Weber viewed the Bible primarily as an important piece of historical literature, calling it: "the epitome of wisdom, violence, high aspiration, and the hurtful achievements of mankind". He concluded his final lecture in the Western Tradition series by praising Western man as Promethean and then with Wordsworth's poetic phrase, "we feel that we are greater than we know."

A 2010 biography by Stanford Franklin, "Eugen Weber The Greatest Historian of our Times: Lessons of Greatness to the Future" presents Weber's life and works in grandiose terms as the greatest modern historian.


  • The Nationalist Revival in France, 1905-1914, 1959.
  • Action Française: Royalism and Reaction in Twentieth Century France (1962).
  • Nationalism, Socialism and National-Socialism in France French Historical Studies, Vol. 2, 1962. pp. 273–307 in JSTOR
  • Satan France-Maçon: la mystification de Leo Taxil, 1964.
  • Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century (1964).
  • co-edited with Hans Rogger, The European Right: A Historical Profile, 1965.
  • Pierre de Coubertin and the Introduction of Organized Sports in France pp. 3–26 from Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 5, 1970.
  • Gymnastics and Sports in Fin-de-Siècle France: Opium of the Classes? pp. 70–98 from American Historical Review, Vol. 76, 1971.
  • A Modern History of Europe: Men, Cultures, and Societies from the Renaissance to the Present (1971).
  • Peasants Into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914 (1976).
  • The Second Republic, Politics, and the Peasant, French Historical Studies Vol. 11, No. 4 (Autumn, 1980), pp. 521–550 in JSTOR
  • Comment la politique vint aux paysans: A Second Look at Peasant Politicization, American Historical Review, Vol. 87, 1982 pp. 357–389 in JSTOR
  • Fascism(s) and Some Harbingers, Journal of Modern History Vol. 54, No. 4, December 1982
  • Reflections on the Jews in France from The Jews in Modern France edited by Frances Malino and Bernard Wasserstein, 1985.
  • France, Fin de siècle (1986).
  • My France: Politics, Culture, Myth, 1991.
  • The Hollow Years: France in the 1930s (1994).
  • Apocalypses: Prophecies, Cults, and Millennial beliefs through the Ages (2000).


  1. ^ Weber, My France, p.2
  2. ^ UCLA, In Memoriam
  3. ^ a b Burns (1999)
  4. ^ Quinn, 2009
  5. ^
  6. ^ Eugen Weber, "History is What Historians Do," The New York Times, July 22, 1984 [1]
  7. ^


  • Amato, Joseph A. "Eugen Weber's France" pp. 879–882 from Journal of Social History, Vol. 25, 1992.
  • Burns, Michael. "Weber, Eugen" in The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing edited by Kelly Boyd, Volume 2, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, (1999) ISBN 1-884964-33-8. pp. 1284–1285
  • Quinn, Frederick. "An Elegy for Eugen Weber," Historian, Spring 2009, Vol. 71 Issue 1, pp. 1–30
  • Franklin, Stanford and Kanyane, Chris (2010) Eugen Weber Greatest Historian of our Times: Lessons of Greatness to the Future, Global Centre For Research World Wide
  • UCLA (May 22, 2007). "In Memoriam: Eugen Weber". Retrieved 2014-10-15.

External links

Andrzej Towiański

Andrzej Tomasz Towiański (Polish pronunciation: [anˈdʐej tɔˈvʲaɲskʲi]; January 1, 1799 – May 13, 1878) was a Polish philosopher and messianic religious leader.


Anti-Europeanism and Europhobia are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to Europe.

In the context of racial or ethno-nationalist politics, this may refer to the culture or peoples of Europe (c.f. anti-white sentiment in the United States);

In the shorthand of "Europe" standing for the European Union or European integration, it may refer to Euroscepticism,

criticism of policies of European governments or the European Union.

In the context of United States foreign policy, it may refer to the geopolitical divide between "transatlantic", "transpacific" and "hemispheric" (pan-American) relations.

The nominal antonyms would be pro-Europeanism or Europhilia."Europhobia" is used of British attitudes towards the Continent, either in the context of anti-German sentiment or of anti-Catholicism,

or, more recently, of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom.

