Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire (Tigrinya: ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥቲ ዘ ኢትዮጵያ, Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash),[10] was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from approximately 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg.

The territory of present-day Eritrea was occupied by Italy in 1890 and became Italian Eritrea. Following the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African nations to remain independent during the Scramble for Africa by the European imperial powers in the late 19th century. Ethiopia remained independent after defeating Italians during the First Italo-Ethiopian War. Later, after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italian Empire occupied Ethiopia briefly for five years and established the Italian East Africa colony in the region. The Italians were later driven out with the help of the British army. The country was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945.

By 1974, Ethiopia was one of only three countries in the world to have the title of Emperor for its head of state, together with Japan and Iran under the Pahlavi dynasty. It was the second-to-last country in Africa to use the title of Emperor; the only one later was the Central African Empire, which was implemented between 1976 and 1979 by Emperor Bokassa I.

Ethiopian Empire

የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ (Amharic)
(Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya)
1270–1974
1936–1941: Government-in-exile
Motto: Ityopia tabetsih edewiha habe Igziabiher
ኢትዮጵያ ታበፅዕ እደዊሃ ሃበ እግዚአብሐር
"Ethiopia Stretches Her Hands unto God" (Psalm 68:31 paraphrased)
Anthem: Ityopp'ya Hoy dess yibelish[1]
ኢትዮጵያ ሆይ ደስ ይበልሽ
"Ethiopia, Be happy"
The Ethiopian Empire boundaries in 1952
The Ethiopian Empire boundaries in 1952
The location of the Ethiopian Empire during the reign of Yohannes IV (dark orange) compared with modern day Ethiopia (orange)
The location of the Ethiopian Empire during the reign of Yohannes IV (dark orange) compared with modern day Ethiopia (orange)
CapitalUnspecified (1270–1635)
Gondar (1635–1855)
Magdala (1855–1868)
Mekele (1871–1885)
Addis Ababa (1886–1974)
Common languagesGe'ez (official)
Amharic (official)
, Afar, Gurage, Hadiyya, Kafa, Sidamo, Somali, Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolaytta (widely spoken)
Religion
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Demonym(s)Endonym: ኢትዮጵያዊ (Ethiopian);

• • •

Exonym: Abyssinian (in non-native sources, derived from the Arabic name for the general region "Al-Habash" and the most widely prominent pan-ethnic group the Habesha)
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy[2]
Emperor 
• 1270
Yekuno Amlak (first)[3]
• 1930–1974
Haile Selassie I (last)
Prime Minister 
• 1909–1927
Habte Giyorgis (first)
• 1974
Mikael Imru (last)
LegislatureParliament of the Ethiopian Empire[4]
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Historical eraMiddle Ages to Cold War
• Empire established
980 B.C.
1890
1895–1896
23 October 1896
16 July 1931
3 October 1935 – May 1936
• Sovereignty restored
5 May 1941
• Admitted to the United Nations
13 November 1945
1974
21 March 1975[5][6][7][8][9]
Area
19501,221,900 km2 (471,800 sq mi)
19741,221,900 km2 (471,800 sq mi)
Population
• 1950
19,575,000
• 1974
35,074,000
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Zagwe dynasty
Derg
Today part of Eritrea
 Ethiopia

History

D'mt and Kingdom of Aksum

Axumite Jar Spout (2822628227)
A Kingdom of Aksum jar spout

Ethiopia's human occupation began early, as evidenced by the findings. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians claimed that Punt, known as gold country, was in Ethiopia in 980 BC. According to the Kebra Nagast, Menelik I founded the Ethiopian empire in the 1st century BC, around when the Axumite Empire was established. In the 4th century, under King Ezana of Axum, the kingdom adopted Christianity (Ethiopian Orthodox Church) as the state religion. It was thus one of the first Christian states.[11]

After the conquest of Aksum by Queen Gudit or Yodit, a period began which some scholars refer to as the Ethiopian Dark Ages.[11] According to Ethiopian tradition, she ruled over the remains of the Aksumite Empire for 40 years before transmitting the crown to her descendants.[11] In 1063AD the Sultanate of Showa describes the passing of their overlord Badit daughter of Maya.[12]

Makhzumi and Zagwe dynasty

The earliest Muslim state in Ethiopia, the Makhzumi dynasty with its capital in Wahal, Hararghe region succeeds Queen Badit.[13] The Zagwe kingdom another dynasty with its capital at Adafa, emerged not far from modern day Lalibela in the Lasta mountains.[14] The Zagwe continued the Orthodox Christianity of Aksum and constructed many rock-hewn churches such as the Church of Saint George in Lalibela. The dynasty would last until its overthrow by a new regime claiming descent from the old Aksumite kings.

