Eudialyte

Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος eu dialytos, meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites. Its name alludes to its ready solubility in acid.[1][3]

Eudialyte was first described in 1819 for an occurrence in nepheline syenite of the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex of southwest Greenland.[1]

Eudialyte
Eudialyte-163974
General
CategoryCyclosilicate
Formula
(repeating unit)
Na15Ca6(Fe,Mn)3Zr3SiO(O,OH,H2O)3
(Si3O9)2(Si9O27)2(OH,Cl)2
Strunz classification9.CO.10
Crystal systemTrigonal
Crystal classHexagonal scalenohedral (3m)
H-M symbol: (3 2/m)
Space groupR3m
Unit cella = 14.31, c = 30.15 [Å]; Z = 12
Identification
ColorRed, magenta, brown; also blue and yellow
Crystal habitCrystals short rhombohedral to long prismatic, granular, irregular masses
CleavageDistinct on {0001} imperfect on {1120}
FractureUneven
TenacityBrittle
Mohs scale hardness5 - 6
LusterVitreous
StreakWhite
DiaphaneityTransparent to translucent
Specific gravity2.74–3.10
Optical propertiesUniaxial (+/-)
Refractive indexnω = 1.606–1.610 nε = 1.610–1.613
Birefringenceδ = 0.004
PleochroismWeak: O= colorless, pale yellow, pink; E= pink to colorless
SolubilityH2SO4
Other characteristicsMildly Radioactive
References[1][2][3]
Eudialyte in Syenite
Pink Eudialyte in syenite (lujaurite) from Poços de Caldas, Brazil. The white mineral is alkali feldspar, the black is aegirine, and the little brown bits are biotite.

Uses of eudialyte

Eudialyte is used as a minor ore of zirconium. Another use of eudialyte is as a minor gemstone, but this use is limited by its rarity, which is compounded by its poor crystal habit. These factors make eudialyte of primary interest as a collector's mineral. Eudialyte typically has a significant content of U, Pb, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and rare earth elements (REE). Because of this, geoscientists use eudialyte as a geochronometer to date and investigate the genesis of the host rocks.[4]

Associated minerals

Eudialyte is found associated with other alkalic igneous minerals, in addition to some minerals common to most igneous material in general.

Associate minerals include: microcline, nepheline, aegirine, lamprophyllite, lorenzenite, catapleiite, murmanite, arfvedsonite, sodalite, aenigmatite, rinkite, låvenite, titanite and titanian magnetite.[2]

Alternative names

Alternative names of eudialyte include: almandine spar, eudalite, Saami blood.[1] Eucolite is the name of an optically negative variety, more accurately the group member: ferrokentbrooksite.[5]

Notes for identification

Eudialyte's rarity makes locality useful in its identification. Prominent localities of eudialyte include Mont Saint-Hilaire in Canada, Kola Peninsula in Russia and Poços de Caldas in Brazil, but it is also found in Greenland, Norway, and Arkansas. The lack of crystal habit, associated with color, is also useful for identification, as are associated minerals. A pink-red mineral with no good crystals associated with other alkaline igneous material, especially nepheline and aegirine, is a good indication a specimen is eudialyte.

Eudialyte group

Microchemical (by electron microprobe) and structural analyses of different eudialyte (and related) samples have revealed the presence of many new eudialyte-like minerals. These minerals are structurally and chemically related and joined into the eudialyte group. The group includes Zr-, OH-, Cl-, F-, CO3- and possibly also SO4-bearing silicates of Na, K, H3O, Ca, Sr, REEs, Mn, Fe, Nb and W. Electron vacancies can be present in their structure, too.

