Essex

Essex (/ˈɛsɪks/) is a county in south-east England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, and London to the south-west. The county town is Chelmsford, the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region.

Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state. As well as rural areas, the county also includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea.

Essex
County
Flag of Essex Arms of Essex County Council
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Many Minds, One Heart"
Essex within England

Coordinates: 51°45′N 0°35′E / 51.750°N 0.583°ECoordinates: 51°45′N 0°35′E / 51.750°N 0.583°E
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionEast
EstablishedAncient
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantJennifer Tolhurst[1]
High SheriffBryan R H Burrough of Utting Wick [2] (2018-19)
Area3,670 km2 (1,420 sq mi)
 • Ranked11th of 48
Population (mid-2017 est.)1,820,400
 • Ranked7th of 48
Density496/km2 (1,280/sq mi)
Ethnicity90.8% British
3.6% Other
2.5% Asian
1.3% African/American
1.5% Mixed
0.3% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County councilEssex County Council
ExecutiveConservative
Admin HQChelmsford
Area3,465 km2 (1,338 sq mi)
 • Ranked11th of 27
Population1,468,200
 • Ranked2nd of 27
Density423/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-ESS
ONS code22
GSS codeE10000012
NUTSUKH33
Websitewww.essex.gov.uk
Unitary authorities
CouncilsSouthend-on-Sea Borough Council
Thurrock Council
Essex Ceremonial Numbered

Districts of Essex
Unitary County council area
Districts
  1. Harlow
  2. Epping Forest
  3. Brentwood
  4. Basildon
  5. Castle Point
  6. Rochford
  7. Maldon
  8. City of Chelmsford
  9. Uttlesford
  10. Braintree
  11. Colchester
  12. Tendring
  13. Thurrock
  14. Southend-on-Sea
Members of ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceEssex Police
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

History

The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon (Old English) name Ēastseaxe ("East Saxons"), the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain (cf. Middlesex, Sussex and Wessex) during the Heptarchy. Originally recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what later became Middlesex (which probably included Surrey) and most of what later became Hertfordshire. Its territory was later restricted to lands east of the River Lea.[3]

Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county.

During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested.[4] Gradually, the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Chelmsford, Epping, Hatfield, Ongar and Waltham.[5]

County-wide administration

Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham (1889–1965), Southend-on-Sea (1914–1974)[6] and East Ham (1915–1965) formed part of the county but were unitary authorities (not under county council control).[7] 12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections, leisure and planning, as shown in the map on the right.

Parish-level administration – changes

A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer, Kedington and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk; and Great Chishill, Little Chishill and Heydon were transferred to Cambridgeshire. Later, part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; and several other small parcels of land were transferred to all those counties.

Boundaries

The boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Chingford, Dagenham, Hornchurch, Ilford, Leyton, Romford, Walthamstow and Wanstead and Woodford districts[7] were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Newham, Redbridge and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having previously been part of the South East England region.

Two unitary authorities

In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities (numbered 13 and 14 on the map to the right).[8][9]

Essex Police covers the administrative county and the two unitary authorities.[10] The county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council regularly met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county. It currently has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100. The County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates largely from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period, mostly the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds.

Geography

The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet (147 m). The ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by the River Thames and its estuary (a boundary shared with Kent); to the southwest by Greater London; to the west by Hertfordshire with the boundary largely defined by the River Lea and the Stort; to the northwest by Cambridgeshire; to the north by Suffolk, a boundary mainly defined by the River Stour; and to the east by the North Sea.

The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has effectively prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, originally developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been significantly developed and expanded. Epping Forest also prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area. As it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements, particularly those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families.

Finchingfield(ChristineMatthews)Jun2005
The village of Finchingfield in north Essex

Part of the southeast of the county, already containing the major population centres of Basildon, Southend and Thurrock, is within the Thames Gateway and designated for further development. Parts of the southwest of the county, such as Buckhurst Hill and Chigwell, are contiguous with Greater London neighbourhoods and therefore form part of the Greater London Urban Area.

A small part of the southwest of the county (Sewardstone) is the only settlement outside Greater London to be covered by a postcode district of the London post town (E4). With the exception of major towns such as Colchester, Chelmsford and Southend-on-Sea, the county is rural, with many small towns, villages and hamlets largely built in the traditional materials of timber and brick, with clay tile or thatched roofs.

Economy

Industry is largely limited to the south of the county, with the majority of the land elsewhere being given over to agriculture. Harlow is a centre for electronics, science and pharmaceutical companies. Chelmsford has been an important location for electronics companies, such as the Marconi Company, since the industry was born; it is also the location for a number of insurance and financial services organisations, and until 2015 was the home of the soft drinks producer Britvic. Basildon is home to New Holland Agriculture's European headquarters, and Brentwood is home to the Ford Motor Company's British HQ. Debden, near Loughton, is home to a production facility for British and foreign banknotes.

Other businesses in the county are dominated by mechanical engineering, including but not limited to metalworking, glassmaking and plastics and the service sector. Colchester is a garrison town, and the local economy is helped by the Army's personnel living there. Basildon is the location of State Street Corporation's United Kingdom HQ International Financial Data Services, and remains heavily dependent on London for employment, due to its proximity and direct transport routes. Southend-on-Sea is home to the Adventure Island theme park and is one of the few still growing British seaside resorts, benefiting from direct, modern rail links from Fenchurch Street railway station and Liverpool Street station (so that housing is in high demand, especially for financial services commuters), which maintains the town's commercial and general economy.

