In general, ethnoreligious communities define their ethnic identity not only by ancestral heritage nor simply by religious affiliation but normally through a combination of both. An ethnoreligious group has a shared history and a cultural tradition - which can be defined as religious - of its own. In many cases ethnoreligious groups are ethno-cultural groups with a traditional ethnic religion; in other cases ethnoreligious groups begin as communities united by a common faith which through endogamy developed cultural and ancestral ties. The legal assignment what is an ethnoreligious group can differ from the above given definition.
Some ethnoreligious groups' identities are reinforced by the experience of living within a larger community as a distinct minority. Ethnoreligious groups can be tied to ethnic nationalism if the ethnoreligious group possesses a historical base in a specific region. In many ethnoreligious groups emphasis is placed upon religious endogamy, and the concurrent discouragement of interfaith marriages or intercourse, as a means of preserving the stability and historical longevity of the community and culture.
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Since the 19th century Reform Judaism has adopted theology that differs from traditional Judaism, although in recent years the reform movement has readopted some traditional practices. By the end of the 20th century the reform movement had become dominant in the United States. In the United States rising mixed marriage rates has led to attempts to facilitate conversion of the spouse. Despite conversion in order to facilitate marriage being strongly discouraged by traditional Jewish law. If the spouse does not convert the reform movement will recognize paternal descent. Traditional Jews only recognizes descent along the maternal line. Many children of mixed marriages do not identify as Jews and the reform movement only recognizes children of mixed marriages as Jewish if they "established through appropriate and timely public and formal acts of identification with the Jewish faith and people."
Since the mid 1960s Israeli national identity has become inexorably linked with Jewish identity. In recent years some anti-Zionists have adopted a variety of theories intent on proving that contemporary Jews are descendants of convert, which in their view would render Zionism a form of modern irrational racism, while at the same time severing Jewish ties to the Land of Israel. In Israel Jewish religious courts have authority over personal status matters which has led to friction with secular Jews who sometimes find they must leave the country in order to marry or divorce. Particularly relating to the inherited status of mamzer, the marriage of males from the priestly line, persons not recognized as Jewish by the rabbinate and agunot. The Israeli rabbinate only recognizes certain approved Orthodox rabbis as legitimate which has led to friction with Diaspora Jews who for centuries never had an overarching authority.
Other classical examples for ethnoreligious groups are traditional Anabaptist groups like the Old Order Amish, the Hutterites, the Old Order Mennonites and traditional groups of German speaking Mennonites from Russia, like the Old Colony Mennonites. All these groups have a shared German background, a shared German dialect as their every day language (Pennsylvania German, Hutterisch, Plautdietsch) and a shared version of their Anabaptist faith, a shared history of several hundred years and they have accepted very few outsiders into their communities in the last 250 years. Modern proselytizing Mennonite groups, like e.g. the Evangelical Mennonite Conference whose members have lost their shared ancestry, their common ethnic language Plautdietsch, their traditional dress and other typical ethnic traditions, are not seen as ethnoreligious groups anymore.
In Australian law, the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales defines "race" to include "ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin". The reference to "ethno-religious" was added by the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (NSW). John Hannaford, the NSW Attorney-General at the time, explained, "The effect of the latter amendment is to clarify that ethno-religious groups, such as Jews, Muslims and Sikhs, have access to the racial vilification and discrimination provisions of the Act.... extensions of the Anti-Discrimination Act to ethno-religious groups will not extend to discrimination on the ground of religion".
The definition of "race" in Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas) likewise includes "ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin". However, unlike the NSW Act, it also prohibits discrimination on the grounds of "religious belief or affiliation" or "religious activity".
In the United Kingdom the landmark legal case Mandla v Dowell-Lee placed a legal definition on ethnic groups with religious ties, which, in turn, has paved the way for the definition of an ethnoreligious group. Both Jews and Sikhs were determined to be considered ethnoreligious groups under the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (see above).
The Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 made reference to Mandla v Dowell-Lee, which defined ethnic groups as:
[...] the three ethnoreligious groups that have played the roles of the protagonists in the bloody tragedy that has unfolded in the former Yugoslavia: the Christian Orthodox Serbs, the Roman Catholic Croats, and the Muslim Slavs of Bosnia.
Media related to Ethnoreligious groups at Wikimedia CommonsBahrani people
The Baharna (Arabic: بحراني ، بحارنة) are a Shia Muslim ethnoreligious group who mainly inhabit the historical region of Eastern Arabia. They are generally regarded by scholars to be the original inhabitants of the Bahrain archipelago. Most Shi'i Bahraini citizens are ethnic Baharna. Regions with most of the population are in Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Qatif, al-Hasa), with historical diaspora populations in Kuwait, (see Baharna in Kuwait), Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, and Iraq. Some Bahrainis are from other parts of the world too.Bangladeshis
Bangladeshis (Bengali: বাংলাদেশী [ˈbaŋladeʃi]) are the citizens of Bangladesh. The country is named after the historical region of Bengal, of which it constitutes the largest and easternmost part. Bangladeshi citizenship was formed in 1971, when the permanent residents of the former East Pakistan were transformed into citizens of a new republic. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous nation. Vast majority of Bangladeshis are ethnolingustically Asian Indo-Aryan people who speak Bengali–Assamese languages native to the region and follow the Islamic religion, by far the largest of them being Bengalis. The population of Bangladesh is concentrated in the fertile Bengal delta, which has been the center of urban and agrarian civilizations for millennia. The country's highlands, including the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Sylhet Division, are home to various tribal minorities.
