Essaouira

Essaouira (Arabic: الصويرة‎; Berber languages: ⵚⵡⵉⵔⴰ), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast.

Essaouira

ⵚⵡⵉⵔⴰ / الصويرة

Sidi Megdoul / Mogador
City
Essaouira2
Essaouira 116
Essaouira, Morocco (8141937822)
Essaouira citadel
Essaouira - panoramio (163)
Clockwise from top:
Essaouira skyline, city wall bastion, Magana clocktower, Essaouira citadel by Scala harbour, Mosque Ben Youssef
Coat of arms of Essaouira

Coat of arms
Essaouira is located in Morocco
Essaouira
Essaouira
Location in Morocco
Coordinates: 31°30′47″N 9°46′11″W / 31.51306°N 9.76972°W
Country Morocco
RegionMarrakesh-Safi
ProvinceEssaouira
Government
 • MayorAsma Chaâbi
Highest elevation
50 m (160 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2014)[1]
 • Total77,966
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameMedina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv
Reference753
Inscription2001 (25th Session)
Area30 ha
Buffer zone15 ha

Name and etymology

The name of the city is usually spelled Essaouira in Latin script, and الصويرة in Arabic script. Both spellings represent its name in Moroccan Arabic, ṣ-Ṣwiṛa. This is the diminutive[2] (with definite article) of the noun ṣuṛ which means "wall (as round a yard, city), rampart".[3] The pronunciation with pharyngealized /ṣ/ and /ṛ/ is a typically Moroccan development. In Classical Arabic, the noun is sūr (with plain /s/ and /r/), diminutive suwayrah.[4] Hence, the spelling of the name in Arabic script according to the classical pronunciation is السويرة al-Suwayrah (with sīn not ṣād).

In the Berber language, which is spoken by a sizeable proportion of the city's inhabitants, it is called "Taṣṣort", meaning 'the small fortress'.

In Moroccan Arabic, a single male inhabitant is called ṣwiṛi, plural ṣwiṛiyin, a single female inhabitant is ṣwiṛiya, plural ṣwiṛiyat. In the Berber language, a single male inhabitant is U-Taṣṣort, plural: Ayt Taṣṣuṛt, a single female inhabitant is Ult Taṣṣort, plural Ist Taṣṣort.

Until the 1960s, Essaouira was generally known by its Portuguese name, Mogador. This name is probably a corruption of the older Berber name Amaqdūl, which is mentioned by the 11th-century geographer al-Bakrī.[5]

History

Archaeological research shows that Essaouira has been occupied since prehistoric times. The bay at Essaouira is partially sheltered by the island of Mogador, making it a peaceful harbor protected against strong marine winds.

Antiquity

Essaouira has long been considered as one of the best anchorages of the Moroccan coast. The Carthaginian navigator Hanno visited in the 5th century BC and established the trading post of Arambys.

Around the end of the 1st century BCE or early 1st century CE, the Berber king Juba II established a Tyrian purple factory, processing the murex and purpura shells found in the intertidal rocks at Essaouira and the Iles Purpuraires. This dye colored the purple stripe in the togas worn by the Senators of Imperial Rome.

A Roman villa was excavated on Mogador island.[6] A Roman vase was found as well as coinage from the 3rd century CE. Most of the artifacts are now visible in the Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum and the Rabat Archaeological Museum.

Phenician plate with red slip 7th century BCE excavated in Mogador island

Phoenician plate with red slip, 7th century BCE, excavated in Mogador island, Essaouira. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum.

Amphora of the Beltran 2B type late 1st or 2nd century Betique Southern Spain found between Mogador and Pharaon islands

Betica amphora found in Essaouira, 1-2nd century CE.

Amphora of the Agora K109 type Agean sea 3rd 4th century CE found between Mogador and Pharaon islands

Aegean amphora found in Essaouira, 3-4th century CE.

Roman coins excavated in Essaouira 3rd century and late Roman Empire

Roman coins excavated in Essaouira, 3rd century.

Early modern period

Sidi Mogdul resting place
Resting place of Sidi Mogdoul in Essaouira.

During the Middle Ages, a Muslim saint named Sidi Mogdoul was buried in Essaouira, probably giving its origin to the name "Mogador".