Parts of eastern Essex suffer from high levels of deprivation; one of the most highly deprived wards is in the seaside town of Clacton.[11] In the Indices of deprivation 2007, Jaywick was identified as the most deprived Lower Super Output Area in Southern England.[12] Unemployment was estimated at 44% and many homes were found to lack very basic amenities. The Brooklands and Grasslands area of Jaywick was found to be the third-most deprived area in England; two areas in Liverpool and Manchester were rated more deprived. In contrast, west and south-west Essex is one of the most affluent parts of eastern England, forming part of the London commuter belt. There is a large middle class here, and the area is widely known for its private schools. In 2008, The Daily Telegraph found Ingatestone and Brentwood to be the 14th- and 19th-richest towns in the UK respectively.[13]

Politics

Westminster and the 2016 EU referendum

Essex is a strongly Conservative county, and 15 of its 18 constituency MPs had absolute majorities (over 50%) in the 2017 UK general election. Though all 18 MPs in Essex are currently Conservative, there have previously been some Labour MPs: most recently, Thurrock, Harlow and Basildon in Labour's 2005 election victory. The Liberal Democrats until 2015 had a sizeable following in Essex, gaining Colchester in the 1997 general election.

EssexParliamentaryConstituency2017Results2
Results of the 2017 UK general Election in Essex

The 2015 general election saw a large vote in Essex for the UK Independence Party (UKIP), with its only MP, Douglas Carswell, retaining the seat of Clacton that he had won in a 2014 by-election, and other strong performances, notably in Thurrock and Castle Point. But in the 2017 general election, UKIP's vote share plummeted by 15.6% while both Conservative and Labour vote shares rose by 9%. This resulted in Labour regaining second place in Essex, increasing their vote share across the county and cutting some Conservative majorities in areas which had been unaffected by the 1997 general election, namely Rochford and Southend East and Southend West.

The most Conservative seat by vote share is Saffron Walden with almost 62% voting Conservative. In contrast, Thurrock is the most marginal seat. In 2015, Thurrock epitomised a three-party race with UKIP, Labour and the Conservatives gaining 30%, 31% and 32% respectively. In 2017, the Conservatives held Thurrock with an increased share of the vote, but a smaller margin of victory. It was the constituency in which UKIP performed best in 2017, with 20% of the vote while all other areas had been reduced to low single figure vote shares.

Several new MPs were elected in the 2017 election, with Alex Burghart, Vicky Ford, Giles Watling and Kemi Badenoch all replacing senior Conservative politicians such as Sir Eric Pickles, Sir Simon Burns, Douglas Carswell and Sir Alan Haselhurst, respectively.

In the EU referendum, Essex voted overwhelmingly to leave the EU, with all 14 District Council areas voting to leave, the smallest margin being in Uttlesford.[14]

  2017 UK general election in Essex
Party Votes cast % Seats
2010 2015 2017 ± 2010 2015 2017 ± 2010 2015 2017 ±
Conservative 417,156 436,758 528,949 Increase 92,191 49.2 49.6 59.0 Increase 9.4 17 17 18 Increase1
Labour 157,134 171,026 261,671 Increase 90,645 18.5 19.4 29.2 Increase 9.8 0 0 0 Steady
Liberal Democrat 180,391 58,592 46,254 Decrease 12,338 21.3 6.6 5.1 Decrease 1.5 1 0 0 Steady
UKIP 35,150 177,756 41,478 Decrease 136,278 4.1 20.2 4.6 Decrease 15.6 0 1 0 Decrease 1
Green 8,080 25,993 12,343 Decrease 13,650 1.0 3.0 1.3 Decrease 1.7 0 0 0 Steady
Independents 15,651 6,919 4,179 Decrease 2,740 1.8 0.7 0.4 Decrease 0.3 0 0 0 Steady
BNP 29,030 108 640 Increase 532 3.4 0.01 0.07 Increase 0.06 0 0 0 Steady
Christian People's 267 189 318 Increase 129 0.03 0.02 0.03 Increase 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
English Democrats 4,130 453 289 Decrease 164 0.4 0.05 0.03 Decrease 0.02 0 0 0 Steady
YPP N/A 80 110 Increase 30 N/A 0 0.01 Increase 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
Total 847,090 879,918 896,231 100% 100% 100% 18 18 18

Essex County Council

This is the county council that governs the non-metropolitan county of Essex in England. It has 75 councillors, elected from 70 divisions, some of which elect more than one member, and is currently controlled by the Conservative Party.[2] The council meets at County Hall in the centre of Chelmsford.

At the time of the 2011 census it served a population of 1,393,600, which makes it one of the largest local authorities in England. As a non-metropolitan county council, responsibilities are shared between districts (including boroughs) and in many areas also between civil parish (including town) councils. Births, marriages/civil partnerships and death registration, roads, libraries and archives, refuse disposal, most of state education, of social services and of transport are provided at the county level.[3]

The county council was formed in 1889, governing the administrative county of Essex. The county council was reconstituted in 1974 as a non-metropolitan county council, regaining jurisdiction in Southend-on-Sea; however, the non-metropolitan county was reduced in size in 1998 and the council passed responsibilities to Southend-on-Sea Borough Council and Thurrock Council in those districts. For certain services the three authorities co-operate through joint arrangements, such as the Essex fire authority.

