Esperanto-USA (E-USA) is the largest organization for speakers and supporters of Esperanto in the United States. It was founded in 1952 as the Esperanto League for North America (ELNA) in Sacramento, California. Headquartered in Emeryville, California, Esperanto-USA is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization and the U.S. affiliate of the Universal Esperanto Association. Phil Dorcas is President of E-USA, and Ben Speakmon is Vice-President.

Esperanto-USA administers the largest Esperanto-language book service in the Americas. It publishes a bimonthly bulletin Usona Esperantisto. It also publishes reference works about Esperanto. The organization's leadership consists of a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and nine directors; it also has many commissioners responsible for Esperanto-USA's activity in various connections (e.g. audio-visual service; cooperation with libraries; relations with local Esperanto clubs; etc.) Membership is about 650.

The youth section of E-USA is USEJ (Usona Esperantista Junularo).

Esperanto-USA logo
Sacramento, California
FocusInternational language, communication
Area served
United States


During the first half of the 20th century, the chief Esperanto organization for the U.S. was the Esperanto Association of North America (EANA). In the early 1950s, the early days of the Cold War, EANA's president, George Allen Connor, a fierce anti-Communist, had begun his own McCarthyist attacks against leaders of the Esperanto movement in Europe and Asia.

The Universal Esperanto Association (UEA) began debating whether to expel Connor, who also held a position in UEA's leadership, and also to break off relations with EANA, which was UEA's US national association. In protest against EANA, American Esperantists founded the Esperanto League for North America. Three years later, UEA recognized ELNA as its American section, and subsequently severed ties with EANA. By then, most EANA members had gone over to ELNA. EANA was quickly rendered insignificant, and had disappeared by the 1970s.

In 2007, the members of the organization voted to adopt the name Esperanto-USA as an alias, while retaining the formal, official name Esperanto League for North America (Esperanto-Ligo por Norda Ameriko in Esperanto). Among other reasons, the change was made because the organization's scope is limited to the U.S., despite the North America in its original title. E-USA still uses its original acronym, ELNA, but only occasionally.

E-USA has held an annual convention (called a "congress" in accordance with Esperanto movement usage) every year since 1953, usually in the United States but occasionally in Canada or Mexico (meeting jointly with the Canadian Esperanto Association or the Mexican Esperanto Federation, respectively). The 2010 conference of E-USA took place in Bethesda, Maryland. The 2011 conference was in Emeryville, California, the 2012 conference in Dallas, Texas, the 2015 conference in Detroit, Michigan, the 2016 conference in Miami, Florida, and the 2013 and 2017 conferences in Raleigh, North Carolina. The 2018 conference occurred in Seattle, Washington, with the 2019 conference scheduled to occur in Boston, Massachusetts. Notable speakers have included Humphrey Tonkin, Katalin Kovats, and Duncan Charters.[1]


  1. ^ "Landaj Kongresoj / National Conventions". Esperanto-USA. Retrieved 16 November 2017.

External links

American Esperantist

American Esperantist may refer to:

Amerika Esperantisto, defunct 20th century Esperanto periodical

Usona Esperantisto, bi-monthly periodical of Esperanto-USA

Don Harlow

Donald Harlow (July 8, 1942 – January 27, 2008) was an active Esperantist and former president of Esperanto-USA (E-USA, formerly Esperanto League for North America or ELNA), and also former editor of ELNA's magazine Esperanto USA. He authored a self-published book on the Esperanto movement, The Esperanto Book, which is available online. He also created the websites Esperanto Access (Esperanto pages for English speakers) and Literaturo en Esperanto, an extensive index of online Esperanto literature.

In 2007, the annual ELNA translation contest was renamed in his honor the Harlow Prize (or Premio Harlow). It was established to celebrate and promote the translation of American literature into Esperanto.

Eana (disambiguation)

Eana is a genus of moths.

Eana or EANA may also refer to:

European Alliance of News Agencies, federation of news agencies based in Europe

Esperanto Association of North America, former name of Esperanto-USA, an Esperanto language association in the United States

European Astrobiology Network Association, a union of astrobiologists

Kim Eana, South Korean lyricist


Esperanto () is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro ("First Book"), under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes".Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, and to build a community of speakers, as he correctly inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers.His original title for the language was simply the international language (lingvo internacia), but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889; the name quickly gained prominence and has been used as an official name ever since.In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language. Later that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement. One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is exclusively a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can ever be ascribed to it. Zamenhof also proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, which was established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community.

Esperanto grew throughout the 20th century, both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests. In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are also officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro.Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century. The advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become increasingly accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have increasingly networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With approximately two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto officially, Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, and the language is widely employed in world travel, correspondence, cultural exchange, conventions, literature, language instruction, television and radio broadcasting.

