Ethnic origins of people in Canada

Given here are the ethnic origins of Canadian residents (citizens, landed immigrants, and non-citizen temporary residents) as recorded by them on their 2016 census form. The relevant census question asked for "the ethnic or cultural origins" of the respondent's ancestors and not the respondents themselves.

As data were collected by self-declaration, labels may not necessarily describe the true ancestry of respondents.[1] Also note that many respondents acknowledged multiple ancestries. These people were added to the "multiple origin" total for each origin listed. These include responses as varied as a respondent who listed eight different origins and a respondent who answered "French Canadian" (leading to him/her being counted once for "French" and once for "Canadian"). As with all self-reported data, understanding of the question may have varied from respondent to respondent.

Larger ethnic origins (200,000 or more individuals per group; 2016 census)

Censusdivisions-ethnic
Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins per census division of 2006.
COB data Canada
[2]
Ethnicity[3] Combined
responses[3]
As single
response[3]
One of multiple
responses[3]
Canadian[a] 11,135,965 6,436,940 4,699,030
English 6,320,085 1,098,930 5,221,150
Scottish 4,799,010 475,575 4,323,430
French 4,670,595 1,006,180 3,664,415
Irish 4,627,000 457,905 4,169,095
German 3,322,405 569,650 2,752,750
Chinese 1,769,195 1,439,980 329,215
Italian 1,587,970 695,420 892,550
First Nations[b] 1,525,565 526,570 999,000
Indian (from India) 1,374,710 1,096,845 277,865
Ukrainian 1,359,655 273,810 1,085,845
Dutch 1,111,655 289,675 821,980
Polish 1,106,585 264,415 842,170
Filipino 837,130 651,390 185,740
British Isles,
not included elsewhere
644,695 132,830 511,865
Russian 622,445 120,165 502,280
Métis 600,000 91,255 508,740
Portuguese 482,610 264,815 217,790
Welsh 474,805 25,190 449,615
Norwegian 463,275 35,905 427,370
Spanish 396,460 70,330 326,130
American 377,410 29,590 347,810
Swedish 349,640 21,775 327,870
Hungarian (Magyar) 348,085 83,400 264,685
Jamaican 309,485 161,495 147,995
Greek 271,405 141,580 129,830
Vietnamese 240,615 165,385 75,225
Romanian 238,050 96,910 141,145
Lebanese 219,555 130,590 88,965
Pakistani 215,555 156,300 59,255
African,
not included elsewhere
212,005 76,790 135,210
Iranian 210,405 170,755 39,650
Danish 207,470 26,985 180,485
Austrian 207,050 20,225 186,820

Smaller ethnic origins (2016 census)

