Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Notable adherents

Savitri Devi

French-born Greek-English writer Savitri Devi was the first major post-war exponent of what has since become known as Esoteric Hitlerism.[1] According to that ideology, subsequent to the fall of the Third Reich and Hitler's suicide at the end of the war, Hitler himself could be deified. Devi connected Hitler's Aryanist ideology to that of the pan-Hindu part of the Indian independence movement,[2] and activists such as Subhas Chandra Bose. For her, the swastika was an especially important symbol, as she felt it symbolized Aryan unity of Hindus and Germans.

Savitri Devi, above all, was interested in the Indian caste system, which she regarded as the archetype of racial laws intended to govern the segregation of different races and to maintain the pure blood of the fair-complexioned Aryans. She regarded the survival of the light-skinned minority of Brahmins among an enormous population of many different Indian races after sixty centuries as a living tribute to the value of the Aryan caste system (Goodrick-Clarke, Black Sun, p. 92).

Savitri Devi integrated Nazism into a broader cyclical framework of Hindu history. She considered Hitler to be the ninth Avatar of Vishnu, and called him "the god-like Individual of our times; the Man against Time; the greatest European of all times",[3] having an ideal vision of returning his Aryan people to an earlier, more perfect time, and also having the practical wherewithal to fight the destructive forces "in Time". She saw his defeat—and the forestalling of his vision from coming to fruition—as a result of him being "too magnanimous, too trusting, too good", of not being merciless enough, of having in his "psychological make-up, too much 'sun' [beneficence] and not enough 'lightning.' [practical ruthlessness]",[4] unlike his coming incarnation:

"Kalki" will act with unprecedented ruthlessness. Contrarily to Adolf Hitler, He will spare not a single one of the enemies of the divine Cause: not a single one of its outspoken opponents but also not a single one of the lukewarm, of the opportunists, of the ideologically heretical, of the racially bastardised, of the unhealthy, of the hesitating, of the all-too-human; not a single one of those who, in body or in character or mind, bear the stamp of the fallen Ages.[5]

Robert Charroux

Unlike most ancient astronaut writers, Robert Charroux took a large interest in racialism. According to Charroux Hyperborea was situated between Iceland and Greenland and was the home of a Nordic white race with blonde hair and blue eyes. Charroux claimed that this race was extraterrestrial in origin and had originally come from a cold planet situated far from the sun.[6] Charroux also claimed that the white race of the Hyperboreans and their ancestors, the Celts, had dominated the whole world in the ancient past. Some of these claims of Charroux have influenced the beliefs of Esoteric Nazism such as the work of Miguel Serrano.[7][8]

Miguel Serrano

The next major figure in Esoteric Hitlerism is Miguel Serrano, a former Chilean diplomat. Author of numerous books including The Golden Ribbon: Esoteric Hitlerism (1978) and Adolf Hitler, the Last Avatar (1984), Serrano is one of a number of Nazi esotericists who regard the "Aryan blood" as originally extraterrestrial:

Serrano finds mythological evidence for the extraterrestrial origins of man in the Nephilim [fallen angels] of the Book of Genesis... Serrano suggests that the sudden appearance of Cro-Magnon Man with his high artistic and cultural achievements in prehistoric Europe records the passage of one such divya-descended race alongside the abysmal inferiority of Neanderthal Man, an abomination and manifest creation of the demiurge... Of all the races on earth, the Aryans alone preserve the memory of their divine ancestors in their noble blood, which is still mingled with the light of the Black Sun. All other races are the progeny of the demiurge's beast-men, native to the planet.[9]

Serrano supports this idea from various myths which assign divine ancestry to 'Aryan' peoples, and even the Aztec myth of Quetzalcoatl descending from Venus. He also cites the hypothesis of Bal Gangadhar Tilak on the Arctic homeland of the Indo-Aryans, as his authority for identifying the earthly centre of the Aryan migrations with the 'lost' Arctic continent of Hyperborea. Thus, Serrano's extraterrestrial gods are also identified as Hyperboreans.[10]