Solomonic dynasty

MedievalEthiopia
Map of medieval Ethiopian provinces, with sub-provinces in smaller lettering.

In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite kings and, hence, from Solomon.[14] The eponymously named Solomonic dynasty was founded and ruled by the Abyssinians, from whom Abyssinia gets its name. The Abyssinians reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. This dynasty governed large parts of Ethiopia through much of its modern history. During this time, the empire conquered and annexed various kingdoms into its realm. The dynasty also successfully fought off Italian, Ottoman and Egyptian forces and made fruitful contacts with some European powers.

Adal Sultanate invasion

In 1529, the Adal Sultanate's forces led by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi invaded the Ethiopian Empire in what is known as the Abyssinian–Adal war. The Adal occupation lasted fourteen years. During the conflict, the Adal Sultanate employed cannons provided by the Ottoman Empire. In the aftermath of the war, Adal annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with territories in what is now Somalia. In 1543, with the help of the Portuguese Empire, the Solomonic dynasty was restored.

YagbeaSionBattlingAdaSultan
Abyssinian King Yagbea-Sion and his forces (left) battling the Sultan of Adal and his troops (Le Livre des Merveilles, 15th century)

Early modern period

In 1543, Emperor Gelawdewos beat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi armies and Ahmad himself was killed at the Battle of Wayna Daga, close to Wegera. This victory allowed the Empire to reconquer progressively the Ethiopian Highlands.[15] In 1559 Gelawdewos was killed attempting to invade Adal Sultanate, and his severed head was paraded in Adal's capital Harar.[16]

Cristofano dell’Altissimo, Portrait of Lebnä-Dengel. c. 1552-1568
Dawit II of Ethiopia (Lebna Dengel), Emperor of Ethiopia (nəgusä Nagast) and member of the Solomonic dynasty

The Ottoman Empire, distated by the defeat of its ally Gragn, made another attempt at conquering Ethiopia, from 1557, establishing Habesh Eyalet, the province of Abyssinia, by conquering Massawa, the Empire’s main port and seizing Suakin from the allied Funj Sultanate in what is now Sudan. In 1573 Harar attempted to invade Ethiopia again however Sarsa Dengel successfully defended the Ethiopian frontier.[17]

1683ludolfbig
1683 Map of Ethiopia, Ludolf and Abba Gorgoryos, Major provinces (Gojjam, Tigre, Dembea, Gurage, Gamo, Cambata...)

The Ottomans were checked by Emperor Sarsa Dengel victory and sacking of Arqiqo in 1589, thus containing them on a narrow coast line strip. The Afar Sultanate maintained the remaining Ethiopian port on the Red Sea, at Baylul.[18]

Oromo migrations through the same period, occurred with the movement of a large pastoral population from the southeastern provinces of the Empire. A contemporary account was recorded by the monk Abba Bahrey, from the Gamo region. Subsequently, the empire organization changed progressively, with faraway provinces taking more independence. A remote province such as Bale is last recorded paying tribute to the imperial throne during Yaqob reign (1590-1607).[19]

By 1607, Oromos were also major players in the imperial politics, when Susenyos I, raised by a clan through gudifacha (or adoption), took power. He was helped by fellow Luba age-group generals Mecha, Yilma and Densa, who were rewarded by Rist feudal lands, in the present-day Gojjam districts of the same name.[20] Susenyos reign was also marked by his short-lived conversion to Catholicism, which ignited a major civil war. His son Fasilides I reverted the move.

