Eugène Delacroix

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (/ˈdɛləkrwɑː, ˌdɛləˈkrwɑː/;[1] French: [ø.ʒɛn də.la.kʁwa]; 26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.[2]

As a painter and muralist, Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic.[3] Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in often violent action.[4]

However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, and his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible."[5] Together with Ingres, Delacroix is considered one of the last old Masters of painting, and one of the few who was ever photographed.

Eugène Delacroix
Félix Nadar 1820-1910 portraits Eugène Delacroix restored
Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar)
Born
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix

26 April 1798
Died13 August 1863 (aged 65)
Paris, France
NationalityFrench
Known forPainting, Lithography
Notable work
Liberty Leading the People, 1830
MovementRomanticism

Early life

Eugene Delacroix 1822
Portrait of Delacroix early in his career

Eugène Delacroix was born on 26 April 1798 at Charenton-Saint-Maurice in Île-de-France, near Paris. His mother was named Victoire Oeben, the daughter of the cabinet-maker Jean-François Oeben. He had three much older siblings. Charles-Henri Delacroix (1779–1845) rose to the rank of General in the Napoleonic army. Henriette (1780–1827) married the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur (1762–1822). Henri was born six years later. He was killed at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807.[6]

There are medical reasons to believe that Eugène's legitimate father, Charles-François Delacroix, was not able to procreate at the time of Eugène's conception. Talleyrand, who was a friend of the family and successor of Charles Delacroix as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character, considered himself as his real father.[7] Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively the Restoration and king Louis-Philippe, and ultimately as ambassador of France in Great Britain, and later by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French House of Commons. His legitimate father, Charles Delacroix, died in 1805, and his mother in 1814, leaving 16-year-old Eugène an orphan.

His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen[8] where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest (1819), displays a Raphael-esque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart (1821), evidences a freer interpretation.[9] It precedes the influence of the more colourful and rich style of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens, and fellow French artist Théodore Géricault, whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art.

The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, and stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, which was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822. The work caused a sensation, and was largely derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries; the pattern of widespread opposition to his work, countered by a vigorous, enlightened support, would continue throughout his life.[10] Two years later he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios.

Career

Chios and Missolonghi

Delacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, expressed the official policy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, war sustained by English, Russian and French governments. Delacroix was quickly recognized by the authorities as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, and the picture was bought by the state. His depiction of suffering was controversial, however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David's Oath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the artist Antoine-Jean Gros called it "a massacre of art".[10] The pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an especially powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art of Richard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive, freely painted changes to the sky and distant landscape.[11]

Delacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825.[12] With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi displays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks. A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having been crushed by rubble. The painting serves as a monument to the people of Missolonghi and to the idea of freedom against tyrannical rule. This event interested Delacroix not only for his sympathies with the Greeks, but also because the poet Byron, whom Delacroix greatly admired, had died there.[2]

Romanticism

Eugene Delacroix - Horse Frightened by Lightning - Google Art Project
Horse Frightened by a Storm, watercolour, 1824

A trip to England in 1825 included visits to Thomas Lawrence and Richard Parkes Bonington, and the colour and handling of English painting provided impetus for his only full-length portrait, the elegant Portrait of Louis-Auguste Schwiter (1826–30). At roughly the same time, Delacroix was creating romantic works of numerous themes, many of which would continue to interest him for over thirty years. By 1825, he was producing lithographs illustrating Shakespeare, and soon thereafter lithographs and paintings from Goethe's Faust. Paintings such as The Combat of the Giaour and Hassan (1826), and Woman with Parrot (1827), introduced subjects of violence and sensuality which would prove to be recurrent.[13]

These various romantic strands came together in The Death of Sardanapalus (1827–28). Delacroix's painting of the death of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus shows an emotionally stirring scene alive with beautiful colours, exotic costumes and tragic events. The Death of Sardanapalus depicts the besieged king watching impassively as guards carry out his orders to kill his servants, concubines and animals. The literary source is a play by Byron, although the play does not specifically mention any massacre of concubines.[14]

Sardanapalus' attitude of calm detachment is a familiar pose in Romantic imagery in this period in Europe. The painting, which was not exhibited again for many years afterward, has been regarded by some critics as a gruesome fantasy involving death and lust. Especially shocking is the struggle of a nude woman whose throat is about to be cut, a scene placed prominently in the foreground for maximum impact. However, the sensuous beauty and exotic colours of the composition make the picture appear pleasing and shocking at the same time.