Ethnicity[3] Combined
responses[3]
As single
response[3]
One of multiple
responses
per respondent[3]
Korean 198,210 177,920 20,285
Québécois 194,555 119,985 74,575
Belgian 186,665 31,765 154,89
Haitian 165,100 125,780 39,32
Swiss 155,120 25,235 129,885
Sri Lankan 152,590 114,120 38,475
Jewish 143,660 39,710 103,950
Finnish 143,645 25,875 117,765
Croatian 133,965 55,595 78,370
Mexican 128,480 54,300 74,180
Japanese 121,485 56,725 64,760
Acadian 119,670 22,980 96,690
Punjabi,
not included elsewhere
118,400 71,535 46,860
Arab,
not included elsewhere
111,405 73,330 38,070
Czech 104,585 23,250 81,330
Moroccan 103,945 72,625 31,320
Icelandic 101,795 8,630 93,165
Egyptian 99,140 62,910 36,230
Serbian 96,535 52,730 43,800
Colombian 96,325 69,040 27,285
Guyanese 84,275 30,825 53,445
Afghan 83,995 70,240 13,755
Inuit 79,130 44,760 34,37
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 78,965 23,900 55,065
Syrian 77,050 43,685 33,36
South Asian,
not included elsewhere
76,400 55,445 20,955
Slovak 72,290 20,475 51,815
Iraqi 70,925 54,555 16,365
West Indian 70,275 30,260 40,010
European,
not included elsewhere
67,895 33,360 34,53
Algerian 67,330 49,520 17,810
Salvadorean 66,215 40,510 25,705
Turk 63,955 29,885 34,070
Armenian 63,810 34,560 29,250
Somali 62,550 54,750 7,790
Lithuanian 59,285 11,185 48,095
Scandinavian,
not included elsewhere
52,785 5,085 47,695
Nigerian 51,835 38,165 13,670
Tamil
not included elsewhere
48,670 22,145 26,525
Bangladeshi 45,945 39,255 6,690
Chilean 45,190 18,685 26,510
Palestinian 44,820 25,195 19,630
Ethiopian 44,060 34,260 9,805
Macedonian 43,110 18,405 24,705
Australian 42,315 4,520 37,800
Peruvian 42,145 20,645 21,500
Maltese 41,915 12,820 29,100
South African 41,380 8,005 33,37
Czechoslovakian,
not otherwise specified
40,715 5,075 35,640
Slovenian 40,470 13,690 26,78
Cambodian 38,490 21,445 17,045
Yugoslav
not included elsewhere
38,480 8,570 29,91
Congolese 38,370 29,675 8,685
Barbadian 37,775 11,605 26,170
Berber 37,060 22,965 14,100
Brazilian 36,830 11,035 25,795
Taiwanese 36,515 23,260 13,250
Albanian 36,185 28,425 7,760
Ghanaian 35,495 26,535 8,960
Bulgarian 34,560 19,965 14,595
Latvian 30,725 7,040 23,685
Black 30,385 5,535 24,855
Cuban 29,065 10,040 19,030
Israeli 28,740 6,450 22,280
Latin, Central or South American,
not included elsewhere
28,455 14,295 14,155
Caribbean,
not included elsewhere
26,830 8,930 17,900
Bosnian 26,740 15,610 11,125
Venezuelan 26,345 10,305 16,040
Guatemalan 26,270 13,905 12,370
Tunisian 25,650 17,620 8,030
Ecuadorian 25,410 13,925 11,485
West Asian,
not included elsewhere
25,285 13,430 11,855
Eritrean 25,255 20,625 4,630
Cameroonian 24,615 20,605 4,010
Laotian 24,580 13,375 11,205
Estonian 24,530 6,155 18,375
Dominican 23,130 9,930 13,200
Bengali 22,905 18,435 4,470
Asian,
not otherwise specified
22,740 15,760 6,980
Aboriginal from Central/South America 22,720 2,080 20,645
Newfoundlander 22,215 4,895 17,325
Indonesian 21,395 4,775 16,615
Byelorussian 20,710 5,125 15,585
Argentinian 20,680 4,165 16,510
Eastern European,
not included elsewhere
20,420 5,875 14,545
Sudanese 19,960 15,250 4,710
Fijian 19,370 8,270 11,105
Thai 19,005 7,740 11,265
Grenadian 17,915 7,515 10,400
Vincentian/Grenadinian 17,425 7,245 10,180
East African 17,305 7,220 10,085
Nepali 17,135 13,695 3,440
Malaysian 16,920 2,555 14,365
Kurd 16,320 10,470 5,845
New Zealander 15,395 1,300 14,095
Central and West African origins,
not included elsewhere