The reign of Iyasu I the Great (1682-1706) was a major period of consolidation. It also saw the dispatching of embassies to Louis XIV's France and to Dutch India. During the reign of Iyasu II (1730-1755), the Empire was strong enough to undertake a war on the Sennar Sultanate, where the emperor leading its army to Sennar itself, was afterwards forced to reatreat upon defeat, along the Setit river. Iyasu II also confered the dignity of Kantibai of the Habab (northern Eritrea) after homage by a new dynasty.[21]

Fasilides Palace 02
Fasilides Palace
Guzara Palace
Guzara Fortress,in Enfranz

The Wallo and Yejju clans rise to power culminated in 1755, when Emperor Iyoas I ascended to the imperial throne in Gondar. They would be one of the major factions contending for imperial power during the ensuing Zemene Mesafint, starting from 1769, when Mikael Sehul, Ras of Tigray killed Iyoas I and replaced him by Yohannes II.

The Early Modern period was one of intense cultural and artistic creation. Notable philosophers from that area are Zera Yacob (philosopher) and Walda Heywat. The city of Gondar became the capital in 1636, with several fortified castles built in the town and in its surrounding areas.

Princes Era

Téwodros II
Emperor Tewodros II's rise to the throne marked the end of the Zemene Mesafint.

From 1769 to 1855, the Ethiopian empire passed through a period known as the "Princes Era" (in Amharic Zemene Mesafint). This was a period of Ethiopian history with numerous conflicts between the various ras (equivalent to the English dukes) and the emperor, who had only limited power and only dominated the area around the contemporary capital of Gondar. Both the development of society and culture stagnated in this period. Religious conflict, both within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and between them and the Muslims were often used as a pretext for mutual strife. The Princes Era ended with the reign of the Emperor Tewodros II.

Reign of Emperor Tewodros II and scramble for Africa

Abyssinia1891map-excerpt1
Abyssinia, c. 1891

In 1868, following the imprisonment of several missionaries and representatives of the British government, the British engaged in the punitive Expedition to Abyssinia. This campaign was a success for Britain and the Ethiopian emperor committed suicide.

The 1880s were marked by the Scramble for Africa. Italy, seeking a colonial presence in Africa, invaded Ethiopia and following a successful conquest of some coastal regions, forced the Treaty of Wuchale upon Shewa (an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire), creating the colony of Eritrea.

Ethiopia1911
Ethiopia in 1911, following the conquests and treaties of Menelik II

Due to significant differences between the Italian and Amharic translations of the Treaty of Wuchale, Italy believed they had subsumed Ethiopia as a client state. Ethiopia repudiated the treaty in 1893. Insulted, Italy declared war on Ethiopia in 1895. The First Italo-Ethiopian War resulted in the 1896 Battle of Adwa, in which Italy was decisively defeated. As a result, the Treaty of Addis Ababa was signed in October, which strictly delineated the borders of Eritrea and forced Italy to recognize the independence of Ethiopia.

Beginning in the 1880s, under the reign of the Emperor Menelik II, the empire's forces set off from the central province of Shoa to incorporate through conquest inhabited lands to the west, east and south of its realm.[22] The territories that were annexed included those of the western Oromo (non Shoan Oromo), Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta,[23] and Dizi.[24] Among the imperial troops was Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia. Many of the lands that they annexed had never been under the empire's rule, with the newly incorporated territories resulting in the modern borders of Ethiopia.[25]

Delegations from the United Kingdom and France – European powers whose colonial possessions lay next to Ethiopia – soon arrived in the Ethiopian capital to negotiate their own treaties with this newly-proven power.

Italian invasion and World War II

ETH-BIB-Kaiserpalast, "der grosse Gibi" aus der Luft-Abessinienflug 1934-LBS MH02-22-0222
The Emperors palace, 1934

In 1935 Italian soldiers, commanded by Marshal Emilio De Bono, invaded Ethiopia in what is known as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The war lasted seven months before an Italian victory was declared. The Ethiopian Empire was incorporated into the Italian colony of Italian East Africa. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, though not much was done to end the hostility.

During the conflict, Italy used sulfur mustard in chemical warfare, ignoring the Geneva Protocol that it had signed seven years earlier. The Italian military dropped mustard gas in bombs, sprayed it from airplanes and spread it in powdered form on the ground. 150,000 chemical casualties were reported, mostly from mustard gas. In the aftermath of the war Italy annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with Italy's other colonies in eastern Africa to form the new colony of Italian East Africa, and Victor Emmanuel III of Italy adopted the title "Emperor of Abyssinia".