While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes officially recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have also chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition.

Esperanto jubilee symbol

The Esperanto jubilee symbol (Esperanto: jubilea simbolo) is a cultural symbol that was created in 1987 to mark the 100th anniversary of Esperanto. Because of its shape, the symbol is sometimes informally called the melon (melono), egg (ovo) or rugby ball (rugbea pilko).

With a Latin E on one side and a Cyrillic Э (for Эсперанто) on the other, it can be interpreted as being inclusive of East and West. At the time, the Cold War was waged between the United States and the Soviet Union, and they represented the largest enemies in the world.

The desire for a more modern-looking symbol for Esperanto arose when many Esperanto speakers felt that the Esperanto flag appeared too sectarian. Nowadays, many people use the Jubilee Symbol to represent the international Esperanto culture as a whole. For example, the Universal Esperanto Association and Esperanto-USA use it as their symbol.

Variations of the symbol involve the addition of a green star, the addition of the text "ESPERANTO", a national or local symbol, or a combination of the three. For example the official logo of the Esperanto Association of Britain includes the green star and the word Esperanto.


Esperantujo (IPA: [esperanˈtujo]) or Esperantio [esperanˈtio] (English: Esperanto-land) is the community of speakers of the Esperanto and their culture, as well the places and institutions where the language is used. The term is used "as if it were a country."Although it does not occupy its own area of Earth's surface, it can be said to constitute the 120 countries which have their own national Esperanto association.

Harry Harrison (writer)

Harry Max Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey; March 12, 1925 – August 15, 2012) was an American science fiction author, known for his character The Stainless Steel Rat and for his novel Make Room! Make Room! (1966). The latter was the rough basis for the motion picture Soylent Green (1973). Harrison was (with Brian Aldiss) the co-president of the Birmingham Science Fiction Group.

Aldiss called him "a constant peer and great family friend". His friend Michael Carroll said, "Imagine Pirates of the Caribbean or Raiders of the Lost Ark, and picture them as science-fiction novels. They're rip-roaring adventures, but they're stories with a lot of heart." Novelist Christopher Priest wrote in an obituary,

Harrison was an extremely popular figure in the SF world, renowned for being amiable, outspoken and endlessly amusing. His quickfire, machine-gun delivery of words was a delight to hear, and a reward to unravel: he was funny and self-aware, he enjoyed reporting the follies of others, he distrusted generals, prime ministers and tax officials with sardonic and cruel wit, and above all he made plain his acute intelligence and astonishing range of moral, ethical and literary sensibilities.

Ivy Kellerman Reed

Ivy Kellerman Reed (Oshkosh [Wisconsin], July 8, 1877 – La Jolla [California], February 7, 1968) was an American author in the international language Esperanto.

An accomplished linguist with four academic degrees for work in Latin,

Greek, Sanskrit, and Persian and half a dozen modern languages, Reed was an ardent Esperantist. Her Practical Grammar of the International Language, first published in 1915, ran to several editions, and is available today online from Project Gutenberg free of charge.

She was the translator with Ralph A. Lewin, of the famous Esperanto edition of Winnie-the-Pooh. She also translated Shakespeare’s As You Like It, the first performance of which was given at the sixth World Esperanto Congress in Washington D.C. in 1910.

She served as editor of American Esperantist.

She was a graduate of The Ohio State University where she was a member of Delta Delta Delta. She earned a Masters degree from Cornell University and a Ph.D. magna cum laude from the University of Chicago. She was also a lawyer. She served as Grand Treasurer of Delta Delta Delta from 1900 to 1902.

Karel Píč

Karel Píč (Esperanto: Karolo Piĉ, December 6, 1920 – August 15, 1995) was a leading Czech Esperantist, a member of the Academy of Esperanto, a poet and writer of short stories, essays, and novels in Esperanto.

List of Esperanto organizations

This is a list of Esperanto organizations.

List of Esperanto periodicals

Esperanto periodicals have been an important element of the Esperanto movement since its beginning because it was one of the only practical ways the language could be used between conferences. The first Esperanto periodical was La Esperantisto, published from 1889 to 1895, and the second was Lingvo Internacia, published from 1895 to 1914. Hundreds of magazines have been published in Esperanto since then. This is an incomplete list.

Michel Duc-Goninaz

Michel Duc Goninaz (6 September 1933 – 26 March 2016) was a French Esperantist known worldwide for his 2002 revision of La Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto (English: Complete Illustrated Esperanto Dictionary).A member of the World Esperanto Youth Organization (TEJO) during the 1950s, he served as co-editor of La Folieto, distributed mainly among young Esperantists of Île-de-France. In 1956 he married Arlette Lecourtois. He played a role in the 1964 Esperanto-language feature film Angoroj.