15,380 7,800 7,585
Moldovan 14,915 7,415 7,505
Jordanian 14,250 7,955 6,295
Assyrian 13,830 8,870 4,960
Nicaraguan 13,705 6,360 7,350
Breton 11,845 3,230 8,615
Flemish 11,685 1,485 10,200
Hispanic 11,050 5,660 5,395
Burundian 10,990 8,965 2,025
Ivoirean 10,935 7,795 3,140
Kenyan 10,915 5,445 5,465
Rwandan 10,775 8,080 2,690
Honduran 10,650 5,325 5,325
Senegalese 10,175 6,490 3,685
Yoruba 9,585 6,870 2,715
Burmese 9,335 4,660 4,675
Mauritian 9,325 3,520 5,805
St. Lucian 8,985 4,040 4,945
Gujarati 8,350 5,290 3,060
Zimbabwean 8,090 4,945 3,140
Tibetan 8,040 7,015 1,030
Libyan 7,745 5,755 1,985
Mongolian 7,480 2,555 4,925
Sinhalese 7,285 4,355 2,930
Guinean 7,240 4,705 2,540
Basque 6,970 715 6,250
Sicilian 6,940 1,345 5,600
Saudi Arabian 6,810 4,200 2,615
Uruguayan 6,795 1,810 4,985
Yemeni 6,640 2,940 3,700
East or Southeast Asian,
not included elsewhere
6,505 4,235 2,270
Azerbaijani 6,425 2,280 4,145
Maya 6,290 1,180 5,105
Manx 6,125 285 5,845
North African,
not included elsewhere
6,115 2,905 3,210
Goan 6,070 2,040 4,030
Ugandan 5,705 3,245 2,460
Cypriot 5,650 1,265 4,385
Costa Rican 5,535 2,140 3,395
Igbo 5,320 3,475 1,845
Togolese 5,300 3,095 2,205
Bolivian 5,055 1,890 3,160
Beninese 4,990 2,650 2,340
Slavic,
not otherwise specified
4,870 1,470 3,400
Tatar 4,825 880 3,940
Pashtun 4,810 2,245 2,565
Georgian 4,775 1,900 2,875
Yakut 4,761 1,886 2,875
Tanzanian 4,710 1,835 2,875
Panamanian 4,700 1,090 3,610
Roma (Gypsy) 4,630 745 3,895
Frisian 4,590 795 3,790
Karen 4,515 3,835 680
Antiguan 4,505 1,275 3,225
Malagasy 4,500 2,155 2,345
Malian 4,485 2,310 2,180
Paraguayan 4,325 670 3,660
Montenegrin 4,165 915 3,245
Bantu,
not otherwise specified
3,965 2,315 1,645
Uzbek 3,920 1,730 2,190
Luxembourger 3,915 440 3,475
Bahamian 3,670 810 2,860
Bhutanese 3,600 2,440 1,160
Channel Islander 3,590 435 3,155
Coptic 3,535 1,490 2,040
Puerto Rican 3,410 445 2,960
Western European origins,
not included elsewhere
3,370 840 2,530
Oromo 3,355 2,410 945
Kazakh 3,325 1,465 1,860
Hawaiian 3,295 120 3,175
Burkinabe 3,155 1,980 1,165
Kashmiri 3,115 1,095 2,020
Bermudan 3,075 310 2,765
Carib 3,035 130 2,905
Angolan 2,955 1,140 1,820
Kittitian/Nevisian 2,920 750 2,165
Tajik 2,910 1,240 1,665
Kosovar 2,870 1,710 1,160
Singaporean 2,850 495 2,355
Alsatian 2,800 375 2,425
Sierra Leonean 2,620 1,580 1,040
Maori 2,500 155 2,345
Liberian 2,485 1,520 965
Peulh 2,440 1,425 1,015
Pacific Islands origins,
not included elsewhere
2,335 470 1,865
Kuwaiti 2,235 1,080 1,155
Southern European origins,
not included elsewhere
2,165 440 1,730
Tigrian 2,155 1,340 810
Martinican 2,005 370 1,635
Cornish 1,970 120 1,855
Akan 1,955 1,235 720
Edo 1,945 1,180 765
Other North American origins,
not included elsewhere
1,895 655 1,240
Afrikaner 1,870 280 1,595
Zambian 1,865 1,055 805
Chadian 1,845 1,185 655
Belizean 1,755 250 1,505
Corsican 1,750 165 1,590
Djiboutian 1,710 980 730
Ashanti 1,585 765 825
Uighur 1,555 1,010 540
Amhara 1,530 710 820
Samoan 1,530 150 1,375
Hazara 1,515 585 930
Arawak 1,440 55 1,385
Gabonese 1,405 595 820
Seychellois 1,285 575 710
Catalan 1,275 200 1,075
Maure 1,190 400 790
Guadeloupean 1,130 245 885
Malinké 1,120 675 455
Polynesian,
not otherwise specified
1,105 90 1,015
Kyrgyz 1,060 580 475
Turkmen 1,040 390 655
Gambian 975 580 395
Zulu 945 285 660
Bavarian 940 50 890
Montserratan 935 190 745
Dinka 900 585 320
Ewe 845 320 525
Wolof 835 465 375
Hmong 810 585 220
Harari 660 395 265