On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the United Kingdom and France, as France was in the process of being conquered by Germany at the time and Benito Mussolini wished to expand Italy's colonial holdings. The Italian conquest of British Somaliland in August 1940 was successful, but the war turned against Italy afterward. Haile Selassie returned to Ethiopia from England to help rally the resistance. The British began their own invasion in January 1941 with the help of Ethiopian freedom fighters, and the last organized Italian resistance in Italian East Africa surrendered in November 1941, ending Italian rule.

Fall of monarchy

Addis Ababa-8e00855u
Haile Selassie was the last Emperor of the Ethiopian Empire.

In 1974 a pro-Soviet Marxist–Leninist military junta, the "Derg", led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed Haile Selassie and established a one-party communist state. Haile Selassie was imprisoned and died in unclear circumstances, a rumor being that he was suffocated with an ether-soaked pillow.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ethiopia (1930-1975)". 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  2. ^ Nathaniel T. Kenney (1965). "Ethiopian Adventure". National Geographic. 127: 555.
  3. ^ Negash, Tekeste (2006). "The Zagwe Period and the Zenith of Urban Culture in Ethiopia, Ca. 930-1270 Ad". Africa: Rivista Trimestrale di Studi e Documentazione Dell'istituto Italiano Per l'Africa e l'Oriente. 61 (1): 120–137. JSTOR 40761842.
  4. ^ Constitution of Ethiopia, 4 November 1955, Article 76 (source: Constitutions of Nations: Volume I, Africa by Amos Jenkins Peaslee)
  5. ^ "Ethiopia Ends 3,000 Year Monarchy". Milwaukee Sentinel. 22 March 1975. p. 3.
  6. ^ "Ethiopia ends old monarchy". The Day. 22 March 1975. p. 7.
  7. ^ Henc van Maarseveen; Ger van der Tang (1978). Written Constitutions: A Computerized Comparative Study. Brill. p. 47.
  8. ^ "Ethiopia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 1987.
  9. ^ "Ethiopia". Worldstatesmen.org.
  10. ^ E. A. Wallis Budge (1 August 2014). A History of Ethiopia: Volume I: Nubia and Abyssinia. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 9781317649151.
  11. ^ a b c Adekumobi (2007), p. 10
  12. ^ Oliver, Roland (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780521209816.
  13. ^ Braukhaper, Ulrich (2002). Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 21. ISBN 9783825856717. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  14. ^ a b Pankhurst (2001), p. 45
  15. ^ Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands (Trenton: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp. 241f.
  16. ^ Akyeampong, Emmanuel. "Dictionary of African Biography". OUP USA. 1–6: 451.
  17. ^ Pankhurst, Richard (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. p. 375.
  18. ^ Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to The End of the 18th Century Asmara: Red Sea Press, Inc., 1997. p. 390
  19. ^ Braukämper, Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays (Hamburg: Lit Verlag, 2002), p. 82
  20. ^ Solomon GETAHUN, A History of Ethiopia's Newest Immigrants to the United States: Orphans, https://journals.openedition.org/africanistes/4104
  21. ^ Anthony d'AVRAY, Lords of the Red Sea: The History of a Red Sea Society from the Sixteenth to Ninetheenth century, Harrasowitz Verlag, p.50 https://books.google.com.gh/books?id=9GGgy_wGE0sC&lpg=PA28&pg=PA50#v=onepage&q&f=false
  22. ^ John Young (1998). "Regionalism and Democracy in Ethiopia". Third World Quarterly. 19 (2): 192. doi:10.1080/01436599814415. JSTOR 3993156.
  23. ^ International Crisis Group, "Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents". Issue 153 of ICG Africa report (4 September 2009) p. 2.
  24. ^ Haberland, Eike (1983). "An Amharic Manuscript on the Mythical History of the Adi kyaz (Dizi, South-West Ethiopia)". Cambridge University Press on Behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies. 46 (2): 240. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  25. ^ Edward C. Keefer (1973). "Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire". International Journal of African Studies. 6 (3): 470. doi:10.2307/216612. JSTOR 216612.
  26. ^ Jack, Ian (2001). Necessary Journeys. Granta. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-929001-03-3.