In attempting to raise the spiritual development of the earthbound races, the Hyperborean divyas (a Sanskrit term for god-men) suffered a tragic setback. Expanding on a story from the Book of Enoch, Serrano laments that a renegade group among the gods committed miscegenation with the terrestrial races, thus diluting the light-bearing blood of their benefactors and diminishing the level of divine awareness on the planet.[11]

The concept of Hyperborea has a simultaneously racial and mystical meaning for Serrano.[12] He believes that Hitler was in Shambhala, an underground centre in Antarctica (formerly at the North Pole and Tibet), where he was in contact with the Hyperborean gods and whence he would someday emerge with a fleet of UFOs to lead the forces of light (the Hyperboreans, sometimes associated with Vril) over the forces of darkness (inevitably including, for Serrano, the Jews who follow Jehovah) in a last battle and thus inaugurating a Fourth Reich.

Black Sun 2
The "Black Sun" emblem, representing the celestial homeland of the Hyperboreans and the invisible source of their energy, according to Serrano. Serrano, however, has not identified the Black Sun with the above ornament in the Wewelsburg. (According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke[13])

Serrano follows the Gnostic tradition of the Cathars (fl. 1025–1244) by identifying the evil demiurge as Jehovah, the God of the Old Testament. As medieval dualists, these eleventh-century heretics had repudiated Jehovah as a false god and mere artificer opposed to the real God far beyond our earthly realm. This Gnostic doctrine clearly carried dangerous implications for the Jews. As Jehovah was the tribal deity of the Jews, it followed that they were devil worshipers. By casting the Jews in the role of the children of Satan, the Cathar heresy can elevate anti-Semitism to the status of a theological doctrine backed by a vast cosmology. If the Hyperborean Aryans are the archetype and blood descendents of Serrano's divyas from the Black Sun, then the archetype of the Lord of Darkness needed a counter-race. The demiurge sought and found the most fitting agent for its archetype in the Jews.

As religious scholars Frederick C. Grant and Hyam Maccoby emphasize, in the view of the dualist Gnostics, "Jews were regarded as the special people of the Demiurge and as having the special historical role of obstructing the redemptive work of the High God's emissaries".[14] Serrano thus considered Hitler as one of the greatest emissaries of this High God, rejected and crucified by the tyranny of the Judaicized rabble like previous revolutionary light-bringers. Serrano had a special place in his ideology for the SS, who, in their quest to recreate the ancient race of Aryan god-men, he thought were above morality and therefore justified, after the example of the anti-humanitarian "detached violence" taught in the Aryo-Hindu tradition.

David Myatt

In the 1980s and 1990s David Myatt developed an interpretation, or revisionist version, [15] of National Socialism which although based on Savitri Devi's three principles of "above", "against", and "in time" individuals [16] did not involve either ancient mythology or extraterrestrial beings.

Instead Myatt, described as "most commonly associated with the occult wing of the National Socialist movement, [17] focused - in pamphlets such as The Meaning Of National Socialism [18], The Enlightenment of National Socialism [19] and his The Religion Of National Socialism [20][21] on what he described as "the numinous" aspects of National Socialism with Jeffrey Kaplan writing that Myatt described National Socialism as "unambiguously a religion while Adolf Hitler is treated unashamedly as the saviour of mankind." [17]

Collective Aryan unconscious

In the book Black Sun, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke reports how Carl Gustav Jung described "Hitler as possessed by the archetype of the collective Aryan unconscious and could not help obeying the commands of an inner voice". In a series of interviews between 1936 and 1939, Jung characterized Hitler as an archetype, often manifesting itself to the complete exclusion of his own personality. "'Hitler is a spiritual vessel, a demi-divinity; even better, a myth. Benito Mussolini is a man' ... the messiah of Germany who teaches the virtue of the sword. 'The voice he hears is that of the collective unconscious of his race'".[22]

Jung's suggestion that Hitler personified the collective Aryan unconscious deeply interested and influenced Miguel Serrano, who later concluded that Jung was merely psychologizing the ancient, sacred mystery of archetypal possession by the gods, independent metaphysical powers that rule over their respective races and occasionally possess their members.[23] A similar esoteric thesis is also put forward by Michael Moynihan in his book Lords of Chaos.