Portuguese establishment (1506–10)

In 1506, the king of Portugal, D. Manuel I, ordered a fortress to be built there, named Castelo Real de Mogador. Altogether, the Portuguese are documented to have seized six Moroccan towns and built six stand-alone fortresses on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, between the river Loukos in the north and the river of Sous in the south. Four of them only had a short duration: Graciosa (1489), São João da Mamora (1515), Castelo Real of Mogador (1506–10) and Aguz (1520–25). Two became permanent urban settlements: Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (modern Agadir, founded in 1505–06), and Mazagan, founded in 1514–17. Following the 1541 Fall of Agadir, the Portuguese had to abandon most of their settlements between 1541 and 1550, although they were able to keep Ceuta, Tangier and Mazagan.[7]

The fortress of Castelo Real of Mogador fell to the local resistance of the Regraga fraternity four years after its establishment, in 1510.

Castelo Real Adriaen Matham 1641
The Portuguese-built Castelo Real of Mogador was defended under Abd el-Malek II by a garrison of 100 Moroccans. It was drawn by Adriaen Matham in 1641.

During the 16th century, powers including Spain, England, the Netherlands and France tried in vain to conquer the locality. Essaouira remained a haven for the export of sugar and molasses and as an anchorage for pirates.[8]

De Razilly expedition (1629)

France was involved in an early attempt to colonize Mogador in 1629. As Richelieu and Père Joseph were attempting to establish a colonial policy, Admiral Isaac de Razilly suggested they occupy Mogador in 1626, which he had reconnoitered in 1619. The objective was to create a base against the Sultan of Marrakesh and asphyxiate the harbour of Safi.

He departed for Salé on 20 July 1629 with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Griffon, Catherine, Hambourg, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. He bombarded the city the Salé, destroyed three corsair ships, and then sent the Griffon under Captain Treillebois to Mogador. The men of Razilly saw the fortress of Castelo Real in Mogador and landed 100 men with wood and supplies on Mogador island, with the agreement of Richelieu. After a few days, however, the Griffon reembarked the colonists and departed to rejoin the fleet in Salé.[9]

After these expeditions, France signed a treaty with Abd el-Malek II in 1631, giving France preferential treatment, known as "capitulations": preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.[10]

Foundation of modern Essaouira (1760–70)

Theodore Cornut Essaouira 1767
Map of Essaouira by Théodore Cornut. When he left in 1767, areas in pink were already built (streets are still recognizable); areas in yellow (harbour front and medina) were only projected.
Essaouira harbour fortifications 1770
Harbour fortifications were built by an English renegade named Ahmed El Alj in 1770, as described in the sculptured inscription in Arabic (right).

The present city of Essaouira was built during the mid-eighteenth century by the Moroccan King.[11] Mohammed III tried to reorient his kingdom toward the Atlantic for increased exchanges with European powers, choosing Mogador as his key location. One of his objectives was to establish a harbour at the closest possible point to Marrakesh.[12] The other was to cut off trade from Agadir in the south, which had been favouring a political rival of Mohammed III, and the inhabitants of Agadir were forced to relocate to Essaouira.[12]

For 12 years, Mohammed III directed a French engineer, Théodore Cornut, and several other European architects and technicians to build the fortress and city along modern lines.[12][13] Originally called "Souira" ("the small fortress"), the name became "Es-Saouira" ("the beautifully designed").

Thédore Cornut designed and built the city itself, particularly the Kasbah area, corresponding to the royal quarters and the buildings for Christian merchants and diplomats. Other parts were built by other architects, including Moroccan architects especially from Fez, Marrakesh, and Rabat. The harbour entrance, with the "Porte de la Marine", was built by an English renegade by the name of Ahmed el Inglizi ("Ahmed the English") or Ahmed El Alj ("Ahmed the Renegade").[13] Mohammed III took numerous steps to encourage the development of Essaouira including closing off the harbour of Agadir to the south in 1767 so that southern trade could be redirected through Essaouira. European communities in the northern harbour of Rabat-Salé were ordered to move to Essaouira through an ordinance of 21 January 1765.

From the time of its rebuilding by Muhammad III until the end of the nineteenth century, Essaouira served as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains to Marrakesh. The road from Marrakesh to Essaouira is a straight line, explaining the king's choice of this port among the many others along the Moroccan coast.

Skala de Ville

City walls.

EssaouiraRamparts

The ramparts from the Medina.

EssaouiraCitadel

The Genoese-built citadel by the harbour.

Skala du Port (js)

Harbour scala.

Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)-113160

tower and walls

Dutch cannon made by Adrianus Crans in La Hague 1744 installed in Essaouira Morocco

Dutch cannon made by Adrianus Crans in The Hague in 1744, installed in Essaouira.

Jewish presence

A Jewish house in Mogador by Darondeau 1807 1841
A Jewish house in Mogador, by Darondeau (1807–1841).

Mohammed III encouraged Moroccan Jews to settle in the town and handle the trade with Europe. Jews once comprised 40% of the population, and the Jewish quarter (or mellah) contains many old synagogues. The town also has a large Jewish cemetery. The city flourished until the caravan trade died, superseded by direct European shipping trade with sub-Saharan Africa.[14] Changes in trade, the founding of Israel, the resulting wars with Arab states, and the independence of Morocco all resulted in Sephardic Jews leaving the country. As of 2017, Essaouira had only three Jewish inhabitants.[15]

Old Jewish quarters in Essaouira

Old Jewish quarter in Essaouira.

Jewish cemetery in Essaouira

Jewish cemetery in Essaouira.

European trade and diplomacy

Essaouira in 1809
Essaouira in 1809.

In the 19th century, Essaouira became the first seaport of Morocco, with trade volumes about double those of Rabat.[16] The city functioned as the harbour for Marrakesh, as it was only a few days from the inland city.[17] Diplomatic and trade representations were established by European powers in Essouira.[18] In the 1820s, European diplomats were concentrated in either Tangier or Essaouira.[19]

Essaouira Dutch Consulate 19th century

Remains of the 19th-century Dutch Consulate in Essaouira.

Portuguese Consulate in Essaouira 19th century

Remains of the 19th-century Portuguese Consulate in Essaouira.

Former Essaouira English Consulate

Former Essaouira English Consulate.

Former French Consulate in Essaouira

Former French Consulate in Essaouira.

French interventions and Protectorate

The attack of Mogador by the French fleet Serkis Diranian
The attack of Mogador by the French fleet in August 1844, Serkis Diranian.

Following Morocco's alliance with Algeria's Abd-El-Kader against France, Essaouira was bombarded and briefly occupied by the French Navy under the Prince de Joinville on 16 August 1844, in the Bombardment of Mogador, an important battle of the First Franco-Moroccan War.

From 1912 to 1956, Essaouira was part of the French protectorate of Morocco. Mogador was used as a base for a military expedition against Dar Anflous, when 8,000 French troops were located outside the city under the orders of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Brulard. The Kasbah of Dar Anflous was taken on 25 January 1913. In 1930, brothers, Michel and Jean Vieuchange used Essaouira as a base before Michel set off into the Western Sahara to try to find Smara.

France had an important administrative, military and economic presence. Essaouira had a Franco-Moroccan school, still visible in Derb Dharb street. Linguistically, many Moroccans of Essaouira speak French fluently today.

Recent years

Orson Welles Dec 2009
Bas relief of Orson Welles

In the early 1950s film director and actor Orson Welles stayed at the Hotel des Iles just south of the town walls during the filming of his 1952 classic version of "Othello" which contains several memorable scenes shot in the labyrinthine streets and alleyways of the medina. Legend has it that during Welles' sojourn in the town he met Winston Churchill, another guest at the Hotel des Iles. A bas-relief of Orson Welles is located in a small square just outside the medina walls close to the sea. Several other film directors have utilized Essaouira as a location due to the photogenic and atmospheric qualities.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Essaouira became something of a hippie hangout.

Geography

Iles Purpuraires with Mogador island in the background seen from the Essaouira citadel
Iles Purpuraires, with Mogador island in the background seen from the ramparts of Essaouira.

Essaouira is protected by a natural bay partially shielded from wave action by the Iles Purpuraires. A broad sandy beach extends from the harbour south of Essaourira, at which point the Oued Ksob discharges to the ocean; south of the discharge lies the archaeological ruin, the Bordj El Berod.[20] The Canary Current is responsible for the generally southward movement of ocean circulation and has led to enhancement of the local fishery.[21] The village of Diabat lies about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Essaouira, immediately south of the Oued Ksob.

Essaouira connects to Safi to the north and to Agadir to the south via the N1 road and to Marrakech to the east via the R 207 road. There is a small airport some 7 to 8 km (4 to 5 mi) away from the town, which schedules several flights a week to Paris-Orly, London-Luton and Brussels-South (Charleroi) and daily to Casablanca.