A variety of Romantic interests were again synthesized in The Murder of the Bishop of Liège (1829). It also borrowed from a literary source, this time Scott, and depicts a scene from the Middle Ages, that of the murder of Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège amidst an orgy sponsored by his captor, William de la Marck. Set in an immense vaulted interior which Delacroix based on sketches of the Palais de Justice in Rouen and Westminster Hall, the drama plays out in chiaroscuro, organized around a brilliantly lit stretch of tablecloth. In 1855, a critic described the painting's vibrant handling as "Less finished than a painting, more finished than a sketch, The Murder of the Bishop of Liège was left by the painter at that supreme moment when one more stroke of the brush would have ruined everything".[15]

Liberty Leading the People

Delacroix's most influential work came in 1830 with the painting Liberty Leading the People, which for choice of subject and technique highlights the differences between the romantic approach and the neoclassical style. Less obviously, it also differs from the Romanticism of Géricault, as exemplified by The Raft of the Medusa.

Delacroix felt his composition more vividly as a whole, thought of his figures and crowds as types, and dominated them by the symbolic figure of Republican Liberty which is one of his finest plastic inventions...[16]

Probably Delacroix's best-known painting, Liberty Leading the People is an unforgettable image of Parisians, having taken up arms, marching forward under the banner of the tricolour representing liberty, equality, and fraternity. Although Delacroix was inspired by contemporary events to invoke this romantic image of the spirit of liberty, he seems to be trying to convey the will and character of the people,[16] rather than glorifying the actual event, the 1830 revolution against Charles X, which did little other than bring a different king, Louis-Philippe, to power. The warriors lying dead in the foreground offer poignant counterpoint to the symbolic female figure, who is illuminated triumphantly, as if in a spotlight.

Eugène Delacroix - Christ on the Sea of Galilee - Google Art Project (27796212)
Christ on the Sea of Galilee, 1854

Although the French government bought the painting, officials deemed its glorification of liberty too inflammatory and removed it from public view. Nonetheless, Delacroix still received many government commissions for murals and ceiling paintings.

Following the Revolution of 1848 that saw the end of the reign of King Louis Philippe, Delacroix' painting, Liberty Leading the People, was finally put on display by the newly elected President, Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III). It is exhibited in the Louvre museum in Paris; although from December, 2012 until 2014 it was on exhibit at Louvre-Lens in Lens, Pas-de-Calais.[17]

The boy holding a pistol aloft on the right is sometimes thought to be an inspiration for the Gavroche character in Victor Hugo's 1862 novel, Les Misérables.[18]

Travel to North Africa

Eugène Delacroix - The Fanatics of Tangier - WGA06195
Fanatics of Tangier (1838), Minneapolis Institute of Art

In 1832, Delacroix traveled to Spain and North Africa in company with the diplomat Charles-Edgar de Mornay, as part of a diplomatic mission to Morocco shortly after the French conquered Algeria. He went not primarily to study art, but to escape from the civilization of Paris, in hopes of seeing a more primitive culture.[16] He eventually produced over 100 paintings and drawings of scenes from or based on the life of the people of North Africa, and added a new and personal chapter to the interest in Orientalism.[19] Delacroix was entranced by the people and the costumes, and the trip would inform the subject matter of a great many of his future paintings. He believed that the North Africans, in their attire and their attitudes, provided a visual equivalent to the people of Classical Rome and Greece:

The Greeks and Romans are here at my door, in the Arabs who wrap themselves in a white blanket and look like Cato or Brutus...[16]

Eugene delacroix
Self-portrait, 1837. "Eugène Delacroix was a curious mixture of skepticism, politeness, dandyism, willpower, cleverness, despotism, and finally, a kind of special goodness and tenderness that always accompanies genius".[20]

He managed to sketch some women secretly in Algiers, as in the painting Women of Algiers in their Apartment (1834), but generally he encountered difficulty in finding Muslim women to pose for him because of Muslim rules requiring that women be covered. Less problematic was the painting of Jewish women in North Africa, as subjects for the Jewish Wedding in Morocco (1837–41).