Conspiracy theories and pseudoscience

The writings of Miguel Serrano, Savitri Devi, and other proponents of Esoteric Nazism have spawned numerous later works connecting Aryan master race beliefs and Nazi escape scenarios with enduring conspiracy theories about hollow earth civilizations and shadowy new world orders. Since 1945, neo-Nazi writers have also proposed Shambhala and the star Aldebaran as the original homeland of the Aryans. The book Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival, by Hypnerotomachia Poliphili scholar Joscelyn Godwin, discusses pseudoscientific theories about surviving Nazi elements in Antarctica. Arktos is noted for its scholarly approach and examination of many sources currently unavailable elsewhere in English-language translations. Godwin and other authors such as Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke have discussed the connections between Esoteric Nazism and Vril energy, the hidden Shambhala and Agartha civilizations, and underground UFO bases, as well as Hitler's and the SS's supposed survival in underground Antarctic oases in New Swabia or in alliance with Hyperboreans from the subterranean world.[24]

Relationship to neopaganism

Organisations such as the Armanen-Orden represent significant developments of neo-pagan esotericism and Ariosophy after World War II, but they do not all constitute forms of Nazi esotericism. Some northern European neopagan groups, such as Theods, Ásatrúarfélagið and Viðartrúar, have explicitly stated that neo-Nazism is not common among their members. On the other hand, there are neopagan organisations with close ties to neo-Nazism, such as the Artgemeinschaft or the Heathen Front, and the attraction of many neo-Nazis to Germanic paganism remains an issue particularly in Germany (see Nornirs Ætt).

Neo-völkisch movements

There is a contemporary loose network of small musical groups that combine neo-fascism and satanism. These groups can be found in Britain, France, and New Zealand, under names such as "Black Order" or "Infernal Alliance", and draw their inspiration from the Esoteric Hitlerism of Miguel Serrano.[25] These groups advocate the anti-modern neo-tribalism and "Traditionalism" found in the "pagan" mysticist ideals of Alain de Benoist's Nouvelle Droite inspired by Julius Evola.

Esoteric themes, including references to artifacts such as the Holy Lance, are also often alluded to in neo-Nazi music (e.g. Rock Against Communism) and above all in National Socialist black metal.[26]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See her "Hitlerian Esotericism and the Tradition".
  2. ^ See her "Hitlerism and Hindudom", originally published as "Hitlerism and the Hindu World" in The National Socialist, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 18–20.
  3. ^ From the dedication to her book, The Lightning and the Sun.
  4. ^ The Lightning and the Sun, unabridged edition, p. 53 (http://www.savitridevi.org/lightning-03.html).
  5. ^ The Lightning and the Sun, unabridged edition, p. 430 (http://www.savitridevi.org/lightning-16.html).
  6. ^ Robbert Charroux, The Mysterious Past, Futura Publications Ltd., 1974 pp. 29–30
  7. ^ Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, 2003 pp. 117–118
  8. ^ Atlantis and the Cycles of Time: Prophecies, Traditions, and Occult Revelations, Joscelyn Godwin, 2010, pp. 55–57
  9. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003: 181.
  10. ^ Serrano finds supporting evidence in, for example, the Irish legends (recorded in the Book of Invasions) which tell of divine ancestors, Tuatha Dé Danann, arriving from the northern islands; and the Greek tradition according to which Apollo returned every 19 years to Hyperborea in the far north in order to rejuvenate his body and wisdom (Goodrick-Clarke, 2003).
  11. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, 2003
  12. ^ Jeffrey, Jason. Hyperborea & the Quest for Mystical Enlightenment, published in New Dawn No. 58 (January–February 2000). Online: [1]
  13. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003: 182.
  14. ^ Collier's Encyclopedia Vol. 11, 1997: 166.
  15. ^ Searchlight, July 2000.
  16. ^ Savitri Devi, The Lightning and the Sun, 1958.
  17. ^ a b Jeffrey Kaplan (editor). Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000. p.216.
  18. ^ https://archive.org/stream/LibertyBell_201708/LB-199809
  19. ^ https://archive.org/stream/LibertyBell_201708/LB-199711
  20. ^ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity, NYU Press, 2003. p. 343.
  21. ^ https://archive.org/details/myatt-selected-ns-writings1
  22. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 178
  23. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 179
  24. ^ Godwin 1996, ch. 5–6, 10; Goodrick-Clarke 2002, especially ch. 6–9.
  25. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 106, 213–231.
  26. ^ Neo-Nazi Hate Music: A Guide Archived 2007-06-07 at the Wayback Machine