Bibliography

  • Adejumobi, Saheed A. (2007). The History of Ethiopia. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32273-0.
  • Pankhurst, Richard (2001). The Ethiopians: A History. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 299 Pages. ISBN 978-0-631-22493-8.
  • Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1. London: Routledge. pp. 1912 Pages. ISBN 978-1-57958-245-6.

External links

Abyssinian War Medal

The Abyssinian War Medal was awarded for service between 4 October 1867 and 19 April 1868 to those who participated in the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia. This punitive expedition, led by Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Napier, was carried out by armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required the transportation of a sizable military force hundreds of miles across mountainous terrain lacking any road system.

About 14,000 medals were awarded, 12,000 to the British and Indian armies and 1,981 to the Royal Navy

Amhara Province

Amhara (Amharic: አማራ) (also known as Bete Amhara (Amharic: ቤተ አማራ), "The house of Amhara") was the name of a medieval province of the Ethiopian Empire, located in present-day Amhara Region, and the pre-1996 province of Wollo. It gave its name to the Amharic language, which in turn gave its name to the Amhara people. The people of this region mainly practice Orthodox Christianity and some practice Islam (Sunni).

Following the Italian conquest of Ethiopia in 1936, "Amhara" (or Italian "Amara") was used to designate the subdivision of Italian East Africa with its administrative center at Gondar.

Army of the Ethiopian Empire

The Armies of the Ethiopian Empire have existed since earliest times. Ethiopia maintained a sizable contingent of her forces in her Sabbean Garrisons which expanded out to project power over colonies in Yemen and to protect Caravans or trade routes.

At home Ethiopian Forces under the command Prince Nastesen (Iskindr) inflicted a humiliating defeat on the Persian Army of Cambyses. The Prince had been Ordered by His Mother the Candace to draw the Persian Forces deep into Ethiopian territory before engaging them. He did this so well that Cambyses Army was never able to recover and those let alive had to retreat back to Egypt. Cambyses did not attempt to reconquer Ethiopia.About the 2nd century AD, there arose the Axumites rapidly supplanting the Damot. The Axumite however paid homage to their former masters. The Judaic rulers of Damot were held in the highest esteem by the new Axumite Empire.

There is evidence in inscriptions and archaeological finds that attest to the presence of Axumite troops in Yemen as early as AD 200. This suggests that Axum was no less involved in the Arabian matters than Damot during the reigns of GDRT, and his successors `DBH and Sembrouthes, During the reign of Ousanas, Ezanas father, Axum traded and projected its influence as far as India, where coins minted in Ousanas' reign were discovered in 1990.

This lasted until the 4th century when Twin Axumite Emperors Ezana and Sezana became converted to the new Christian Faith.

Axum's Armies were launched into the former tributary Kingdom of Nubia devastating it to the point it never recovered its former glory or was ever an independent polity again.

In 520, during the reign of Emperor Kaleb Ella Atsbeha, Axum received an appeal from the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian. At first Axum re-occupied an abandoned fort at Najran with cavalry troops admonishing the local ruler Yusuf Hathar who as a consequence of his conversion to Judaism and the urging of the Persian Sassanian Kings had vigorously undertaken the persecution of Christian pilgrims. Axum was not a new power there Yusuf Hathar who had taken the throne name of Dhu Nuwas may have genuinely been mollified by his actions. The elderly commander Arayat, the uncle of the Emperor, led a company of cavalry into Najran charged with protecting Christian pilgrims on the road to Jerusalem from Banditry. However, peace proved fleeting: perhaps as a result of encouragement from the Persians else out of humiliation Dhu Nuwa's men attacked the Fort of Najran. What happened afterward is debated. By some accounts the garrison fought back and died. Witness later accused Dhu Nuwas of having killed the soldiers in their sleep and then massacring all others who had sought their protection.

Dhu Nuwas may have believed, and perhaps even received assurances, that the Sassanians would protect his fledgling empire with a sizable force. It is doubtful if he knew that Aryat led the Garrison that he would kill the Emperor's uncle without knowing with certainty that Kaleb would exact revenge. It was said that Emperor Kaleb received news of the massacre and the death of his beloved uncle as he was coming out of the Church. He ordered the entire court back into Church and ordered the priests to give the assembled nobles and soldiers including himself the last rites of the Christian faith.