Essaouira 9.76074W 31.50818N

Essaouira viewed from space.

RoadToEssaouira

The desert road between Marrakesh and Essaouira.

Essaouira arganier (3) 1142

Argan tree near Essaouira.

Essaouira beach

Essaouira beach.

Climate

Essaouira's climate is semi-arid (BSk) bordering a warm summer Mediterranean one (Csb) with mild temperatures year round. The gap between highs and lows is small and summers are warm while winters are mild. Annual rainfall is usually 300 to 500 millimetres (12 to 20 in). Essaouira's climate is akin to coastal Los Angeles, specifically Santa Monica in California.

Essaouira today

Essaouira harbour docks
Essaouira harbour docks
Faience in Essasouira
Faience in Essaouira.

The Medina of Essaouira (formerly "Mogador") is a UNESCO World Heritage listed city, an example of a late 18th-century fortified town, as transferred to North Africa by European colonists.

Xiphias gladius Essawira Morocco

Xiphias gladius, Essaouira

Essaouira, Fish Market

Fishmarket in Essaouira

Essa3

Funfair in Essaouira

Fishermen in Essaouira

Fishermen in Essaouira after a good fishing day

Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)-113160

Clock tower in Essaouira

Book Market Essaouira 2007

Essaouira book market.

Saidi Souiri Essaouira carpet

Saidi-Souiri type Essaouira carpet.

Accommodation

There are only a handful of modern purpose-built hotels within the walls of the old city. Newer international hotels have been built along the sea front – the local planning regulations restrict buildings to 4 storeys high to help preserve the stunning views. There are also many privately owned riads, also known as dars, that may be rented on a daily or weekly basis.

Activities

The medina is home to many small arts and crafts businesses, notably cabinet making and 'thuya' wood-carving (using roots of the Tetraclinis tree), both of which have been practised in Essaouira for centuries.

The fishing harbour, suffering from the competition of Agadir and Safi remains rather small, although the catches (sardines, conger eels) are surprisingly abundant due to the coastal upwelling generated by the powerful trade winds and the Canaries Current. Essaouira remains one of the major fishing harbours of Morocco.

Essaouira is also renowned for its kitesurfing and windsurfing, with the powerful trade wind blowing almost constantly onto the protected, almost waveless, bay. Several world-class clubs rent top-notch material on a weekly basis. The township of Sidi Kaouki is located 25 km south of Essaouira and is becoming one of the best locations in Morocco for surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing.[24] There are several businesses in Sidi Kaouki which offer gear rental.

Essaouira is also a center of argan oil production. It has become a tourist attraction due to the tree-climbing goats who are unique to the region, as argan trees are the only type the goats climb.[25]

Education

Franco-Moroccan school in Derb Dharb street Essaouira
Former Franco-Moroccan school in Derb Dharb street, Essaouira.

There is a French international school in Essaouira, Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly.[26]

Culture

Gnaoua (Gnawa) musicians performing during the 2010 Gnaoua festival in the city of Essaouira, Morocco
Gnaoua (Gnawa) musicians performing during the 2010 Gnaoua World Music Festival in the city of Essaouira, Morocco

Essaouira presents itself as a city full of culture: several small art galleries are found all over the town. Since 1998, the Gnaoua Festival of World Music is held in Essaouira, normally in the last week of June. It brings together artists from all over the world. Although focussed on gnaoua music, it includes rock, jazz and reggae. Dubbed as the "Moroccan Woodstock" it lasts four days and attracts annually around 450,000 spectators.[27]

Sights

  • Medina
  • Fortifications:
    • Sqala du Port
    • Sqala de la Kasbah
  • The most picturesque gates:
    • Port de la Marine
    • Bab Manjana with clocktower
  • Tagart beach (with sand dunes)
  • Notre-Dame-de-l’Assomption church (catholic, operational)
  • Sidi Mogdoul mosque
  • Sidi Mogdoul lighthouse
  • Ben Youssef mosque[28]