While in Tangier, Delacroix made many sketches of the people and the city, subjects to which he would return until the end of his life.[21] Animals—the embodiment of romantic passion—were incorporated into paintings such as Arab Horses Fighting in a Stable (1860), The Lion Hunt (of which there exist many versions, painted between 1856 and 1861), and Arab Saddling his Horse (1855).

Musical Inspirations

Lille PdBA delacroix medee
Medea about to Kill Her Children

Delacroix drew inspiration from many sources over his career, such as the literary works of William Shakespeare and Lord Byron, or the artistry of Michelangelo. But from beginning to end of his life, he was in part characterized by a constant need for music, saying in 1855, "nothing can be compared with the emotion caused by music; that it expresses incomparable shades of feeling." He had said, while working at Saint Sulpice, that the music put him in a state of "exaltation" which inspired his painting. It was often in music, in the most melancholy renditions of Chopin, or the "pastoral" works of Beethoven that Delacroix was often able to draw the most emotion and inspiration. At one point during his life, Delacroix befriended and made portraits of the composer Chopin; in his journal, Delacroix praised him frequently.[22]

Delacroix lion hunt 1855
Lion Hunt (1855), Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
CLC9104
Lion Hunt (1860/61), Art Institute of Chicago

Murals and later life

In 1838 Delacroix exhibited Medea about to Kill Her Children, which created a sensation at the Salon. His first large-scale treatment of a scene from Greek mythology, the painting depicts Medea clutching her children, dagger drawn to slay them in vengeance for her abandonment by Jason. The three nude figures form an animated pyramid, bathed in a raking light which penetrates the grotto in which Medea has hidden. Though the painting was quickly purchased by the State, Delacroix was disappointed when it was sent to the Lille Musée des Beaux-Arts; he had intended for it to hang at the Luxembourg, where it would have joined The Barque of Dante and Scenes from the Massacres of Chios.[23]

From 1833 Delacroix received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings in Paris. In that year he began work for the Salon du Roi in the Chambre des Députés, Palais Bourbon, which was not completed until 1837, and began a lifelong friendship with the female artist Marie-Élisabeth Blavot-Boulanger. For the next ten years he painted in both the Library at the Palais Bourbon and the Library at the Palais du Luxembourg. In 1843 he decorated the Church of St. Denis du Saint Sacrement with a large Pietà, and from 1848 to 1850 he painted the ceiling in the Galerie d'Apollon of the Louvre. From 1857 to 1861 he worked on frescoes for the Chapelle des Anges at the Church of St. Sulpice in Paris. They included "The Battle of Jacob with the Angel", "Saint Michael Slaying the Dragon", and "The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple".[24] These commissions offered him the opportunity to compose on a large scale in an architectural setting, much as had those masters he admired, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, and Rubens.

The work was fatiguing, and during these years he suffered from an increasingly fragile constitution. In addition to his home in Paris, from 1844 he also lived at a small cottage in Champrosay, where he found respite in the countryside. From 1834 until his death, he was faithfully cared for by his housekeeper, Jeanne-Marie le Guillou, who zealously guarded his privacy, and whose devotion prolonged his life and his ability to continue working in his later years.[25]

In 1862 Delacroix participated in the creation of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. His friend, the writer Théophile Gautier, became chairman, with the painter Aimé Millet acting as deputy chairman. In addition to Delacroix, the committee was composed of the painters Carrier-Belleuse and Puvis de Chavannes. Among the exhibitors were Léon Bonnat, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Charles-François Daubigny, Gustave Doré, and Édouard Manet. Just after his death in 1863, the society organized a retrospective exhibition of 248 paintings and lithographs by Delacroix—and ceased to mount any further exhibitions.

The winter of 1862–63 was extremely rough for Delacroix; he was suffering from a bad throat infection which seemed to get worse over the course of the season. On a trip to Champrosay, he met a friend on the train and became exhausted after having a conversation. On June 1 he returned to Paris to see his doctor. Two weeks later, on June 16, he was getting better and returned to his house in the country. But by July 15 he was sick enough to see his doctor who said he could do nothing more for him. By then, the only food he could eat was fruit. Delacroix realized the seriousness of his condition and wrote his will, leaving a gift for each of his friends. For his trusted housekeeper, Jenny Le Guillou, he left enough money for her to live on while ordering everything in his studio to be sold. He also inserted a clause forbidding any representation of his features, "whether by a death-mask or by drawing or by photography. I forbid it, expressly."[26] On August 13, Delacroix died, with Jenny by his side.[27] He was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

His house, formerly situated along the canal of the Marne, is now near the exit of the motorway leading from Paris to central Germany.