American exceptionalism in the United States has long led to criticism of European domestic policy (such as the size of the welfare state in European countries) and foreign policy (such as European countries that did not support the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq). The ideological split between reverence for European refinery and classics and an emerging anti-French and anti-European sentiment played already a role between John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and their fellow Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans urging closer ties.

Ashville College

Ashville College is a co-educational independent school for both day and boarding pupils aged 3–18 in Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England. Its headmaster, Richard Marshall, is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference.

It was founded in 1877 as a boarding school for boys by the United Methodist Free Church, and incorporated Elmfield College and New College, Harrogate in the 1930s. It is now open to non-Methodists and to those of non-Christian religions. The college accepted girls in 1982 and is fully co-educational. It thrives as the oldest independent school in Harrogate and owns an estate of 60 acres on the south side of the spa town.

Augustin Fliche

Augustin Fliche (19 November 1884, Montpellier – 19 November 1951) was a 20th-century French historian who mainly dealt with the history of the Church in the Middle Ages. He was a professor at the University of Montpellier and also visiting professor at the University of Leuven in 1925–1927 and 1946–1947.

He is known among other things for a biography of Philip I of France and another one of Pope Gregory VII with his reforms. He also wrote overviews of the history of the Middle Ages.

From 1935, he directed with Victor Martin a Histoire de l'Église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours published by Bloud and Gay.

In 1941, he was elected a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.

He was opposed to both the educational theories of Marc Bloch and Bloch personally, probably, suggests Eugen Weber, due to Fliche's innate antisemitism and the fact that Bloch had once given one of Fliche's pieces a poor review.


Falangism (Spanish: falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.Opponents of Franco's changes to the party included former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for total authority, hierarchy and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal; under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism, the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange, utilizing violence to regenerate Spain, and promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire. The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position. However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the far right.

Fascism in Its Epoch

Fascism in Its Epoch, also known in English as The Three Faces of Fascism (German: Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche), is a 1963 book by historian and philosopher Ernst Nolte. It is widely regarded as his magnum opus and a seminal work on the history of fascism.

Ion Moța

Ion I. Moța [or Motza] (5 July 1902, Orăștie, Austria-Hungary—13 January 1937, Majadahonda, Spain) was the Romanian nationalist deputy leader of the Iron Guard killed in battle during the Spanish Civil War.

Je suis partout

Je suis partout (French pronunciation: ​[ʒə sɥi paʁtu], lit. I am everywhere) was a French newspaper founded by Jean Fayard, first published on 29 November 1930. It was placed under the direction of Pierre Gaxotte until 1939. Journalists of the paper included Lucien Rebatet, Alain Laubreaux, the illustrator Ralph Soupault, and the Belgian correspondent Pierre Daye.

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 1963

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 1963

Lynn Hunt

Lynn Avery Hunt (born November 16, 1945) is the Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her area of expertise is the French Revolution, but she is also well known for her work in European cultural history on such topics as gender. Her 2007 work, Inventing Human Rights, has been heralded as the most comprehensive analysis of the history of human rights. She served as president of the American Historical Association in 2002.Born in Panama and raised in St. Paul, Minnesota, she has her B.A. from Carleton College (1967) and her M.A. (1968) and Ph.D. (1973) from Stanford University. Before coming to UCLA she taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1974-1987) and the University of Pennsylvania (1987-1998).

Prof. Hunt teaches French and European history and the history of history as an academic discipline. Her specialties include the French Revolution, gender history, cultural history and historiography. Her current research projects include a collaborative study of an early 18th-century work on comparative religion that appeared in 7 volumes with 275 engravings by the artist Bernard Picart.

In 1982 Hunt received a Guggenheim Fellowship to study French History.In 2014 she was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy.

Maxime Real del Sarte

Maxime Real del Sarte (1888-1954) was a French sculptor and political activist.


A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.The word peasantry is commonly used in a non-pejorative sense as a collective noun for the rural population in the poor and under-developed countries of the world.