Results of the Essex County Council elections, 2017
Composition of the Essex County Council in 2017 after the county election

At the 2013 County Council elections the Conservative Party retained overall control of the council, but its majority fell from twenty-two to four councillors. UKIP, Labour and the Liberal Democrats each won nine seats. Out of those three parties, UKIP gained the largest share of the county-wide vote, more than 10% ahead of Labour.[3] The Liberal Democrats remain as the official Opposition, despite winning fewer votes.[3] The Green Party gained two seats on the Council, despite its overall share of the vote falling. The Independent Loughton Residents Association and the Canvey Island Independent Party both returned one member and an Independent candidate was also elected.

The 2017 County Council elections saw a county-wide wipeout of UKIP. The Conservative Party profited most from this loss, regaining many of the seats it had lost at the previous election. Labour, despite a slight rise in its share of the vote, had fewer councillors elected. The Liberal Democrats also saw a notable revival, but were unable to translate this into seats. The Conservatives retained firm control of the council. The next election will be in 2021.

The county of Essex is divided into 12 district and borough councils with 2 unitary authorities (Southend on Sea and Thurrock). The 12 councils manage housing, local planning, refuse collection, street cleaning, elections and meet in their respective civic offices. The local representatives are elected in parts in local elections, held every year.[15]

With regard to the two unitary authorities, the county council is not used to conduct business, but works closely with the unitary authorities to deliver the “best value service” to all residents.

  2017 Essex County Council election
Party Votes cast % Seats
2009 2013 2017 ± 2009 2013 2017 ± 2009 2013 2017 ±
Conservative 169,975 112,229 184,901 Increase 72,672 43.3 34.4 49.3 Increase 14.9 60 42 56 Increase14
Labour 42,334 57,290 63,470 Increase 6,180 10.8 16.4 16.9 Increase 0.5 1 9 6 Decrease 3
Liberal Democrat 79,085 35,651 51,524 Increase 15,873 20.1 11.6 13.7 Increase 2.1 12 9 7 Decrease 2
UKIP 18,186 90,812 29,796 Decrease 61,016 4.6 27.6 7.9 Decrease 19.7 0 9 0 Decrease 9
Green 26,547 15,187 15,187 Steady 6.8 4.8 4.3 Decrease 0.5 0 2 1 Decrease1
Independents 5,845 4,631 12,506 Increase 7,875 1.5 0.6 2.4 Increase 1.8 0 1 2 Increase 1
Residents for Uttlesford N/A N/A 5,231 Increase N/A N/A 1.4 Increase 0 0*(1) 0 Decrease 1
Canvey Island Independents 1,655 2,777 3,654 Increase 877 0.4 0.9 1.0 Increase 0.1 1 1 2 Increase1
Loughton Residents 2,764 3,286 2,824 Decrease 462 0.7 1.1 0.8 Decrease 0.3 1 1 1 Steady
Tendring First 5,866 4,093 1,332 Increase 2,761 1.5 1.4 0.4 Decrease 1.0 0 0 0 Steady
BNP 35,037 909 847 Decrease 62 8.9 0.3 0.2 Decrease 0.1 0 0 0 Steady
English Democrats 5,212 835 58 Decrease 164 1.3 0.3 0.0 Decrease 0.3 0 0 0 Steady
TUSC N/A 431 N/A Decrease N/A 0.1 N/A Decrease 0 0 0 Steady
National Front N/A 304 N/A Decrease N/A 0.1 N/A Decrease 0 0 0 Steady
Total 392,506 328,435 372,834 100% 100% 100% 75 75 75

Youth councils

The Essex County Council also has a Youth Assembly, 75 members aged between 11 and 19 who aim to represent all young people in their districts across Essex. They decide on the priorities for young people and campaign to make a difference.[16] With this, some district and unitary authorities may have their own youth councils, such as Epping Forest,[17] Uttlesford[18] and Harlow.[19]

All these councilors are elected by their schools. The elections to the Young Essex Assembly occur in the respective schools in which the candidates are standing, likewise for the youth councils at a district and unitary level. These young people will then go on to represent their school and their parish/ward or (in the case of the Young Essex Assembly) their entire district.

The initiative seeks to engage younger people in the county and rely on the youth councilors of all status to work closely with schools and youth centers to improve youth services in Essex and help promote the opinions of the Essex youth generation.

Local government

Town and parish councils vary in size from those with a population of around 200 to those with a population of over 30,000. Annual expenditure can vary greatly, depending on the circumstances of the individual council. Parish and town councils (local councils) have the same powers and duties, but a town council may elect a town mayor, rather than a chairman, each year in May.

There are just under 300 town and parish councils within Essex.[15]

Local councils play a vital role in representing the interests of their communities and improving the quality of life and the local environment. They can also influence other decision makers and can deliver services to meet local needs. Their powers and duties range from maintaining allotments and open spaces, to crime prevention and providing recreation facilities.