Gallery

Delacroix Louis dOrleans devoilant une maitresse

Louis of Orléans Unveiling his Mistress, c.1825–26, Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection

Charles-Etienne-Raymond-Victor de Verninac by Delacroix

Charles Étienne Raymond Victor de Verninac, the painter's nephew, c.1825–26. private collection

Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 021

The Combat of the Giaour and Hassan, 1826, Art Institute of Chicago

Delacroix, Eugène Ferdinand Victor - Woman with a Parrot - 1827

Woman with a Parrot, 1827, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon

Delacroix, La Femme aux bas blancs

Woman With White Socks, 1825–30, Louvre

Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 049

The Duke of Morny's Apartment, 1831–33, Louvre

Delacroix portrait Desmaisons

Portrait of Dr. François-Marie Desmaisons, 1832–33, Detroit Institute of Arts

Eugène Delacroix - Fantasia Arabe - Google Art Project

Fantasia Arabe, 1833. Frankfurt Städel Museum

Battle of Taillebourg by Delacroix

The Battle of Taillebourg (draft), 1834-1835, Louvre

Eugène Delacroix - Les Natchez, 1835 (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

The Natchez, 1835, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Columbus and His Son at La Rábida

Columbus and His Son at La Rábida, 1838, National Gallery of Art

Jüdische Hochzeit in Marokko-1024

Jewish Wedding in Morocco, c.1839, Louvre

Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 018

Hamlet with Horatio, (the gravedigger scene), 1839, Louvre

Eugène Delacroix - Collision of Moorish Horsemen - Walters 376

Collision of Moorish Horsemen, 1844, Walters Art Museum

Brooklyn Museum - Desdemona Cursed by her Father (Desdemona maudite par son père) - Eugène Delacroix

Desdemona Cursed by her Father (Desdemona maudite par son père), c.1850–54, Brooklyn Museum

Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 025

1855, Moroccan Saddles His Horse, Hermitage Museum

Eugéne Delacroix - Rider Attacked by a Jaguar - Google Art Project

Rider Attacked by a Jaguar, 1855. National Gallery in Prague

Death of Desdemona

The Death of Desdemona, 1858

Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix - Horses Coming Out of the Sea - Google Art Project

Horses Coming Out of the Sea, 1860, The Phillips Collection

Arab horses fighting in a stable Eugene Delacroix 1860

Arab Horses Fighting in a Stable, 1860

Eugène Delacroix - Shipwreck on the Coast - Google Art Project

Shipwreck on the Coast, 1862, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Eugène Delacroix - Ovide chez les Scythes (1862)

Ovid among the Scythians, oil on cavas, 1862, version in Metropolitan Museum of Art

Eugène Delacroix, Winter- Juno and Aeolus, oil sketch, 1856. Oil on canvas, Private Collection.

Winter: Juno and Aeolus, 1856, private collection (sketch for the painting in the São Paulo Museum of Art)

Delacroix salon du roi palais bourbon paris 950px

Murals for Salon du Roi, Palais Bourbon, Paris, 1833–37

Legacy

Delacroix monument Jardin du Luxembourg
Monument to Delacroix, at the Jardin du Luxembourg
Perelachaise-Delacroix-p1000397
Delacroix 's tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery
Hundred franc note delacroix 1993
French 100 franc banknote, 1993

At the sale of his work in 1864, 9140 works were attributed to Delacroix, including 853 paintings, 1525 pastels and water colours, 6629 drawings, 109 lithographs, and over 60 sketch books.[28] The number and quality of the drawings, whether done for constructive purposes or to capture a spontaneous movement, underscored his explanation, "Colour always occupies me, but drawing preoccupies me." Delacroix produced several fine self-portraits, and a number of memorable portraits which seem to have been done purely for pleasure, among which were the portrait of fellow artist Baron Schwiter, an inspired small oil of the violinist Niccolò Paganini, and Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand, a double portrait of his friends, the composer Frédéric Chopin and writer George Sand; the painting was cut after his death, but the individual portraits survive.