Bengali Muslims are the predominant ethnoreligious group of Bangladesh with a population of 146 million, which makes up majority of the country's population. Chittagonian people, Rangpuri people and Sylhetis form the majority in Chittagong, Rangpur and Sylhet regions respectively. The minority Bengali Hindu population in Bangladesh is over 16,238,167 which makes up 12.07% of the total country population. Non Bengali-Assamese Muslims make up the largest immigrant community; while the Tibeto-Burman Chakmas, who speak the Indo-Aryan Chakma language, are the largest indigenous ethnic group after Indo-Aryan Bengali-Assamese peoples. The Austroasiatic Santhals are the largest aboriginal community.
The Bangladeshi diaspora is concentrated in the Middle East, North America and the United Kingdom. Several hundred thousand Non-Resident Bangladeshis (NRBs) have dual citizenship in Commonwealth countries like the UK and Canada.Christianity in Goa
Christianity is the second largest religious grouping in Goa, India. According to the 2011 census, 25% of the population are Christian, while 66% are Hindu. The Christian population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, and Goan Catholics form a significant ethnoreligious group. There is a higher proportion of Christians in Velhas Conquistas than in Novas Conquistas.Copts
The Copts (Coptic: ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ, translit. NiRemenkīmi enKhristianos; Arabic: أقباط, Aqbāt) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to Northeast Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country. Copts are also the largest Christian denomination in Sudan and Libya. Historically, they spoke the Coptic language, a direct descendant of the Demotic Egyptian that was spoken in late antiquity.
Copts in Egypt constitute the largest Christian population in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the largest religious minority in the region, accounting for an estimated 10–15% of the Egyptian population. Copts in Sudan constitute the largest Christian community in Sudan, and Copts in Libya constitute the largest Christian community in Libya, accounting for an estimated 1% of their respective populations.Most Copts adhere to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox church. The smaller Coptic Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church.
Copts of Egyptian ancestry maintain a distinct ethnic identity from Muslim Egyptians, generally rejecting an Arab identity. Genetically, Copts are a distinct population, albeit more closely related to the Muslims of Egypt than to any other population. Like other Egyptians, Copts are a diverse population, with considerable genetic, ethnic, and cultural differences persisting between Copts from Lower and Upper Egypt.Copts in Libya
Copts in Libya may refer to people born in or residing in Libya of full or partial Coptic origin. Coptic people are an ethnoreligious group that form the largest Christian group in Libya, the Coptic Orthodox Church in the country having an estimated 60,000 adherents. The Coptic Church is known to have historical roots in Libya long before the Arabs (and Islam) advanced westward from Egypt into Libya. A part of the community is made up of immigrants from Egypt (see Copts in Egypt).Criticism of Sikhism
Sikhism has been criticized in one way or another by proponents of other theories. These critics include both Sikhs and non-Sikhs under different motives. These criticisms extend across a large portion of the beliefs and practices of Sikhism and even question the authenticity of the origin of the faith. As a result, Sikhs continue to face discrimination due to their presence and past activities.Druze people in Syria
Druze people in Syria refers to an ethnoreligious group consisting of adherents to the Druze faith, originating from the Near East who self-identify as "Unitarians" or "the People of Monotheism" (Arabic: الموحدين al-Muwaḥḥidīn).The Syrian Druze people are believed to constitute an estimated 3.2 percent of the population (approximately 800,000 persons). Other sources claim that the Syrian Druze community numbers 1,000,000. The Druze are concentrated in the rural, mountainous areas east and south of Damascus in the area known officially as Jabal al-Druze.Irish Catholics
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish. Irish Catholics have a large diaspora, which includes more than 10 million Americans.Jat Sikh
Jat Sikh, also known by the more conventional endonym Jatt Sikh, (Punjabi: ਜੱਟ ਸਿੱਖ) is a sub-group of the Jat people and the Sikh ethnoreligious group, from the Indian subcontinent. They form an estimated 25% of the population of the Indian state of Punjab. and are thus the second most populous social group there after the Dalits. They form at least half of the Sikh population in Punjab, with some sources estimating them to be about 60% to 66% of the Sikh population.Labana Sikh
Labana Sikh is a sub-group of the Sikh ethnoreligious group from the Indian subcontinent. In past, Sikh Labanas engaged in traditional profession of transportation but now they are mostly agriculturists and landholding community in punjab. The small population of Labanas resides in Punjab Region. Labana is also written as Lobana, Lubana, Lavana.Mandaeans
Mandaeans (Arabic: الصابئة المندائيون, translit. aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion. The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. In the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003, the indigenous Mandaic community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East. The other indigenous community of Iranian Mandaeans has also been dwindling as a result of religious persecution over that decade.Mandaeans in Sweden
Sweden is home to one of the largest communities of the Mandaean ethnoreligious group, numbering around 8,000 people. By comparison, there are now only about 5,000 Mandaeans in Iraq, the homeland of the Mandaean people. Several thousand of the Swedish Mandaeans were granted asylum status as refugees from persecution in Iraq and Syria.The first Mandaeans came to Sweden in the 1970's, including the al-Khafaji family who owned a goldsmiths business on Kungsgatan in Stockholm. The first Mandaean religious worship took place in 1997 when a tarmida (Mandaean priest) from the Netherlands was visiting. Following the Iraq War there was a increased influx of refugees, and as of 2017 there were a total of eight tarmidas living in Sweden under the leadership of Salwan Alkhamas, who holds the position of genzibra or bishop. The first Mandaean place of worship, or mandi, was consecrated in Sandviken in 2003. Most Mandaeans in Sweden live in Scania in the south of the country, and in the Stockholm region, with a growing population of about 1,500 people in Södertälje.Melkite
The term Melkite (), also written Melchite, refers to various Christian churches of the Byzantine Rite and their members originating in the Middle East.