References

  • Joscelyn Godwin. 1996. Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival. Kempton, Ill.: Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 0-932813-35-6.
  • Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. 2002. Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3124-4. (Paperback, 2003. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4)
  • Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. 1998. Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth and Neo-Nazism. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3110-4.
  • Carrie B. Dohe. Jung's Wandering Archetype: Race and Religion in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge, 2016. ISBN 978-1138888401
  • Julian Strube. 2012. Die Erfindung des esoterischen Nationalsozialismus im Zeichen der Schwarzen Sonne. In: Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft. vol. 20/2 ISSN 0943-8610, pp. 223–268, doi:10.1515/zfr-2012-0009.
Black Sun (Goodrick-Clarke book)

Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity is a book by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke. It examines neo-Nazism as a new religious movement.

It was published by New York University Press in 2002 (ISBN 0-8147-3124-4) and reissued in paperback (ISBN 0-8147-3155-4).

British Movement

The British Movement (BM), later called the British National Socialist Movement (BNSM), is a British Neo-Nazi organisation founded by Colin Jordan in 1968. It grew out of the National Socialist Movement (NSM), which was founded in 1962. Frequently on the margins of the British far-right, the BM has had a long and chequered history for its association with violence and extremism. It was founded as a political party but manifested itself more as a pressure and activist group. It has had spells of dormancy.

David Myatt

David Wulstan Myatt (born 1950), formerly known as Abdul-Aziz ibn Myatt and Abdul al-Qari, is a Tanganyika-born British author, poet and philosopher, the founder of The Numinous Way, a former British Muslim, and a former neo-Nazi.

The counterterrorism author Jon B. Perdue describes Myatt as "[a] British iconoclast who has lived a somewhat itinerant life and has undertaken an equally desultory intellectual quest” and is "emblematic of the modern syncretism of radical ideologies".Myatt is regarded as an "example of the axis between right-wing extremists and Islamists", and has been described as an "extremely violent, intelligent, dark, and complex individual"; as a martial arts expert; as one of the more interesting figures on the British neo-Nazi scene since the 1970s, and as a key Al-Qaeda propagandist. Before his conversion to Islam in 1998, Myatt was the first leader of the British National Socialist Movement (NSM), and was identified by the British newspaper The Observer, as the "ideological heavyweight" behind Combat 18.Myatt came to public attention in 1999, a year after his Islamic conversion, when a pamphlet he allegedly wrote many years earlier, A Practical Guide to Aryan Revolution, described as a "detailed step-by-step guide for terrorist insurrection", was said to have inspired David Copeland, who left nailbombs in areas frequented by London's black, South Asian, and gay communities. Three people died and 129 were injured in the explosions, several of them losing limbs. It has also been suggested that Myatt's A Practical Guide to Aryan Revolution might have influenced the German National Socialist Underground.Since 2010, Myatt has written extensively about his rejection of his extremist past and about his rejection of extremism in general.