References

  1. ^ a b c d Eudialyte on Mindat.org
  2. ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy
  3. ^ a b Eudialyte on Webmineral
  4. ^ Wu, F.-Y.; Yang, Y.-H.; Marks, M.A.W.; Liu, Z.-C.; Zhou, Q.; Ge, W.-C.; Yang, J.-S.; Zhao, Z.-F.; Mitchell, R.H.; Markl, G. (April 2010). "In situ U-Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic analysis of eudialyte by LA-(MC)-ICP-MS". Chemical Geology. 273 (1–2): 8–34. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.02.007.
  5. ^ Eucolite on Mindat

Further reading

  • Johnsen, O.; Ferraris, G.; Gault, R.A.; Grice, D.G.; Kampf, A.R.; Pekov, I.V. (June 2003). "The nomenclature of eudialyte-group minerals". The Canadian Mineralogist. 41 (3): 785–794. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.41.3.785.
Alluaivite

Alluaivite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with complex formula written as Na19(Ca,Mn)6(Ti,Nb)3Si26O74Cl·2H2O. It is unique among the eudialyte group as the only titanosilicate (other representatives of the group are usually zirconosilicates). The two dual-nature minerals of the group, being both titano- and zirconosilicates, are labyrinthite and dualite. They both contain alluaivite module in their structures. Alluaivite is named after Mt. Alluaiv in Lovozero Tundry massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, where it is found in ultra-agpaitic, hyperalkaline pegmatites.

Andrianovite

Andrianovite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na12(K,Sr,Ce)6Ca6(Mn,Fe)3Zr3NbSi(Si3O9)2(Si9O27)2O(O,H2O,OH)5. The original formula was extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and silicon at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of eudialyte group. Andrianovite is unique among the eudialyte group in being potassium-rich (other eudialyte-group species with essential K are davinciite and rastsvetaevite). It is regarded as potassium analogue of kentbrooksite, but it also differs from it in being oxygen-dominant rather than fluorine-dominant. Also, the coordination number of Na in this representative is enlarged from 7 to 9. The name of the mineral honors Russian mathematician and crystallographer Valerii Ivanovich Andrianov.

Aqualite

Aqualite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula (H3O)8(Na,K,Sr)5Ca6Zr3SiSi(Si24O66)(OH)9Cl. The formula given does not show the presence of cyclic silicate groups. The original formula was extended to show the presence of silicon at both M3 and M4 sites, according to the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. Aqualite is unique among the eudialyte group in being hydronium-rich (the only other eudialyte-group species with essential hydronium, is the recently discovered ilyukhinite). Among the other representatives of the group it also distinguish in splitting of the M1 site into two sub-sites, both occupied by calcium. Thus, its symmetry is lowered from typical for most eudialytes R3m (or R-3m) to R3. The name refers to high content of water in the mineral.

Carbokentbrooksite

Carbokentbrooksite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula (Na,[])12(Na,Ce)3Ca6Mn3Zr3NbSiO(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2(OH)3(CO3).H2O. The original formula was extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and silicon at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of eudialyte group. Carbokenbrooksite characterizes in being carbonate-rich (the other eudialyte-group species with essential carbonate are zirsilite-(Ce), golyshevite, and mogovidite). It is also sodium rich, being sodium equivalent of zirsilite-(Ce), with which it is intimately associated.

Dualite

Dualite is a very rare and complex mineral of the eudialyte group, its complexity being expressed in its formula: Na30(Ca,Na,Ce,Sr)12(Na,Mn,Fe,Ti)6Zr3Ti3MnSi51O144(OH,H2O,Cl)9. The formula is simplified as it does not show the presence of cyclic silicate groups.

The name of the mineral comes from its dual nature: zircono- and titanosilicate at once. Dualite has two modules in its structure: alluaivite one and eudialyte one. After alluaivite and labyrinthite it stands for third representative of the eudialyte group with essential titanium.

Eudialyte group

Eudialyte group is a group of complex trigonal zircono- and, more rarely, titanosilicate minerals with general formula [N(1)N(2)N(3)N(4)N(5)]3[M(1a)M(1b)]3M(2)3M(4)Z3[Si24O72]O'4X2, where N(1) and N(2) and N(3) and N(5) = Na+ and more rarely H3O+ or H2O, N(4) = Na+, Sr2+, Mn2+ and more rarely H3O+ or H2O or K+ or Ca2+ or REE3+ (rare earth elements), M(1) and M(1b) = Ca2+, M(1a) = Ca2+ or Mn2+ or Fe2+, M(2) = Fe (both II and III), Mn and rarely Na+, K+ or Zr4+, M(3) = Si, Nb and rarely W, Ti and [] (vacancy), M(4) = Si and or rarely [], Z Zr4+ and or rarely Ti4+, and X = OH−, Cl− and more rarely CO32− or F−. Some of the eudialyte-like structures can even be more complex, however, in general, its typical feature is the presence of [Si3O9]6− and [Si9O27]18− ring silicate groups. Space group is usually R3m or R-3m but may be reduced to R3 due to cation ordering. Like other zirconosilicates, the eudialyte group minerals possess alkaline ion-exchange properties, as microporous materials.