He ordered the entire Imperial host to war. The first attempt at crossing was not successful: the army unable to land was forced to return to Adulis dropped anchor in Yemen.

Under the command of its Emperor Abraha the Axumite Army of spearmen, swordsmen, elephants, cavalry and Archers defeated the Army of Himyar.

It was apparent that Kaleb had not gone there just to punish a wayward vassal. Holding a trial for Dhu Nuwas, Kaleb gave Dhu Nuwas to his own people so they may exact their own justice. He appointed a local Christian named Safwa administrator, left Abraha, his cousin, in charge of the sizable portion of the Axumite Host and returned home to Axum with the rest.

The target was an usurper, Yusuf Hathar that had begun to make a name of himself consolidating power in the region. A recent convert to Judaism, he had become a client of the Sassanian Persians, avowed enemies of the Western Roman Empire.

appealed for the Ethiopian Emperor. Ethiopian Imperial Army existed in one form or another since the founding of the Ethiopian Empire in the 13th century.

During the First Italo–Ethiopian War, the Army of the Ethiopian Empire was able to defeat the army of the Kingdom of Italy at the battle of Adwa.

During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Army of the Ethiopian Empire consisted of the Imperial Bodyguard, a central army, and several armies of provincial forces. The Ethiopian army was defeated soundly, after giving considerable difficulty to the Italians. The Italians employed mass aerial bombing of mustard gas to win the Battle of Amba Aradam.

On 12 September 1974, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men called the Derg deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. The Army of the Ethiopian Empire became the Army of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Basketo people

The Basketo people are an Omotic-speaking ethnic group whose homeland lies in the southern part of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. The Basketo special woreda is named after this ethnic group. According to the 2007 Ethiopian national census, this ethnic group has 78,284 members, of whom 99.3% live in the SNNPR.The Basketo cultivate ensete and, additionally, tuber roots, maize, millet and vegetables. They also keep domestic animals in small numbers.

Traditionally, the Basketo were organized as a segmentary clan society headed by a divine king, the kati. The ethnic religion of the Basketo knew a duality of the sky-god Tsosii and the earth-mother Qacharunde. Under Ethiopian rule many of them converted to Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity.

The Basketo were conquered for the Ethiopian empire by Ras Welde Giyorgis in 1893.

Damot

Damot (Amharic: ዳሞት) was a medieval kingdom in what is now Ethiopia, and neighbor to the Ethiopian Empire. Originally located south of the Abay and west of the Muger River, under the pressure of Oromo attacks the rulers were forced to resettle north of the Abay in southern Gojjam between 1574 and 1606.The kings, who bore the title Motalami, resided in a town which, according to the hagiography of Tekle Haymanot, was called Malbarde. Their territory extended east beyond the Muger as far as the Jamma.

Emblem of Ethiopia

The Emblem of Ethiopia has been in its current form since 1996. It contains a yellow interlaced pentagram radiating rays of light on a blue shield. Today, the pentagram stands for the unity of the people and nationality of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The Emblem appears in the centre of the flag of Ethiopia.

Prior to 1975, the coat of arms of the Ethiopian Empire was used.

In 1975, an earlier version of the emblem of Ethiopia was adopted, consisting of a plow on a yellow sunburst surrounded by a wreath. It was associated with the Derg regime.

Colours scheme

Eritrean War of Independence

The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists from September 1961 to May 1991.

Eritrea was claimed by the Ethiopian Empire from 1941 after Eritrea was liberated from Italy's occupation as part of Italian East Africa during World War II. Ethiopia and some of the predominantly Christian part of Eritrea advocated for union with Ethiopia, while the predominantly Muslim and other areas of Eritrea wanted a separate Eritrean state. The United Nations General Assembly in an effort to satisfy both sides decided to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia in 1950, and Eritrea became a constituent state of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea in 1952. Eritrea's declining autonomy and growing discontent with Ethiopian rule caused an independence movement led by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) in 1961, leading Ethiopia to dissolve the federation and annex Eritrea the next year.

Following the Ethiopian Revolution in 1974, the Derg abolished the Ethiopian Empire and established a Marxist-Leninist communist state, bringing the Eritrean War of Independence into the Ethiopian Civil War and Cold War conflicts. The Derg enjoyed support from the Soviet Union, Cuba, and other Second World nations in fighting against Eritrean separatists supported by the United States and various other nations.