International relations

Twin towns—sister cities

Essaouira is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  2. ^ On the formation of diminutive nouns in Moroccan Arabic, see R.S. Harrell, A short reference grammar of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 81.
  3. ^ See T. Fox and M. Abu-Talib, A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1966), p. 148.
  4. ^ The form sūr, with plain /s/, is the only form cited in all dictionaries of Classical Arabic.
  5. ^ Mac Guckin de Slane (ed. and transl.), Description de l'Afrique septentrionale par el-Bekri (Alger 1913), Arabic text p. 86 مرسى امقدول marsá Ameqdūl "the port of Ameqdūl", translation p. 175 Amegdoul (Amegdul), with footnote: "Le tombeau ou chapelle de Sîdi Megdoul est situé tout auprès de Mogador; ce dernier est une altération de Megdoul".
  6. ^ Marokko Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss p.243
  7. ^ City walls: the urban enceinte in global perspective, James D. Tracy, p.352
  8. ^ Notes to The History and Description of Africa and of the Notable Things Therein by Leo Africanus p.338
  9. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 9 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, p.549
  10. ^ France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu by Victor Lucien Tapié p.259
  11. ^ Goldberg, Harvey E. (1996). Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253210410.
  12. ^ a b c The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.521
  13. ^ a b Of Essaouira: "He employed European architects to design it, one a Frenchman said to be his prisoner, and the other an Englishman, converted to Islam and known as Ahmed el-Inglizi— otherwise Ahmed the Englishman." in Morocco, Dorothy Hales Gary, Baron Patrick Balfour Kinross, Viking Press, 1971, p.35
  14. ^ The Sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi World by Daniel J. Schroeter, pp. 17 ff
  15. ^ "Morocco's little idyll of Jewish-Muslim coexistence". The Economist. 2 November 2017.
  16. ^ The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.520 ff
  17. ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroete,r p.125
  18. ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter p.17
  19. ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter, p.121
  20. ^ C.Michael Hogan, Mogador: promontory fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, 2 November 2007 [1]
  21. ^ William Adams Hance, The Geography of Modern Africa, Columbia University Press, 1975 ISBN 0-231-03869-0
  22. ^ "Essaouira Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Klimatafel von Essaouira (Mogador) / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  24. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Sidi Kaouki, Morocco – Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  25. ^ "Essaouira: Home of the Argan Tree, Hardworking Berber Women, and Amusing Goats". Essence of Argan. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  26. ^ "Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly – OSUI." AEFE. Retrieved on 12 May 2016. "25 rue Princesse Lalla Hasna, Quartier des Dunes, 44000 Essaouira"
  27. ^ Gnaoua Festival Press Kit Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Essaouira guide book". Morocco.FalkTime. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  29. ^ "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  30. ^ ""La Rosace du Roi Salomon", nouveau roman de David Bensoussan". Le Mag. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  31. ^ "Le judaïsme marocain est "bien vivant"". Atlas. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2015.

Further reading

  • David Bensoussan & Asher Knafo, "Mariage juif à Mogador" Éditions Du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2004 (ISBN 2-922505-15-4)
  • David Bensoussan, Le fils de Mogador, www.editionsdulys.com,Éditions Du Lys, Montréal, 2002 (ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4)
  • David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Deuxième édition : www.iuniverse.com, ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8, 620p. ebook ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5, Prix Haïm Zafrani de l'Institut universitaire Élie Wiesel, Paris 2012.
  • David Bensoussan, La rosace du roi Salomon, Les Éditions Du Lys,www.editionsdulys.com, 2011, ISBN 978-2-922505-23-8.
  • Hamza Ben Driss Ottmani, Une cité sous les alizés, MOGADOR, Des origines à 1939, Éditions La Porte, Rabat, 1997 ISBN 9981889180
  • Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Consuls et vice-consuls de France à Mogador (Maroc), L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
  • Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Les Inscriptions du cimetière [chrétien] de Mogador (Essaouira, Maroc) – étude épigraphique et généalogique, L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
  • Doris Byer: Essaouira, endlich, Wien 2004, ISBN 978-3-8542-0651-4
  • Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: Still the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5
  • Brigitte Tast, Hans-Jürgen Tast: Orson Welles – Othello – Mogador. Aufenthalte in Essaouira, Kulleraugen Vis.Komm. Nr. 42, Schellerten 2013, ISBN 978-3-88842-042-9

External links

Coordinates: 31°30′47″N 9°46′11″W / 31.51306°N 9.76972°W

Aguerd

Aguerd is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 4917 people living in 990 households.

Ait Daoud

Ait Daoud is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 2,497.