On occasion Delacroix painted pure landscapes (The Sea at Dieppe, 1852) and still lifes (Still Life with Lobsters, 1826–27), both of which feature the virtuoso execution of his figure-based works.[29] He is also well known for his Journal, in which he gave eloquent expression to his thoughts on art and contemporary life.[30]

A generation of impressionists was inspired by Delacroix's work. Renoir and Manet made copies of his paintings, and Degas purchased the portrait of Baron Schwiter for his private collection. His painting at the church of St. Sulpice has been called the "finest mural painting of his time".[31]

Contemporary Chinese artist Yue Minjun has created his own interpretation of Delacroix's painting Massacre of Chios, which retains the same name. Yue Minjun's painting was itself sold at Sotheby's for nearly $4.1 million in 2007.[32]

His pencil drawing Moorish Conversation on a Terrace was discovered as part of the Munich Art Hoard.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  2. ^ a b Noon, Patrick, et al., Crossing the Channel: British and French Painting in the Age of Romanticism, p. 58, Tate Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-85437-513-X
  3. ^ Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, pages 504–6. Phaidon Press Limited, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-X
  4. ^ Clark, Kenneth, Civilisation, page 313. Harper and Row, 1969.
  5. ^ Wellington, Hubert, The Journal of Eugène Delacroix, introduction, page xiv. Cornell University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8014-9196-7
  6. ^ Sjöberg, Yves (1963). Pour comprendre Delacroix. Editions Beauchesne. p. 29. GGKEY:021FPT3P5E8. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Eugène Delacroix biography". Web Gallery of Art. Retrieved 2007-06-14. André Castelot (Talleyrand ou le cynisme [Paris, Librairie Perrin, 1980]) discusses and rejects the theory, pointing out that correspondence between Charles and his wife during the pregnancy shows no sign of tension or resentment.
  8. ^ "Lycée Pierre Corneille de Rouen – The Lycée Corneille of Rouen". ac-rouen.fr.
  9. ^ Jobert, Barthélémy, Delacroix, page 62. Princeton University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-691-00418-8
  10. ^ a b Wellington, page xii.
  11. ^ Wellington, pages xii, 16.
  12. ^ Jobert, page 127.
  13. ^ Jobert, page 98.
  14. ^ "'The Death of Sardanapalus' – Analysis and Critical Reception". www.artble.com. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  15. ^ Jobert, pages 116–18.
  16. ^ a b c d Wellington, page xv.
  17. ^ "Louvre museum gets a sister". USAToday. 23 December 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  18. ^ Néret, Gilles Delacroix, page 26. Taschen, 2000. ISBN 3822859885. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  19. ^ Jobert, page 140.
  20. ^ Baudelaire, quoted in Jobert, page 27.
  21. ^ Wellington, page xvi.
  22. ^ Jean-Aubry, G. (1920). "A Music-Lover of the Past: Eugène Delacroix". The Musical Quarterly. 6 (4): 478–499. JSTOR 737975.
  23. ^ Jobert, pages 245–6.
  24. ^ Spector, Jack J. (1985). The Murals of Eugene Delacroix at Saint-Sulpice. Pennsylvania State University Press.
  25. ^ Wellington, pages xxvii–xxviii.
  26. ^ Deslandres, Yvonne (1963). Delacroix: A pictorial biography. Translated by Griffin, Jonathan. New York: Viking Press. p. 126. OCLC 518099. He passed anxiously through the winter of 1862–63: the bad season was always dangerous to his vulnerable throat. On 26 May he met a friend in the train to Champrosay, and the conversation exhausted him ... On 1 June he decided to return to Paris to see his doctor ... On 16 June, as he seemed to be better, he went back to the country ... On 15 July he was at the end of his strength: he was brought back to Paris ... and was fed on fruit, the only food he could take. His doctors could do nothing ... Aware of his condition, he dictated his will ... forgetting none of his friends, he left to each of them something to remember him by, to Jenny enough to live on, and ordered all the contents of his studio to be sold. He also inserted a clause forbidding any representation of his features 'whether by a death-mask or by drawing or by photograph. I forbid it, expressly.
  27. ^ "Biography". Musée National Eugène Delacroix. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  28. ^ Wellington, page xxviii.
  29. ^ Jobert, page 99.
  30. ^ Eugène Delacroix, Journal, nouvelle édition intégrale établie par Michèle Hannoosh, 2 vols., Paris, José Corti, 2009. ISBN 978-2714309990.
  31. ^ Wellington, page xxiii.
  32. ^ "New record sale of a Chinese contemporary painting: US$5.9 million". Shanghaiist.
  33. ^ "Photo Gallery: Munich Nazi Art Stash Revealed". Spiegel. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.