Feklichevite

Feklichevite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group with the formula Na11Ca9(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Zr3NbSi(Si3O9)2(Si9O27)2. The original formula was extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and presence of silicon at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of eudialyte group. When compared to other minerals of the group, feklichevite characterizes in the presence of ferric iron (thus similar to ikranite, mogovidite and fengchengite) and dominance of calcium at the N4 site. Calcium is ordered in the structure and is also present at the M1 site. Other iron-bearing minerals of the group are eudialyte, ferrokentbrooksite, georgbarsanovite, khomyakovite, labyrinthite, oneillite and rastsvetaevite, but they rather contain ferrous iron Feklichevite name honors Russian mineralogist and crystallographer, V. G. Feklichev.

Golyshevite

Golyshevite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na10Ca3Ca6Zr3Fe2SiNb(Si3O9)2(Si9O27)2CO3(OH)3•H2O. The original formula was extended to show both the presence of cyclic silicate groups and silicon at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. The characteristic feature of golyshevite is calcium-rich composition, with calcium at two main sites instead of one site. Together with feklichevite, fengchengite, ikranite and mogovidite it is a ferric-iron-dominant representative of the group. It is chemically similar to mogovidite. Golyshevite was named after Russian crystallographer Vladimir Mikhailovich Golyshev.

Ikranite

Ikranite is a member of the eudialyte group, named after the Shubinov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is a cyclosilicate mineral that shows trigonal symmetry with the space group R3m, and is often seen with a pseudo-hexagonal habit. Ikranite appears as translucent and ranges in color from yellow to a brownish yellow. This mineral ranks a 5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness, though it is considered brittle, exhibiting conchoidal fracture when broken.

Kentbrooksite

Kentbrooksite is a moderately rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula (Na,REE)15(Ca,REE)6Mn3Zr3NbSi[(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2O2]F2·2H2O. This extended formula shows the presence of cyclic silicate groups and dominance of Si at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. The characteristic features of kentbrooksite, that make it different from eudialyte are: (1) dominancy of fluorine (the only currently known example among the whole group), (2) dominancy of manganese, and (3) dominancy of niobium. Trace hafnium and magnesium are also reported. Kentbrooksite is relatively common when compared to most other species of the group.

Khomyakovite

Khomyakovite is an exceedingly rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na12Sr3Ca6Fe3Zr3WSi(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2O(O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2. The original formula was extended to show the presence of both the cyclic silicate groups and M4-site silicon, according to the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. Some niobium substitutes for tungsten in khomyakovite. Khomyakovite is an iron-analogue of manganokhomyakovite, the second mineral being a bit more common. The two minerals are the only group representatives, beside taseqite, with species-defining strontium, although many other members display strontium diadochy. Khomyakovite is the third eudialyte-group mineral with essential tungsten (after johnsenite-(Ce) and manganokhomyakovite).

Labyrinthite

Labyrinthite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group. When compared to other species in the group, its structure is extremely complex - with over 100 sites and about 800 cations and anions - hence its name.

Its complexity being expressed in its formula: (Na,K,Sr)35Ca12Fe3Zr6TiSi51O144(O,OH,H2O)9Cl3. The formula is simplified as it does not show the presence of cyclic silicate groups. Complexity of the structure results in symmetry lowering (likely due to ordering of cations) from the typical centrosymmetrical group to R3 space group. Other eudialyte-group representatives with such symmetry lowering include aqualite, oneillite, raslakite, voronkovite. Labyrinthite is the second dual-nature (both zircono- and titanosilicate) representative of the group after dualite and third with essential titanium after dualite and alluaivite.

Lorenzenite

Lorenzenite is a rare sodium titanium silicate mineral with the formula Na2Ti2Si2O9 It is an orthorhombic mineral, variously found as colorless, grey, pinkish, or brown crystals.

It was first identified in 1897 in rock samples from Narsarsuk, Greenland. In 1947 it was discovered to be the same as the mineral ramsayite (now a synonym of lorenzenite), discovered in the 1920s in the Kola peninsula of Russia. It is also found in northern Canada.