See also

Notes

  1. ^ All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.
    Source 1: Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million 'Canadian'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
    Source 2: Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2.
  2. ^ The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit and Métis).
    Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011.

References

  1. ^ Source: "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Data table". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16. Additional data: "2006 Census release topics". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  2. ^ "Population and growth components (1851–2001 Censuses)". Statistics Canada. 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca.

Further reading

External links

Assyrian-Canadians

Assyrian Canadians are Canadians of Assyrian descent or Assyrians who have Canadian citizenship. According to the 2011 Census there were 10,810 Canadians who claimed Assyrian ancestry, an increase compared to the 8,650 in the 2006 Census.They are the indigenous pre-Arab and pre-Turkic people of Northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeastern Syria, and northwest Iran, who speak dialects of Eastern Aramaic and are mainly Christian, although some are irreligious. Although most come from the aforementioned countries, many Assyrians have immigrated to Canada from Jordan, Georgia and Armenia as well.

Azerbaijani Canadians

Azerbaijani Canadians (Azerbaijani: Kanadalı azərbaycanlılar), or Azeri Canadians, are Canadian citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background, or those who were born in Azerbaijan. Most Azerbaijani-Canadians have immigrated to Canada from Azerbaijan, Iran, Russia or Turkey.

Canadian Multiculturalism Act

The Canadian Multiculturalism Act (the Act) is a law of Canada, passed in 1988, that aims to preserve and enhance multiculturalism in Canada.

Canadian Race Relations Foundation

Canadian Race Relations Foundation is a charitable organization and Crown corporation responsible to foster racial harmony and cross-cultural understanding and help to eliminate racism in Canada. The foundation was opened in November 1997, after the bill establishing it received royal assent on February 1, 1991. The Foundation operates at "arms length" from the government and is a registered charity. The Foundation is led by a board of directors appointed by the federal government as selected by the Prime Minister's Office by recommendations from the Minister of Canadian Heritage, currently Mélanie Joly. Previously, such advice came from the Minister for Multiculturalism, last held by Jason Kenney.

Canadian cultural protectionism

Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Governments of Canada to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign culture on the domestic audience. Sharing a large border and a common language with the United States, Canadian politicians have perceived the need to preserve and support a culture separate from US-based North American culture in the globalized media arena. Canada's efforts to maintain its cultural differences from the US and Mexico have been balanced by countermeasures in trade arrangements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Commission of Inquiry on the Situation of the French Language and Linguistic Rights in Quebec

The Commission of Inquiry on the Situation of the French Language and Linguistic Rights in Quebec was established under the Union Nationale government of Jean-Jacques Bertrand on December 9, 1968.

Cultural mosaic

"Cultural mosaic" (French: "la mosaïque culturelle") is the mix of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures that coexist within society. The idea of a cultural mosaic is intended to suggest a form of multiculturalism, different from other systems such as the melting pot, which is often used to describe nations like the United States' assimilation.

Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government

Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government (French: Gouvernement régional d’Eeyou Istchee Baie-James, Cree: ᐄᔨᔨᐤ ᐊᔅᒌ ᒉᐃᒥᔅ ᐯᐃ ᐊᔅᒌᐤ ᑎᐹᔨᐦᒋᒑᐎᓐ iiyiyiw aychii cheimiy pei aychiiw tipaayihchichaawin) is a local municipality in the Jamésie (TE) in administrative region of Nord-du-Québec.

English Canada

English Canada is a term referring to one of the following:

The Canadian provinces that have an anglophone majority. This excludes the francophone province of Quebec in total, and New Brunswick in part. Consequently, usage is usually in the context of geopolitical discussions involving Quebec. Among supporters of the two-nations theory, English-Canada is one of two founding nations, the other being French-Canada or Quebec. In avoidance of the two-nations theory, English-Canada is often referred to as the "ROC" (Rest of Canada).

When discussing English-speaking Canadians in contrast to opposed to French-speaking Canadians. It is employed when comparing English- and French-language literature, media, art, and institutions. The 20% of Canadians whose native language is neither English nor French are either lumped into one of the two groups according to their knowledge and usage of the official language or classified separately as allophones.