The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) became the main separatist group in 1977, expelling the ELF from Eritrea, then exploiting the Ogaden War to launch a war of attrition against Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government under the Workers Party of Ethiopia lost Soviet support at the end of the 1980s and were overwhelmed by Eritrean separatists and Ethiopian anti-government groups, allowing the EPLF to defeat Ethiopian forces in Eritrea in May 1991.

The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), with the help of the EPLF, defeated the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) when it took control of the capital Addis Ababa a month later. In April 1993, the Eritrean people voted almost unanimously in favour of independence in the Ethiopia-supported Eritrean independence referendum, with formal international recognition of an independent, sovereign Eritrea later the same year.

Ethiopian–Egyptian War

The Ethiopian-Egyptian War was a war between the Ethiopian Empire and the Khedivate of Egypt from 1874 to 1876, resulting in an Ethiopian victory.

Flag of Ethiopia

The national flag of Ethiopia (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ሰንደቅ ዓላማ, yäItyoṗya Sändäq ʿAlama; or የኢትዮጵያ ባንዲራ, yäItyoṗya Bandira) was adopted on 31 October 1996. It conforms to the specifications set forth in Article 3 of the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia. However, the diameter of the central disc is increased from that of the flag used from 6 February to 31 October 1996. The three traditional colours of green, yellow and red date back to Iyasu V (reigned 1913–1916). The current flag and emblem were adopted after the defeat of Ethiopia's Marxist regimes headed by Mengistu Haile Mariam (in total, in power from 1974 to 1991). The emblem is intended to represent both the diversity and unity of the country. Blue represents peace, the star is said to represent diversity and unity, and the sun's rays symbolise prosperity. The green recalls the land, yellow stands for peace and hope, and red is symbolic of strength.

Kingdom of Semien

The Kingdom of Semien (Hebrew: ממלכת סאמיאן‎), sometimes referred to as the Kingdom of Beta Israel (Hebrew: ממלכת ביתא ישראל‎), was an ancient kingdom of the Beta Israel centered in the northwestern part of the Ethiopian Empire that came to an end in 1627 during the reign of emperor Susenyos I.It was preceded by a number of regions which were in Jewish rule in the north-west part of Ethiopia. The Jewish-Ethiopian tradition dates the establishment of the Kingdom of Semien to the fourth century, right after the kingdom of Axum turned to Christianity during the reign of Ezana of Axum.

List of Emperors of Ethiopia

This article lists the Emperors of Ethiopia, from the founding of the Zagwe dynasty in the 9th/10th century until 1974, when the last Emperor from the Solomonic dynasty was deposed.

Kings of Aksum and Dʿmt are listed separately due to numerous gaps and large flexibility in chronology.

List of Presidents of Ethiopia

This is a list of Presidents of Ethiopia and also a list of heads of state after the fall of the Ethiopian Empire in 1974.

Until 1974, the heads of state of the Ethiopian Empire were either Emperors or regents. From the coup d'état of the Derg leading to the fall of the Empire in September 1974 until March 1975, the Derg considered the Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen (later regnal name Amha Selassie) as the nominal head of state – which the Crown Prince refused to accept. During this time, the Chairmen of the Derg, the leaders of the Derg, were to be considered as acting heads of state. After 21 March 1975, the Derg military junta fully took over. Until the establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in 1987, still dominated by Derg figures, Chairmen of the Derg have to be considered heads of state – but not presidents. After the fall of the Derg and the establishment of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia in 1991, the first immediate President (Meles Zenawi) has to be considered an Interim President.

Since the formal establishment of the office of President in 1987, there have been 6 official presidents. The President is the head of state of Ethiopia. The current president is Sahle-Work Zewde, who is also the first female president of Ethiopia, elected on 25 October 2018 by members of the Federal Parliamentary Assembly.

List of heads of government of Ethiopia

This is a list of heads of government of Ethiopia since the formation of the post of Chief Minister of the Ethiopian Empire in 1909 (renamed to Prime Minister in 1943). Since 1909, there have been 3 chief ministers and 11 Prime Ministers and one was both Chief Minister and Prime Minister, making a total of 15 persons being or having been head of government.