Local councils have the right to become statutory consultees at both district and county level and, although the decision remains with the planning authorities, local councils can influence the decision-making process by making informed comments and recommendations.[15]

Transport

London STN
London Stansted Airport, in the north west of the county

The main airport in Essex is London Stansted Airport, serving destinations in Europe, North Africa and Asia.[20] The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government formed in May 2010 agreed not to allow a further runway until a set time period, so curtailing the operator's ambitions for expansion. London Southend Airport, once one of Britain's busiest airports, opened a new runway extension, terminal building and railway station in March 2012.[21] It has a station on the Shenfield to Southend Line, with a direct link to London.

Southend Airport has scheduled flights to Ireland, the Channel Islands and multiple destinations in Europe. Essex has several smaller airfields, some of which owe their origins to military bases built during World War I or World War II, giving pleasure flights or flying lessons; these include Clacton Airfield, Earls Colne Airfield, and Stapleford Aerodrome.

The Port of Tilbury is one of Britain's three major ports, while the port of Harwich has passenger and freight services to the Hook of Holland and a freight service to Europoort. A service to Esbjerg, Denmark ceased in September 2014[22] and earlier a service to Cuxhaven in Germany was discontinued in December 2005.

The UK's largest container terminal London Gateway at Shell Haven in Thurrock partly opened in November 2013; final completion date is yet to be confirmed.[23] The port was opposed by the local authority and environmental and wildlife organisations.[24][25][26]

GreenhitheThames5346
Queen Elizabeth II Bridge spanning the Thames from West Thurrock, Essex, to Dartford, Kent

East of the Dartford Road Crossing to Dartford, Kent, across the Thames Estuary, a pedestrian ferry to Gravesend, Kent operates from Tilbury during limited daily hours, and there are pedestrian ferries across some of Essex's rivers and estuaries in spring and summer. The M25 and M11 motorways both cross the county in the extreme south and west, enabling regular commuting between parts of the county and Kent, Hertfordshire and Cambridge. The A127 and A13 trunk roads are important radial routes connecting London and the M25 to the south of Essex. The A12 runs across the county from south west to north east and carries traffic not just within Essex but also between London and Suffolk, east Norfolk and the ports of Felixstowe and Harwich.

Rail goods have several ports and dedicated lines within Essex.[27]

Much of Essex lies within the London commuter belt. Greater Anglia is the main railway operator in the county, providing commuter services into London Liverpool Street and regional services throughout the East of England. The main railway routes in Essex include:

The southern part of Epping Forest district is served by the London Underground Central line. The routes operated by Greater Anglia were operated by National Express East Anglia from 2004 until 2012, and before that by First Great Eastern. Branch lines include:

South Essex Rapid Transit is a proposed public transport scheme which would provide a fast, reliable public transport service in and between Thurrock, Basildon and Southend.[29]

Education

Education in Essex is substantially provided by three authorities: Essex County Council and the two unitary authorities, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. In all there are some 90 state secondary schools provided by these authorities, the majority of which are comprehensive, although one in Uttlesford, two in Chelmsford, two in Colchester and four in Southend-on-Sea are selective grammar schools. There are also various independent schools particularly, as mentioned above, in rural parts and the west of the county.[30][31]

The University of Essex, which was established in 1963, is located just outside Colchester, with two further campuses in Loughton and Southend-on-Sea. University Campus Suffolk, with a main campus in Ipswich and five centres in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, is a joint venture between University of Essex and East Anglia polytechnic.

Culture

Erkenwin - John Speed
Depiction of the first king of the East Saxons, Æscwine, his shield showing the three seaxes emblem attributed to him (from John Speed's 1611 Saxon Heptarchy)

The county's coat of arms comprises three Saxon seax knives (although they look rather more like scimitars), mainly white and pointing to the right (from the point of view of the observer), arranged vertically one above another on a red background (Gules three Seaxes fessewise in pale Argent pomels and hilts Or points to the sinister and cutting edges upwards); the three-seax device is also used as the official logo of Essex County Council; this was granted in 1932.[32] The emblem was attributed to Anglo-Saxon Essex in Early Modern historiography. The earliest reference to the arms of the East Saxon kings was by Richard Verstegan, the author of A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (Antwerp, 1605), claiming that "Erkenwyne king of the East-Saxons did beare for his armes, three [seaxes] argent, in a field gules". There is no earlier evidence substantiating Verstegan's claim, which is an anachronism for the Anglo-Saxon period seeing that heraldry only evolved in the 12th century, well after the Norman Conquest.

John Speed in his Historie of Great Britaine (1611) follows Verstegan in his descriptions of the arms of Erkenwyne, but he qualifies the statement by adding "as some or our heralds have emblazed".[32]

John Constable The Hay Wain
The Hay Wain by John Constable shows the Essex landscape on the right bank.

Essex is also home to the Dunmow Flitch Trials, a traditional ceremony that takes place every four years and consists of a test of a married couple's devotion to one another. A common claim of the origin of the Dunmow Flitch dates back to 1104 and the Augustinian priory of Little Dunmow, founded by Lady Juga Baynard. Lord of the Manor Reginald Fitzwalter and his wife dressed themselves as humble folk and begged blessing of the Prior a year and a day after marriage. The prior, impressed by their devotion, bestowed upon them a flitch of bacon. Upon revealing his true identity, Fitzwalter gave his land to the priory on condition that a flitch should be awarded to any couple who could claim they were similarly devoted.