It occurs in nepheline syenites and pegmatites in association with aegirine, nepheline, microcline, arfvedsonite, elpidite, loparite, eudialyte, astrophyllite, mangan-neptunite, lavenite, rinkite, apatite, titanite and ilmenite.It was named in honor of Danish mineralogist Johannes Theodor Lorenzen (1855–1884).

Manganokhomyakovite

Manganokhomyakovite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na12Sr3Ca6Mn3Zr3WSi(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2O(O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2. This formula is in extended form (based on the original one), to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and domination of silicon at the M4 site, basing on the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. Some niobium substitutes for tungsten in khomyakovite. As suggested by its name, manganokhomyakovite is a manganese-analogue of khomyakovite, the latter being more rare. The two minerals are the only group representatives, beside taseqite, with species-defining strontium, although many other members display strontium diadochy. Manganokhomyakovite is the third eudialyte-group mineral with essential tungsten (after johnsenite-(Ce) and khomyakovite).

Mogovidite

Mogovidite is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na9(Ca,Na)6Ca6(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Zr3[]Si(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2(CO3)(OH,H2O)4. The formula given is based on the original one but extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups. It is similar to feklichevite, differing from it in the presence of essential vacancies (at the M3 site) and carbonate group. Another specific feature is the dominance of ferric iron - a feature shared with other eudialyte-group members, including feklichevite, fengchengite, golyshevite and ikranite. Similarly to golyshevite, it is calcium-dominant, however on three (not two) sites: M(1), N(3) and N(4). It has a molecular mass of 3,066.24 gm.

Oneillite

Oneillite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group with the formula Na15Ca3Mn3Fe2+3Zr3NbSiO(Si3O9)2(Si9O27)2(O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2. The formula is based on the original one but extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and domination of Si at the M4 site. The mineral has lowered symmetry (space group R3, instead of more specific for the group R3m one) due to Ca-Mn ordering. Similar feature is displayed by some other eudialyte-group members: aqualite, labyrinthite, raslakite, and voronkovite. Oneillite is strongly enriched in rare earth elements (REE, mainly cerium), but REE do not dominate any of its sites.

Raslakite

Raslakite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group with the formula Na15Ca3Fe3(Na,Zr)3Zr3(Si,Nb)SiO(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2(OH,H2O)3(Cl,OH). This formula is based on the original one, and is extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups. The additional silicon and oxygen shown in separation from the cyclic groups (in parentheses) are in fact connected with two 9-fold rings. The mineral has lowered symmetry (space group R3, instead of more specific for the group R3m one), similarly to some other eudialyte-group members: aqualite, labyrinthite, oneillite and voronkovite. The specific feature of raslakite is, among others, the presence of sodium and zirconium at the M2 site. Raslakite was named after Raslak Cirques located nearby the type locality.

Taseqite

taseqite is a rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula Na12Sr3Ca6Fe3Zr3NbSiO(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2(O,OH,H2O)3Cl2. The formula given is derived from the original one and shows a separate silicon at the M4 site, basing on the nomenclature of the eudialyte group. Taseqite, khomyakovite and manganokhomyakovite are three group representatives with species-defining strontium, although many other members display strontium diadochy. Both strontium (N4Sr) and niobium (M3Nb) are essential in the crystal structure of taseqite. When compared to khomyakovite, taseqite differs in niobium- and chlorine-dominance.

Zirsilite-(Ce)

Zirsilite-(Ce) is a very rare mineral of the eudialyte group, with formula (Na,[])12(Ce,Na)3Ca6Mn3Zr3NbSi(Si9O27)2(Si3O9)2O(OH)3(CO3)•H2O. The original formula was extended to show the presence of cyclic silicate groups and the presence of silicon at the M4 site, according to the nomenclature of the eudialyte group.according to the nomenclature of eudialyte group. Zirsilite-(Ce) differs from carbokentbrooksite in cerium-dominance over sodium only. Both minerals are intimately associated. The only other currently known representative of the eudialyte group having rare earth elements (in particular cerium, as suggested by the "-Ce)" Levinson suffix in the name) in dominance is johnsenite-(Ce).

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