External links

A Young Tiger Playing with Its Mother

A Young Tiger Playing with its Mother is a painting of 1830-31 by French artist Eugène Delacroix depicting two enormous tigers "playing" with each other. Painted early in his career, it shows how the artist was attracted to animal subjects in this period. The painting was exhibited at the Salon of 1831, and archives of Delacroix's will executor, Achille Piron, revealed that the painter had paid 1,200 francs to insure it. It belonged to M. Maurice Cottier and now is on display at Room 77 of Louvre in Paris.

Delacroix (crater)

Delacroix is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 158 kilometers. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1979. Delacroix is named for the French painter Eugène Delacroix, who lived from 1798 to 1863.

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (French: La Grèce sur les ruines de Missolonghi) is an 1826 oil painting by French painter Eugène Delacroix, and now preserved at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux. This painting was inspired by the Third Siege of Missolonghi by the Ottoman forces in 1826, during which many people of the city after the long-time siege (almost a year) decided to attempt a mass breakout (sortie) to escape famine and epidemics. The attempt resulted in a disaster, with the larger part of the Greeks slain.

Head of a Woman (Delacroix)

Head of a Woman was painted using graphite in 1823 by the French Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) as a study for his 1824 The Massacre at Chios. The woman is tightly framed and shown gazing upwards in fear. Her black dress, long dark hair and features are rendered using chiaroscuro. Today the painting is part of the collection of the Fine Arts museum of Orléans, France.

Henriette de Verninac

Henriette de Verninac (1780–1827) was the daughter of Charles-François Delacroix, minister of Foreign Affairs under the Directory, and wife of the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur. She is known as the subject of a portrait by Jacques-Louis David.

Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius

The Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius is an 1844 painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix, now in the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon. A preliminary sketch of the painting that was given to Delacroix's student Louis de Planet is also kept in the museum.

Liberty Leading the People

Liberty Leading the People (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple [la libɛʁte ɡidɑ̃ lə pœpl]) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France. A woman of the people with a phrygian cap personifying the concept of Liberty leads the people forward over a barricade and the bodies of the fallen, holding the flag of the French Revolution – the tricolour, which again became France's national flag after these events – in one hand and brandishing a bayonetted musket with the other. The figure of Liberty is also viewed as a symbol of France and the French Republic known as Marianne.

Lycée Eugène Delacroix

Lycée Eugène Delacroix may refer to:

Lycée Eugène Delacroix in Drancy, Seine-Saint-Denis (Paris metropolitan area)

Lycée Eugène Delacroix in Maisons-Alfort, Val-de-Marne (Paris metropolitan area)

Lycée Franco-Hellénique Eugène Delacroix in Athens, Greece

Lycée Franco-Hellénique Eugène Delacroix

Lycée Franco-Hellénique Eugène Delacroix (LFH, Greek: Ελληνογαλλική Σχολή Ευγένιος Ντελακρουά) is a French international school in Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece. It serves levels maternelle (nursery school) until lycée (senior high school).

Mademoiselle Rose

Mademoiselle Rose (also Seated Nude) is a painting by French Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix, regarded as the leader of the French Romantic school. This nude was painted before 1824, and is currently held and exhibited at the Louvre in Paris. Another is at the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin.

Musée national Eugène Delacroix

The Musée national Eugène Delacroix, also known as the Musée Delacroix, is an art museum dedicated to painter Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) and located in the 6th arrondissement at 6, rue de Furstenberg, Paris, France. It is open daily except Tuesday; an admission fee is charged.

Orphan Girl at the Cemetery

The Orphan Girl at the cemetery (also known as Young Orphan Girl in the Cemetery; French: Jeune orpheline au cimetière) (c. 1823 or 1824) is a painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.