English Canadians, in some historical contexts, refers to Canadians who have origins in England (in contrast to: Canadiens French: Canadien(ne)s français(es)), French Canadians Scottish Canadians, Irish Canadians etc.)According to the 2006 Census of Canada, the population of English-speaking Canadians is between 17,882,775 and 24,423,375, finding the population outside of this designation to be 23,805,130 individuals.Estimates of Canadians with origins described as English is estimated to be about six million; a precise number is difficult to estimate for several reasons. Another 6.7 million people reported their ethnicity as simply "Canadian" without further specification, which would include those with an admixture of multiple ethnicities, particularly those long present in Canada (e.g. French, Irish, English, and Scottish), making it possible that the number is much higher than the nearly 6 million who reported as having English origins. On the other hand, historically, there have also been numerous Canadians who have hidden their true ancestry for different political reasons to join the dominant English group, such as to avoid discrimination, as seems to have been the case of the reported German-origin population, which dropped by nearly half after the First World War with a commensurate rise in reports of English origins.

Indigenous self-government in Canada

Indigenous or Aboriginal self-government refers to proposals to give governments representing the Indigenous peoples in Canada greater powers of government. These proposals range from giving Aboriginal governments powers similar to that of local governments in Canada to demands that Indigenous governments be recognized as sovereign, and capable of "nation-to-nation" negotiations as legal equals to the Crown (i.e. the Canadian state), as well as many other variations.

Montreal–Philippines cutlery controversy

The Montreal–Philippines cutlery controversy was an incident in 2006 in which a Filipino-born Canadian boy was punished by his school in Roxboro, Montreal, for using his cutlery according to traditional Filipino etiquette.

In response to the media coverage of the affair, a protest was held outside the Canadian embassy in Manila, and the Philippine Ambassador to Canada, José Brillantes, described it as an "affront to Filipino culture." Some commentators saw it as an example of prejudice, White nationalism and a culture clash, especially since the school board had previously expelled a Sikh student for carrying a kirpan (Sikh dagger).

National question (Quebec)

The National Question (in French: la Question nationale) is an expression referring to the discussion about the future status of Quebec within Canada, taking into consideration issues of autonomy, sovereignty, and independence.

Quong Wing v R

Quong Wing v R is a famous Supreme Court of Canada decision where the Court upheld a provincial law that discriminated against the Chinese.

Quong Wing was a naturalized Canadian citizen, originally from China, who ran a restaurant in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. In 1912, he attempted to hire two white women, Mabel Hopham and Nellie Lane, to work as waitresses. Consequently, he was charged and convicted under a provincial statute, An Act to prevent the Employment of Female Labour in certain capacities, which prohibited white women or girls from working in businesses owned by "Chinamen".

Wing appealed, arguing that the law was outside the power of the province as laws related to morality were considered criminal matters which is the exclusive authority of the federal government. As well, he argued that the law did not intend to include naturalized citizens.

The Supreme Court held in a four to one decision that the law was valid. The Court interpreted the word "Chinaman" as including all those born in China regardless of subsequent nationality.

Justice John Idington, alone in dissent, was the only one concerned with the justification of the law and held the law to be invalid on the basis that citizenship was a matter of federal jurisdiction and so ultra vires of provincial powers.

Regulation 17

Regulation 17 (French: Règlement 17) was a regulation of the Ontario Conservative government designed to shut down French-language schools at a time when Francophones from Quebec were moving into eastern Ontario. It was a regulation written by the Ministry of Education, issued in July 1912 by the Conservative government of premier Sir James P. Whitney. It restricted the use of French as a language of instruction to the first two years of schooling. It was amended in 1913, and it is that version that was applied throughout Ontario. French Canadians reacted vehemently, and lost, dooming its French-language Catholic schools. This was a reason why French Canadians distanced themselves from the subsequent World War I effort, as its young men refused to enlist.

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP) was a Canadian Royal Commission established in 1991 to address many issues of Aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord. The commission culminated in a final report of 4,000 pages, published in 1996. The original report "set out a 20-year agenda for implementing changes."

Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (French: Commission royale d’enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme, also known as the Bi and Bi Commission and the Laurendeau-Dunton Commission.) was a Canadian royal commission established on 19 July 1963, by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to "inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to develop the Canadian Confederation on the basis of an equal partnership between the two founding races, taking into account the contribution made by the other ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada and the measures that should be taken to safeguard that contribution".

Two Solitudes (Canadian society)

"Two Solitudes" refers to a perceived lack of communication, and moreover a lack of will to communicate, between Anglophone and Francophone people in Canada. The term was popularized by Hugh MacLennan's novel Two Solitudes. In her investiture speech as Governor-General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean specifically stated that "the time of 'two solitudes' had finished".

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