Notably, he compiled Vocabulaire Espéranto (Laŭtema esperanta franca vortareto), a thematic French-Esperanto dictionary published by Ophrys in 1971 (2nd edition, 1990), and he adapted Alexander Pushkin's play The Stone Guest into Esperanto as La Ŝtona Gasto. He also translated The Stranger by Albert Camus and Dream Story by Arthur Schnitzler into Esperanto.

For many years he was a lecturer in Russian and Esperanto at the University of Provence (Aix-Marseille). Duc Goninaz is now a lecturer at the International Academy of Sciences in San Marino and is a regular contributing editor to the Esperanto-language monthly magazine Monato.

In 2002, he and Claude Roux updated and revised La Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto, a monolingual reference dictionary of Esperanto by Gaston Waringhien that had originally been published in 1976. In 2002 the journal La Ondo de Esperanto named Duc Goninaz as Esperantist of the Year in recognition of his work as chief editor for the dictionary revision. Another revised edition (2005) corrected numerous typographical errors, many of which had been noted by Esperanto grammarian and lexicographer Bertilo Wennergren.

Montagu C. Butler

Montagu Christie Butler, (b. 25 January 1884 in London, d. 5 May 1970) was a British academic, librarian, lexicographer, musician, and Esperantist. A winner of several prizes at the Royal Academy of Music in London, he was a harpist and a versatile music teacher skilled in playing various musical instruments, as well as a teacher of voice and of musical composition.

He was a Quaker and a vegetarian who first became an Esperantist in 1905. From that time Butler taught Esperanto to students.

From 1922 Butler was a member of the "Language Committee" (Lingva Komitato), the group tasked with preserving the fundamental principles of the Esperanto language and guiding its evolution. From 1916 to 1934 he served as secretary of the Esperanto Association of Britain (Brita Esperanto-Asocio, BEA), and was from 1961 its honorary president. He was later elected a member of the international Academy of Esperanto, where he served from 1948 till his death in 1970.

Outline of Esperanto

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Esperanto:

Esperanto is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist, created Esperanto in the late 19th century and published the first book detailing it, Unua Libro, in 1887 under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto, Esperanto translating as "one who hopes".

Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko

Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko (PMEG, English: Complete Manual of Esperanto Grammar) is a book which explains Esperanto grammar in an easy-to-learn format. It was mostly written by Bertilo Wennergren and is for ordinary Esperanto speakers who want to study Esperanto's grammar, word construction, writing and pronunciation.It does not use traditional grammatical terminology, which makes it easier to understand than traditional grammar textbooks. Examples of the terms used are "O-vorto" (O-word) instead of "substantivo" (noun, substantive) and "rolvorteto" (little role word) instead of "prepozicio" (preposition). These new grammatical terms are also more suitable to describe Esperanto than traditional terms. For example, using traditional terminology, the words "tiu" (that one), "ambaŭ" (both) and "ties" (that one's) would be adjectives, but they behave very differently than the adjectives ending in "a"; the word "A-vorto" (A-word) groups words that behave similarly together.PMEG is mainly a practical guide and not really a theoretical work for linguists, unlike the Plena Analiza Gramatiko (Complete Analytical Grammar), which was regarded as "the largest research project into Esperanto's grammar" until PMEG's publication.Since 1995 it has existed on the Internet. In 2006, the printed version, published by Esperanto-USA, became available for purchase, as well.

Only Wennergren is responsible for PMEG's contents, but many other people helped with the making of this book.

Usona Esperantisto

Usona Esperantisto (English: American Esperantist) is the bi-monthly publication of Esperanto-USA, the organization for Esperanto speakers in the United States. Most of the content is in Esperanto, with the remainder in English. Topics include discussions of Esperanto culture, book reviews, short stories, and games.First appearing in the 1960s, the magazine has changed names several times, from North American Esperanto Review to ELNA Newsletter to Esperanto USA. The name Usona Esperantisto was adopted in 2008. In 2012 the magazine became a web publication. The website features both current articles as well as a growing archive of back-issues.

Zamenhof Day

Zamenhof Day (Esperanto: Zamenhofa Tago), also called Esperanto Book Day, is celebrated on 15 December, the birthday of Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof. It is the most widely celebrated day in Esperanto culture. On this day, Esperantists hold information sessions and cultural gatherings to promote literature in Esperanto.The history of celebrating Esperanto on Zamenhof's birthday can be traced back to 17 December 1878, when at a birthday party for his 19th birthday he presented to his friends his Lingwe uniwersala, the first version of his international language. By 1887, this language had evolved into what is now recognized as Esperanto when he published the Unua Libro. 15 December previously used to be also known as Esperanto Day, but that is now celebrated on 26 July, the day Unua Libro was published.

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