Most of the Prime Ministers were regular Prime Ministers, appointed through a regular political process. Some others were acting Prime Ministers only (indicated in the list below), while others were both acting and regular Prime Ministers during their term(s). In addition, there is one Prime Minister who was acting Prime Minister first, then was regularly appointed and finally served as a caretaker Prime Minister of an outgoing government: Hailemariam Desalegn. During the 1960 Ethiopian coup attempt, two Prime Ministers served at the same time, the regular one and an irregular one appointed by the leaders of the coup. Also there was an Interim Prime Minister after the end of the Ethiopian Civil War.

In modern Ethiopia since 1995, the Prime Minister is not only the head of government, but also the commander-in-chief of the Ethiopian National Defense Force. The current Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed, took office on 2 April 2018.

List of massacres committed during the Eritrean War of Independence

The Eritrean War of Independence was fought as a guerrilla campaign by two main Eritrean liberation fronts, first by the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) and then, after the Eritrean Civil War, by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) against the Imperial Army of the Ethiopian Empire, and later by the Marxist Derg. This asymmetrical campaign against Ethiopian control left the Army at a disadvantage and so it embarked on a policy of destroying Eritrean villages. It was hoped that this would prevent the separatists from continuing their campaign. Listed below are some of the major civilian massacres committed by both the Ethiopian Empire and the Derg.

Order of the Queen of Sheba

The Order of the Queen of Sheba was originally instituted as a ladies' order in 1922 in the Ethiopian Empire by Empress Zawditu.

Shewa

Shewa (Amharic: ሸዋ), formerly romanized as Shua (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center.

The nucleus of Shewa is part of the mountainous plateau in what is currently the central area of Ethiopia, but prior to the Zemene Mesafint and after the loss of Bale with the invasion of Ahmed Al-Ghazi, Shewa was part of Ethiopia's southeasternmost frontier. Shewa was as defensible as any highland, and its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven; at other times, it was isolated from the rest of Ethiopia by hostile peoples.The towns of Debre Berhan, Antsokia, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times. Most of northern Shewa, made up of the districts of Menz, Tegulet, Yifat, Menjar and Bulga, is populated mostly by Christian Amharas , while southern is inhabited by the Gurages and eastern Shewa have large Oromo and Arggoba Muslim populations. The monastery of Debre Libanos, founded by Saint Tekle Haymanot, is located in the district of Selale, also known in Amharic as Grarya, a former province of Abyssinia.

Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam

Tekle Haymanot Tessemma, also Adal Tessemma, Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, and Tekle Haimanot of Gojjam, (1847 – 10 January 1901) was King of Gojjam, a member of the Solomonic dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire. He later was an army commander and a member of the nobility of the Ethiopian Empire.

Unemployment Convention, 1919

Unemployment Convention, 1919 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

It was established in 1919:

Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the "question of preventing or providing against unemployment",...

Yejju Oromo tribe

Yejju Oromo belong to the Barentu branch of Oromo people. They are one of the northernmost communities of the Oromo, who are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia.

The Barentu (also Barento/Barentuma) is one of the two moieties of the Oromo people, the other being the Borana. Yejju Oromo is often categorised inside the Barentu branch and other neighbouring communities include the Wollo Oromo and the Raya Oromo. Due to Amhara expansion to the northern traditional Oromo regions, and the assimilation of these peoples into the dominant culture beginning at the turn of the 20th century, the Yejju presently found in the ethnic Amhara dominated regions of northern Ethiopia identify as Amharas.

During the 17th century, the Yejju dynasty (more specifically, the Warasek) ruled much of the Ethiopian empire during the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes", changing the language in the court of Gondar to Oromo language. Throughout the era, different ethnic groups, clans and communities made short-term alliances to acquire economic advantage and political power.

As early as 1890, under the reign of Menelik II, the homeland of the Yejju was organised into an Ethiopian province named for them. It was bordered by the Alewuha River to the north, separating it from Rayya Qobbo district, the Mille River to the south, separating it from Wollo Province, the Afar Depression to the east, and the highlands of Amba Sel to the west. Woldiya served as its capital city. Currently, the territories of these northern tip Oromos are officially located inside Amhara Region, specifically divided between the districts of Habru and Woldiya town, with smaller portions administratively part of Guba Lafto and Amba Sel.

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