André Azoulay

André Azoulay (Arabic: أندري أزولاي‎, born 17 April 1941) is a senior adviser to king Mohammed VI of Morocco. He previously advised Mohammed's father, king Hassan II. He currently presides over the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue Between Cultures, based in Alexandria, Egypt. He is also President of the Executive Committee of the Foundation for the Three Cultures and the Three Religions, based in Seville, Spain, a founding member of the C-100 Davos Forum for the Dialogue of Civilisations and religions, and was formerly Executive Vice-President of the BNP Paribas, Paris. His daughter is UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay.

El Hanchane

El Hanchane is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to a 2004 census it has a population of 4,698.

Essaouira-Mogador Airport

Essaouira-Mogador Airport (Arabic: مطار الصويرة موكادور‎) (IATA: ESU, ICAO: GMMI) is an international airport serving Essaouira (formerly known as Mogador), a city in the Marrakesh-Safi region in Morocco.

Essaouira Province

Essaouira (Arabic: إقليم الصويرة‎) is a province in the Moroccan region of Marrakesh-Safi. Its population in 2004 was 452,979 [1]

The major cities and towns are: [2]

Ait Daoud

El Hanchane

Essaouira

Ounagha

Smimou

Tafetachte

Talmest

Tamanar

Ezzaouite

Ezzaouite is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 6557 people living in 1081 households.

Lagdadra

Lagdadra is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 6678 people living in 1263 households.

Meskala

Meskala is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 4220 people living in 817 households.

Mogador Island

Mogador Island (Arabic: جزيرة موكادور Jazīra Mūkādūr, French: Ile Mogador) is the main island of the Iles Purpuraires near Essaouira in Morocco. It is about 3 kilometres (2 miles) long and 1.5 kilometres (1 mile) wide, and lies about 1.5 kilometres (1 mile) from Essaouira.

Moulay Bouzarqtoune

Moulay Bouzerktoun is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 5969 people living in 1069 households.

Ounagha

Ounagha is a small town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 912.

Sidi Aissa Regragui

Sidi Aissa Regragui is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 7635 people living in 1303 households.

Smimou

Smimou is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 2,675.

Tafetachte

Tafetachte is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 1,174.

Tahelouante

Tahelouante is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 4552 people living in 778 households.

Talmest

Talmest is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 4,133.

Tamanar

Tamanar is a town in Essaouira Province, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Morocco. According to the 2004 census it has a population of 9,984. People of this town are famed for their hospitality, Most of the foreigners do not have to stay in a hotel because the people put them up

Targante

Targante is a small town and rural commune in Essaouira Province of the Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region of Morocco. At the time of the 2004 census, the commune had a total population of 7870 people living in 1340 households.

Climate data for Essaouira, Morocco (1961–1990, extremes 1941–1992)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95.0)
33.0
(91.4)
38.7
(101.7)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104.0)
39.5
(103.1)
38.5
(101.3)
35.0
(95.0)
31.0
(87.8)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 18.1
(64.6)
18.2
(64.8)
18.7
(65.7)
18.7
(65.7)
19.5
(67.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.3
(70.3)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
21.7
(71.1)
20.3
(68.5)
18.7
(65.7)
20.0
(68.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
15.1
(59.2)
15.8
(60.4)
16.0
(60.8)
17.2
(63.0)
18.6
(65.5)
19.2
(66.6)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
19.0
(66.2)
17.3
(63.1)
15.2
(59.4)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
11.9
(53.4)
12.8
(55.0)
13.4
(56.1)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
17.2
(63.0)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
16.4
(61.5)
14.4
(57.9)
11.8
(53.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
2.0
(35.6)
5.8
(42.4)
7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
11.8
(53.2)
14.0
(57.2)
13.5
(56.3)
12.7
(54.9)
9.0
(48.2)
6.0
(42.8)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.5
(2.03)
37.4
(1.47)
39.5
(1.56)
34.9
(1.37)
8.5
(0.33)
1.6
(0.06)
0.1
(0.00)
1.0
(0.04)
3.1
(0.12)
25.3
(1.00)
72.7
(2.86)
65.0
(2.56)
340.6
(13.41)
Average precipitation days 8.3 7.8 7.9 6.9 3.5 1.0 0.1 0.3 1.2 5.2 8.6 8.4 59.2
Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 81 82 82 84 86 86 84 83 80 81 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 208.5 204.9 247.2 264.0 289.5 290.9 301.6 291.4 251.8 234.1 197.0 197.6 2,978.5
Source #1: NOAA[22]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity)[23]
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