Philippe Muray

Philippe Muray (1945 in Angers (France) – March 2, 2006 in Paris) was a French essayist and novelist. None of his works have yet been translated into English. In 2002, Daniel Lindenberg included him in his list of "new reactionaries", along with Michel Houellebecq, Maurice Dantec, Alain Badiou, Alain Finkielkraut and others. In 2010, the French actor Fabrice Luchini read some of Muray's works at the Théâtre de l'Atelier in Paris, which contributed to a renewed discussion of his writings in the French press.

Republican Fascist Party

The Republican Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic. It was founded as the successor of former National Fascist Party as an anti-monarchist party. It considered King Victor Emmanuel III to be a traitor after he had signed the surrender to the Allies.

Vasile Marin

Vasile Marin (January 29, 1904 in Bucharest – January 13, 1937 in Majadahonda) was a Romanian politician, public servant and lawyer. A member of the National Peasants' Party until 1932, Vasile Marin become a prominent member of the Iron Guard. His death in the Spanish Civil War after volunteering to fight for the Nationalists along with the subsequent death of Ion Moța is credited with contributing to the growth of the Iron Guard.

Vihtori Kosola

Iisakki Vihtori Kosola (10 July 1884 – 14 December 1936) was the leader of the Finnish right-wing radical Lapua Movement.

Kosola was born in Ylihärmä, Southern Ostrobothnia. His family's farmhouse burnt down the next year, and the family moved to Lapua. His formative years were spent in farming and cattle-breeding.

Kosola was an active recruiter of Finnish Jäger troops to Germany from Autumn 1915, and was incarcerated in 1916. He was imprisoned in Helsinki, then at the Shpalernaya prison in St. Petersburg among other Finnish activists. He was released after the Russian Revolution and eagerly took part in the Finnish Civil War against the Red Guards and the Russians. After the war Kosola led the Lapua White Guard. He also joined the Agrarian League.

In the 1920s he organized Vientirauha, a strikebreakers' organisation, in Southern Ostrobothnia. He made a speech at the first meeting of the anti-communist Lapua Movement as it was organized in 1929, and was chosen as its leader as the movement radicalized in the following year. He took part of the abortive Mäntsälä Rebellion of 1932 that ended with the dissolution and banning of the Lapua Movement and the brief imprisonment of Kosola.

Kosola was chosen as president of the Lapua Movement's successor, the Patriotic People's Movement (IKL), but as the Movement became more political, Kosola had less time to participate in its affairs in Helsinki. Kosola's political career ended in 1936, when he was deposed from IKL's leadership; he was considered more of a liability than an asset by IKL. Contemporary accounts describe Kosola after being freed from jail as a tired and sick man who drank alcohol to deal with the stress. He was also in excessive debt and his farm was subject to foreclosure and auction. He died of pneumonia in December 1936. Kosola's first son, Niilo, bought the farm and was eventually elected as a MP and briefly as a government minister. Kosola's second son, Pentti, was imprisoned for shooting a political opponent. Pentti fought in the Winter War (1939–40) as a fighter pilot, but was killed in action.Kosola's radical right-wing politics caused a common saying in the 1930s: "Heil Hitler, meil Kosola," accented Finnish for "They've got Hitler, we've got Kosola". Sometimes also a third stanza, "muil Mussolini" (the others have Mussolini) was added. Kosola had a sobriquet Kosolini after his charismatic and vivid style of speech similar to Benito Mussolini.

Western tradition

Western tradition can refer to:

Western culture

Western mystery tradition

The Western Tradition, a 1989 television series of lectures by Eugen Weber

American Tradition Partnership, a political organization also known as Western Tradition Partnership

Western Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Attorney General of Montana, a United States Supreme Court case regarding campaign finance


Önsbach is the second-largest district ("Stadtteil") of the major district town ("Kreisstadt") of Achern in the north of Ortenaukreis, located in the Black Forest.

Önsbach is located in northern Ortenau, south of the town of Achern. A third of the village lies in the Rhine valley and two thirds, in the western foothills of the Black Forest. Önsbach is located along Bundesstraße 3 (B 3).

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.