By the 14th century, the Dunmow Flitch Trials appear to have achieved a significant reputation outside the local area. The author William Langland, who lived on the Welsh borders, mentions it in his 1362 book The Vision of Piers Plowman in a manner that implies general knowledge of the custom among his readers.[33]

The Essex dialect, an accent related to the Suffolk dialect, was formerly prevalent in the county but has now been mostly replaced by Estuary English.

Sport

Essex is home to two English Football League teams: Southend United and Colchester United. Both teams have reached as high as the Championship (the second tier of English football) at some point in their history. As of 2018-19 Southend United are in League One, while Colchester United are in League Two. Braintree Town are the next highest-placed team, playing in the National League, followed by Chelmsford City, Concord Rangers and East Thurrock United, who play in the National League South. The highest domestic trophy for non-league teams, the FA Trophy, has been won on four occasions by Essex teams; most recently by Grays Athletic in 2006.

Essex County Cricket Club became a First-Class County in 1894. The county has won 7 County Championship league titles; 6 of these were won during the dominant period between 1979 and 1992, with a gap of 25 years before the county's next title in 2017.

The County is also home to the Chelmsford Chieftains ice hockey team and the Essex Leopards basketball team. It has previously been home to the Essex Eels rugby league team, as well as the Essex Pirates basketball team. Former speedway teams in the county (now no longer operating) include the Lakeside Hammers (formerly Arena Essex Hammers), the Rayleigh Rockets and the Romford Bombers.

During the 2012 London Olympics, Hadleigh Farm played host to the mountain bike races.

Essex has one horse racing venue, Chelmsford City Racecourse at Great Leighs, and horse racing also took place at Chelmsford Racecourse in Galleywood until 1935. The county has one current greyhound racing track, Harlow Stadium. Rayleigh Weir Stadium and Southend Stadium are former greyhound venues.

Team Essex Volleyball Club is Chelmsford's national league volleyball club. It has four teams which play in Volleyball England's national volleyball league. Its Men's 1st team currently competes in the top division in the country, the Super 8s while the Women's 1st team competes one tier below the men. The club has a strong junior program and trains in The Boswells School in Chelmsford.

Many famous sports stars have come from or trained in Essex. These have included swimmer Mark Foster; cricket stars Trevor Bailey, Nasser Hussain, Alastair Cook and Graham Gooch; footballers Peter Taylor, James Tomkins, Justin Edinburgh, Nigel Spink; tennis stars John Lloyd and David Lloyd; Olympic Gold-winning gymnast Max Whitlock; Olympic sailing champion Saskia Clark; World Champion snooker stars Stuart Bingham and Steve Davis; world champion boxers Terry Marsh, Nigel Benn and Frank Bruno; London Marathon winner Eamonn Martin; international rugby players Malcolm O'Kelly and Stuart Barnes; Formula 1 sports car drivers Johnny Herbert and Perry McCarthy.

Landmarks

Over 14,000 buildings have listed status in the county, and around 1000 of those are recognised as of Grade I or II* importance.[34] The buildings range from the 7th century Saxon church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, to the Royal Corinthian Yacht Club which was the United Kingdom's entry in the "International Exhibition of Modern Architecture" held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932. Southend Pier is in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest pleasure pier in the world.

The keep, Hedingham Castle in winter

The Grade I listed Hedingham Castle, with the best preserved Norman keep in the UK

Thaxted guildhall

Thaxted Guildhall, dating from around 1450

AudleyEndHouse

The 17th century Audley End House, Saffron Walden

Hylands house

Hylands House, south of Writtle and south-west of Chelmsford

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo
Southend aerial 220608
Skyline of Southend-on-Sea

Sister counties and regions

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/news/lord-lieutenant-of-essex-jennifer-tolhurst
  2. ^ "No. 62229". The London Gazette. 15 March 2018. pp. 4814–4814.
  3. ^ Vision of Britain Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine – Essex ancient county boundaries map
  4. ^ The Free Dictionary Archived 16 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine – definition
  5. ^ Raymond Grant (1991). The royal forests of England. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton. ISBN 0-86299-781-X. 086299781X. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2015. see table, p224 for Essex Stanestreet and p221-229 for details of each forest
  6. ^ Vision of Britain Archived 14 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine – Southend-on-Sea MB/CB
  7. ^ a b Vision of Britain Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine – Essex admin county (historic map Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine)
  8. ^ Essex County Council Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine – District or Borough Councils
  9. ^ OPSI Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine – The Essex (Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock and District of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996
  10. ^ OPSI Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine – The Essex (Police Area and Authority) Order 1997
  11. ^ "Did you know deprivation in Chelmsford Diocese". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Jackwich: Village 'third most deprived area in UK'". Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
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External links

Chelmsford

Chelmsford () is the principal settlement of the City of Chelmsford district, and the county town of Essex, in the East of England. It is located in the London commuter belt, approximately 30 miles (48 km) northeast of the notional centre of London at Charing Cross and approximately 22 miles (35 km) from Colchester. The urban area of the city has a population of approximately 112,000, whilst the district has a population of 168,310.The main conurbation of Chelmsford incorporates all or part of the former parishes of Broomfield, Great Baddow, Galleywood, Writtle, Moulsham, Widford, and Springfield, including Springfield Barnes, now known as Chelmer Village.