Sunset (Eugène Delacroix)

Sunset is a mid 19th century drawing by Eugène Delacroix. Done in oil pastel on lined paper, the work depicts a sunset.

The Barque of Dante

The Barque of Dante (French: La Barque de Dante), sometimes known as Dante and Virgil in Hell (Dante et Virgile aux enfers), is the first major painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix, and one of the works signalling a shift in the character of narrative painting from Neo-Classicism towards the Romantic movement. It was completed for the opening of the Salon of 1822 and currently hangs in the Musée du Louvre, Paris.The painting is loosely based on fictional events taken from canto eight of Dante’s Inferno. A leaden, smoky mist and the blazing City of the Dead form the backdrop against which the poet Dante endures a fearful crossing of the River Styx. He is steadied by the learned poet of antiquity Virgil as they plough through waters heaving with tormented souls.

The arrangement of figures is for the most part compliant with the tenets of the cool, reflective Neo-Classicism that had dominated French painting for nearly four decades. There is a group of central upright figures, and a rational arrangement of subsidiary figures, all in horizontal planes, and observing studied poses.

The Bride of Abydos (Delacroix)

The Bride of Abydos (French - La Fiancée d'Abydos) or Selim and Zuleika is the title of two works by Eugène Delacroix, one in the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (pre-1849) and another in the Louvre (1843-1849).

Both works show the characters Selim and Zuleika from the poem of the same name by Lord Byron, written after he had swum the Hellespont between Abydos and Sestos in imitation of Leander.

The Death of Sardanapalus

The Death of Sardanapalus (La Mort de Sardanapale) is an oil painting on canvas by Eugène Delacroix, dated 1827. It currently hangs in the Musée du Louvre, Paris. A smaller replica, painted by Delacroix in 1844, is now in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.The Death of Sardanapalus is based on the tale of Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, from the historical library of Diodorus Siculus, the ancient Greek historian, and is a work of the era of Romanticism. This painting uses rich, vivid and warm colours, and broad brushstrokes. It was inspired by Lord Byron's play Sardanapalus (1821), and in turn inspired a cantata by Hector Berlioz, Sardanapale (1830), and also Franz Liszt's opera, Sardanapale (1845–52, unfinished).

The Entombment (Delacroix)

The Entombment of Christ is an 1820 painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix, constituting a minor reworking of The Entombment of Christ, a c.1520 work by Titian. He left it to his pupil Paul Chenavard, who in 1881 left it to the musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, where it still hangs.

The Massacre at Chios

The Massacre at Chios (French: Scène des massacres de Scio) is the second major oil painting by the French artist Eugène Delacroix. The work is more than four meters tall, and shows some of the horror of the wartime destruction visited on the Island of Chios in the Chios massacre. A frieze-like display of suffering characters, military might, ornate and colourful costumes, terror, disease and death is shown in front of a scene of widespread desolation.

Unusually for a painting of civil ruin during this period, The Massacre at Chios has no heroic figure to counterbalance the crushed victims, and there is little to suggest hope among the ruin and despair. The vigour with which the aggressor is painted, contrasted with the dismal rendition of the victims has drawn comment since the work was first hung, and some critics have charged that Delacroix might have tried to show some sympathy with the brutal occupiers. The painting was completed and displayed at the Salon of 1824 and presently hangs at the Musée du Louvre in Paris.

Woman Stroking a Parrot

Woman Stroking a Parrot (French - Femme caressant un perroquet) or Woman with a Parrot (Femme au perroquet or Femme avec un perroquet) is an 1827 Orientalist oil on canvas painting by Eugène Delacroix. He had suffered a sentimental or sensual crisis between 1825 and 1827 which led him to paint a large number of more or less erotic works - according to his private journal from the time, completing the paintings was thus intertwined with the sexual satisfaction before the young model went away.

The model for this work may be Mademoiselle Laure, who also appears in the same artist's The Death of Sardanapalus and Greece Among the Ruins of Missolonghi, both dating to the same time. Another possibility is Rose, another of his models. Several art historians have linked the work to Lambert Sustris's Venus and Cupid. In 1897 the painting was given by Couturier de Royas to the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, where it still hangs.

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