The term comes from the common Central Semitic root-word or cognate "M-L-K" found in Syriac-Aramaic malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ), Hebrew: 'מלך' Melk-i or Melech-i, and Arabic: ملكي Malak-ī, meaning "royal", monarchist and by extension, "imperial" or loyal to the Byzantine Emperor. The Melkites accepted the Council of Chalcedon. Originally they used Koine Greek and, to a lesser extent, Aramaic in worship, but later incorporated Arabic in parts of their liturgy.
Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense it typically refers specifically to the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. It can also refer to the church's membership as an ethnoreligious group. The several Greek Orthodox churches formerly known as Melkite are not commonly so called today.Ndut initiation rite
The Ndut is a rite of passage as well as a religious education commanded by Serer religion that every Serer (an ethnic group found in Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania) must go through once in their lifetime. The Serer people being an ethnoreligious group, the Ndut initiation rite is also linked to Serer culture. From the moment a Serer child is born, education plays a pivotal role throughout their life cycle. The ndut is one of these phases of their life cycle. In Serer society, education lasts a lifetime, from infancy to old age.Palestinian
Palestinian is typically referring to a person belonging to the Palestinian people, an Arab ethnonational group defined in the Palestinian National Charter of 1968, also referred to as Palestinians (Arabic: الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn).
It may also refer to:
Religious groupsPalestinian Muslims, an ethnoreligious group native to the area of Palestine, in the Levant
Palestinian Christians, an ethnoreligious group native to the area of Palestine, in the Levant
Palestinian Jews, an ethnoreligious group native to the area of Palestine, in the LevantCommunities outside the State of PalestinePalestinians in Iraq
Palestinians in Jordan
Palestinians in Lebanon
Palestinians in Syria
Palestinian refugeeGeographic areasState of Palestine, a state in the Middle East
Mandatory Palestine, a British Mandate established from 1920 - 1948Political bodiesAll-Palestine Government, the administration in Gaza from 1948 - 1959
Palestinian Central Council, a policy decision arm of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), an organization founded in 1964 to liberate Palestine
Palestinian National Authority, an interim self-government body administering the Gaza strip from 1994 - 2013
Palestine National Council, the legislative body of the PLO
PLO Executive Committee, the highest executive body of the PLOFor specific persons, see List of PalestiniansPalestinian Druze
Palestinian Druze are Palestinians who belong to the Druze ethnoreligious group. During the first census of the British protectorate, Palestinian Druze were one of eight religious demographic groups whom were categorized, The sense of a distinct identity among Palestinian Druze began to increase in the 1930s when some other Palestinians viewed them as being neutral during ethnic contentions.The term Palestinian Druze is sometimes also used for Arab Israeli citizens who belong to the Druze faith. During the early 20th century, many authors have depicted Arab Druze as neutral during the clashes that happened Arabs and Jews in the 1920s and 1930s. This perception eventually culminated in Israeli leadership approaching Palestinian Druzers who were in leadership positions and offering them a treaty of non-aggression, ths leading to somewhat tranquil relations between the two.Ulster Protestants
Ulster Protestants (Irish: Protastúnaigh Uladh) are an ethnoreligious group in the Irish province of Ulster, where they make up about 43% of the population. Many Ulster Protestants are descendants of settlers who arrived in the early 17th century Ulster Plantation. This was the colonisation of the Gaelic, Catholic province of Ulster by English-speaking Protestants from Great Britain, mostly from the Scottish Lowlands and Northern England. Many more Scottish Protestant migrants arrived in Ulster in the late 17th century. Those who came from Scotland were mostly Presbyterians, while those from England were mostly Anglicans. Since then, sectarian and political divisions between Ulster Protestants and Catholics have played a major role in the history of Ulster, and of Ireland as a whole. Ulster Protestants descend from a variety of lineages, including Lowland Scots (some of whose descendants consider themselves Ulster Scots), English, Irish, and Huguenots.
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