The communities of Chelmsford, Massachusetts, Chelmsford, Ontario, and Chelmsford, New Brunswick, are named after the city.

Chelmsford's population consists of a large number of City and Docklands commuters, attracted by the 30–35 minute journey into Central London via the Great Eastern Main Line railway. The same journey takes approximately 60 minutes by road via the A12.

On 14 March 2012, Lord President of the Privy Council and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg announced that Chelmsford along with Perth, Scotland and St Asaph, Wales was to be granted city status to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The Letters Patent officially granting city status to Chelmsford were received on 6 June 2012.The demonym for a Chelmsford resident is "Chelmsfordian".

English football league system

The English football league system, also known as the football pyramid, is a series of interconnected leagues for men's association football clubs in England, with six teams from Wales and one from Guernsey also competing. The system has a hierarchical format with promotion and relegation between leagues at different levels, allowing even the smallest club the theoretical possibility of ultimately rising to the very top of the system, although in practice it would take a team at the bottom levels at least two decades of consistently finishing at or near the top of each successive league to reach the top level, and even then additional restrictions, particularly in regard to stadium facilities, would then come into effect at the highest levels that could prevent a club from being allowed access to the top levels. There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions.The exact number of clubs varies from year to year as clubs join and leave leagues, fold or merge altogether, but an estimated average of 15 clubs per division implies that more than 7,000 teams of nearly 5,300 clubs are members of a league in the English men's football league system.

As there are no official definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12 and below should not be regarded as definitive.

The pyramid for women's football in England runs separately to nine tiers and some England-based men's clubs play outside the English football league system.

Essex-class aircraft carrier

The Essex class was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy that constituted the 20th century's most numerous class of capital ships. The class consisted of 24 vessels, which came in "short-hull" and "long-hull" versions. Thirty-two ships were originally ordered, but as World War II wound down, six were canceled before construction, and two were canceled after construction had begun. No Essex-class ships were lost to enemy action, despite several vessels sustaining very heavy damage. The Essex-class carriers were the backbone of the U.S. Navy's combat strength during World War II from mid-1943 on, and, along with the addition of the three Midway-class carriers just after the war, continued to be the heart of U.S. naval strength until the supercarriers began to come into the fleet in numbers during the 1960s and 1970s.

Essex County, Massachusetts

Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the total population was 743,159, making it the third-most populous county in the state. It is part of the Greater Boston area (the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area). The largest city in Essex County is Lynn. The county was named after the English county of Essex.

It has two traditional county seats: Salem and Lawrence. Prior to the dissolution of the county government in 1999, Salem had jurisdiction over the Southern Essex District, and Lawrence had jurisdiction over the Northern Essex District, but currently these cities do not function as seats of government. However, the county and the districts remain as administrative regions recognized by various governmental agencies, which gathered vital statistics or disposed of judicial case loads under these geographic subdivisions, and are required to keep the records based on them. The county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service.

Essex County, New Jersey

Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 808,285, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 3.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% (9,664 fewer residents) from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County, and was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010 (Cape May County being the other). Its county seat is Newark, the most populous city in the state. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area.

In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,030, the eighth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 153rd of 3,113 counties in the United States. The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States (and the seventh-highest in New Jersey) as of 2009.

Essex County, New York

Essex County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,370. Its county seat is the hamlet of Elizabethtown. Its name is from the English county of Essex. Along with Hamilton County, Essex is entirely within the Adirondack Park.

Essex County Cricket Club

Essex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Essex. Founded in 1876, the club had minor county status until 1894 when it was promoted to first-class status pending its entry into the County Championship in 1895, since when the team has played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Essex play most of their home games at the County Cricket Ground, Chelmsford and some at Lower Castle Park in Colchester. The club has formerly used other venues throughout the county including Valentines Park in Ilford, Leyton Cricket Ground, the Gidea Park Sports Ground in Romford, and Garon Park and Southchurch Park, both in Southend. Its limited overs team is called the Essex Eagles, whose team colours are all-blue.

Harwich

Harwich is a town in Essex, England and one of the Haven ports, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. It is in the Tendring district. Nearby places include Felixstowe to the northeast, Ipswich to the northwest, Colchester to the southwest and Clacton-on-Sea to the south. It is the northernmost coastal town within Essex.

Its position on the estuaries of the Stour and Orwell rivers and its usefulness to mariners as the only safe anchorage between the Thames and the Humber led to a long period of maritime significance, both civil and military. The town became a naval base in 1657 and was heavily fortified, with Harwich Redoubt, Beacon Hill Battery, and Bath Side Battery.

Harwich is the likely launch point of the Mayflower which carried English Puritans to North America, and is the presumed birthplace of Mayflower captain Christopher Jones.

Harwich today is contiguous with Dovercourt and the two, along with Parkeston, are often referred to collectively as Harwich.

John Bercow

John Simon Bercow (; born 19 January 1963) is a British politician who has been the Speaker of the House of Commons since June 2009. He concurrently serves as the Member of Parliament for Buckingham. Prior to his election to Speaker, he was a member of the Conservative Party.

A former right-winger who changed his views after becoming an MP and at one time was rumoured to be likely to defect to the Labour Party, Bercow's election to the Speaker's chair depended heavily on the backing of other parties, and was deeply unpopular with many of his former Conservative Party colleagues.He served as a councillor from 1986 to 1990 and unsuccessfully contested parliamentary seats in the 1987 and 1992 general elections. In the 1997 general election, Bercow was elected the MP for Buckingham and promoted to the shadow cabinet in 2001. He held posts in the shadow cabinets of Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard. In November 2002, he resigned from the shadow cabinet over disputes concerning the Adoption and Children Act but returned under Howard in 2003. In September 2004, Bercow was sacked after disagreements with Howard.

Following the resignation of Speaker Michael Martin, Bercow announced his intention to stand for the Speakership election on 22 June 2009 and was successful. He remained Speaker and was re-elected in his constituency at the general election on 7 May 2015. He was re-elected as Speaker, unopposed, when the House sat at the start of the new parliament on 18 May 2015. Following the 2017 general election, Bercow was re-elected, again unopposed, as Speaker, on 13 June 2017. He is the first Speaker since the Second World War to be elected to the post three times.In October 2009, Bercow chaired the United Kingdom Youth Parliament's first annual sitting in the House of Commons, making them the only group except Members of Parliament to sit in the chamber. He has chaired every subsequent sitting and attended every annual conference, addressing and supporting Members of Youth Parliament from across the UK.

In 2014, Bercow was appointed Chancellor of the University of Bedfordshire, and in July 2017 he was appointed Chancellor of the University of Essex.In October 2018, it was reported that Bercow intended to step down as Speaker in the summer of 2019, due to a report on the failure of high-level figures in Parliament to deal adequately with bullying of staff at Westminster and due to allegations of bullying made against him personally.

Kingdom of Essex

The kingdom of the East Saxons (Old English: Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Latin: Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex , was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was founded in the 6th century and covered the territory later occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Middlesex and (for a short while) Kent. Kings of Essex were frequently subservient to foreign overlords. The last king of Essex was Sigered and in 825, he ceded the kingdom to Ecgberht, King of Wessex.

List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy

Aircraft carriers are warships that act as airbases for carrier-based aircraft. In the United States Navy, these consist of ships commissioned with hull classification symbols CV (aircraft carrier), CVA (attack aircraft carrier), CVB (large aircraft carrier), CVL (light aircraft carrier), CVN (aircraft carrier (nuclear propulsion)) and CVAN (attack aircraft carrier (nuclear propulsion)). Beginning with the Forrestal-class, (CV-59 to present) all carriers commissioned into service are classified as supercarriers. The United States Navy has also used escort aircraft carriers and airship aircraft carriers. This list does not include various amphibious warfare ships which can operate as carriers.

The first aircraft carrier commissioned into the United States Navy was USS Langley (CV-1) on 20 March 1922. The Langley was a converted Proteus-class collier (originally commissioned as USS Jupiter (AC-3), Langley was soon followed by the Lexington-class, USS Ranger (the first purpose-built carriers in the American fleet), the Yorktown-class, and USS Wasp. These classes made up the entirety of the United States carrier fleet active prior to and during the Second World War.With World War II looming, two more classes of carriers were commissioned under President Franklin Roosevelt: the Essex-class, which are informally divided into regular bow and extended bow sub-classes, and the Independence-class, which are classified as light aircraft carriers. Between these two classes, 35 ships were created. During this time, the Navy also purchased two training vessels, USS Wolverine and USS Sable.The Cold War led to multiple developments in the United States' carrier fleet, starting with the addition of the Midway-class and the Saipan-class. One more class in the start of the Cold War, the United States-class, was canceled due to the Truman administration's policy of shrinking the United States Navy and in particular, the Navy's air assets. The policy was eventually revised after a public outcry and Congressional hearings sparked by the Revolt of the Admirals.Later in the Cold War era, the first of the classes dubbed "supercarriers" was born, starting with USS Forrestal (CV-59), followed by the Kitty Hawk-class and single ships Enterprise (CVN-65), the first nuclear powered carrier and John F. Kennedy (CV-67), the last conventionally powered carrier. These were then followed by the Nimitz-class and the post-cold war Gerald R. Ford-class nuclear supercarriers, the only classes that are currently in active-duty service. The ten-ship Nimitz-class is complete, while USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), the lead ship of her planned ten-ship class, is the only ship active so far, with construction started on two more ships, John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and Enterprise (CVN-80).

National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, New York

List of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, New York.

This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Essex County, New York, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts (at least for all showing latitude and longitude coordinates below) can be seen in a map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates". Seven of the properties and districts are further designated National Historic Landmarks and are indicated by light blue color in the table below.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted December 21, 2018.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Virginia

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Virginia.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Essex County, Virginia, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map.There are 16 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted December 21, 2018.

Newark, New Jersey

Newark (, locally ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000.Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States. Its location at the mouth of the Passaic River (where it flows into Newark Bay) has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, and today is one of its busiest.Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, and Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are also in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University (which includes law and medical schools and the Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies); the New Jersey Institute of Technology; and Seton Hall University's law school. The U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum.

Newark is divided into five political wards (the East, West, South, North and Central wards) and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000.

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC (; 10 November 1565 – 25 February 1601), was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup d'état against the government and was executed for treason.

Southend-on-Sea

Southend-on-Sea ( (listen)), commonly referred to simply as Southend, is a town and wider unitary authority area with borough status in southeastern Essex, England. It lies on the north side of the Thames Estuary, 40 miles (64 km) east of central London. It is bordered to the north by Rochford and to the west by Castle Point. It is home to the longest leisure pier in the world, Southend Pier. London Southend Airport is located 1.5 NM (2.8 km; 1.7 mi) north of the town centre.

Southend-on-Sea originally consisted of a few poor fishermen's huts and farms at the southern end of the village of Prittlewell. In the 1790s, the first buildings around what was to become the High Street of Southend were completed. In the 19th century, Southend's status of a seaside resort grew after a visit from Princess Caroline of Brunswick, and Southend Pier was constructed. From the 1960s onwards, the town declined as a holiday destination, Southend redeveloped itself as the home of the Access credit card, due to it having one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges. After the 1960s, much of the town centre was developed for commerce and retail, and many original structures were lost to redevelopment. An annual seafront airshow, started in 1986 when it featured a flypast by Concorde on a passenger charter flight, used to take place each May and became one of Europe's largest free airshows. The show has not been held since 2012 due to a lack of sponsorship and funding cuts.

The Only Way Is Essex

The Only Way Is Essex (often abbreviated as TOWIE ) is a British reality television series based in Brentwood, England. It shows "real people in modified situations, saying unscripted lines but in a structured way." The show is filmed just a few days in advance. It is narrated by Denise van Outen, who is from Basildon, Essex. The show has been described as Britain's answer to The Hills and Jersey Shore.Each series lasts six weeks, airing on Wednesdays and Sundays at 10pm on ITV2 from 2010 to 2014, although it was announced in February 2014 that the show would be moved to ITV2's sister channel ITVBe when the channel launches. The first series consisted of 10 episodes and ran for 30 minutes, with a Christmas special following later in the year. Due to popularity, the show was extended to 45-minute episodes and renewed for a year's airing. On 22 May 2011, the series won the Audience Award at the 2011 BAFTA Awards. The 12th series was the last to air on ITV2 before the show moved to ITV's new channel, ITVBe in October 2014.

On 13 March 2016, ITVBe aired a one-off documentary hosted by former cast member Mark Wright discussing the history of the show. Celebrities as well as cast members past and present united to talk about the popularity of the show, the fame the cast members have achieved from appearing in the series as well as the influence it has had on the economy.

On 28 February 2017, with the announcement of the cast for the show's twentieth series it was confirmed that instead of the usual three series per year, ITVBe would only be airing two series, but with more episodes.On 21 December 2017, it was announced that a further two series had been commissioned for 2018. It was also confirmed that the series will only air once a week unlike past series which aired twice a week. It was also announced that episode running times would be increased from 50 minutes to 60 minutes.

Thomas Cromwell

Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, (; c. 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540, when he was decapitated on orders of the king.

Cromwell was one of the strongest and most powerful advocates of the English Reformation. He helped to engineer an annulment of the king's marriage to Queen Catherine so that Henry could lawfully marry Anne Boleyn. Henry failed to obtain the Pope's approval for the annulment in 1534, so Parliament endorsed the king's claim to be Supreme Head of the Church of England, giving him the authority to annul his own marriage. Cromwell subsequently charted an evangelical and reformist course for the Church of England from the unique posts of vicegerent in spirituals and vicar-general.During his rise to power, Cromwell made many enemies, including his former ally Anne Boleyn. He played a prominent role in her downfall. He later fell from power, after arranging the king's marriage to German princess Anne of Cleves. Cromwell had hoped that the marriage would breathe fresh life into the Reformation in England, but Henry found his new bride unattractive and it turned into a disaster for Cromwell, ending in an annulment six months later. Cromwell was arraigned under a bill of attainder and executed for treason and heresy on Tower Hill on 28 July 1540. The king later expressed regret at the loss of his chief minister.

University of Essex

The University of Essex is a public research university in Essex, England. It was established in 1963, welcomed its first students in 1964 and received its Royal Charter in 1965. Essex's motto, "Thought the harder, heart the keener", is adapted from the Anglo-Saxon poem The Battle of Maldon.

Essex's largest campus is the Colchester Campus within Wivenhoe Park, less than a mile (1.6 km) from Wivenhoe and two miles (3 km) from Colchester. There is also a campus in Southend-on-Sea and East 15 Acting School is based at the Loughton Campus.

Essex has collaborative partnerships with 18 institutions around the world. UK partnerships include Kaplan Open Learning (provider of University of Essex Online), Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust and University of Essex International College. International partnerships include a franchise arrangement with Kaplan Singapore and double and dual degrees with several universities in Europe and Asia.

Essex was named University of the Year at the Times Higher Education Awards in November 2018. The Research Excellence Framework (REF) in 2014 ranked Essex in the top twenty universities in the UK for the quality of its research and the top five for social science. Essex is in the top 50 for the social sciences and law in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 by subject. Overall Essex is ranked 251st-300th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019 and 29th in the UK in The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2019.

Essex has produced many notable alumni in several fields, including two Nobel Laureates, prominent scientists, artists, and politicians. In addition, there are two former academics who are Nobel Laureates.

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