Myatt has translated works of ancient Greek literature, translated and written a commentary on the Greek text of eight tractates of the Corpus Hermeticum, and written several collections of poems. He is currently translating and writing a commentary on the Greek text of the Gospel of John.

Derek Holland (activist)

Derek Holland is a figure on the European far-right noted for his Catholic Integralism.Holland was brought up in Huntingdon and was already trying to recruit new members to the National Front while a student at Cambridgeshire College of Art and Technology. He then went to Leicester Polytechnic to study history and to bolster support for the already-established Young National Front Student Organisation. In the May 1979 general election, he contested Cambridge for the NF, receiving 311 votes (0.6%). After his studies Holland became closely associated with the Political Soldier wing of the party. One of the party's main writers in a time when their ideology was shifting, he contributed regularly not only to the party journal Nationalism Today, but was also co-editor of Rising, a radical nationalist journal that was independent of the NF and drew heavily from Julius Evola and Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. Holland became one of the leading lights on the Political Soldier wing of the party when his pamphlet The Political Soldier was published in 1984. Along with Nick Griffin and Patrick Harrington he became effective joint leader of the Official National Front following the resignation of Andrew Brons from overall leadership in 1984. In 1988 the three travelled to Libya on a fund-raising trip as an official representatives of the NF, although in the end they were given only copies of The Green Book.In 1989, Holland broke with Patrick Harrington and joined Michael Fishwick in following Nick Griffin and Roberto Fiore into the International Third Position (ITP) after Harrington had contacted The Jewish Chronicle with regards to opening dialogue. Holland injected his sympathies for anti-Zionist groups, as part of his nationalist philosophy, into the ITP. He supported the ideas of Muammar Gaddafi and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who had previously featured on a cover of National Front News.

Holland's last public appearance was at a Swedish nationalist convention in 2002, during this time Holland lived in the Irish Midlands where he sought grants from the local Community Enterprise Board for his involvement in the proposed publishing of the "IHS Books however when he sought to use a different address to his home address he was not seen for some time after that, his present whereabouts is unknown following his past involvement with Nick Griffin coming to light.

, (hosted by Nationaldemokratisk Ungdom, the youth wing of the National Democrats). Since that time the ITP appears to have gravitated towards the European National Front, and Holland has retired from active involvement in politics, although his Political Soldier writings are still circulated among radical nationalists. In 2001 Holland co-founded with John Sharp IHS Books, a publisher whose stated purpose was to bring back into print classics of Catholic social teaching but which has been accused of fascist and anti-semitic connections.Holland has received considerable treatment in works on European extremist nationalism, including Fascism: A History by Roger Eatwell (1997) and Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2002). Holland’s writings on the Political Soldier are also featured in Fascism: A Reader published by Oxford University Press (1995).

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

Faith and Beauty Society

The BDM-Werk Glaube und Schönheit (German for BDM Faith and Beauty Society) was founded in 1938 to serve as a tie-in between the work of the League of German Girls (BDM) and that of the National Socialist Women's League. Membership was voluntary and open to girls aged 17 to 21.

Fourth Reich

The Fourth Reich (German: Viertes Reich) is a hypothetical future German Reich that is the successor to the Third Reich (1933–1945).

Hirden

Hirden (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.

James H. Madole

James Hartung Madole (July 7, 1927 – May 6, 1979) was a prominent fascist and leader of the National Renaissance Party in the United States. He is now recognized as a pivotal figure in the development of post-war occult-fascism.

Kerry Bolton

Kerry Raymond Bolton (born 1956) is a writer and political activist. He is involved in several nationalist and fascist political groups in New Zealand.

Landig Group

The Landig Group was an occultist and neo-völkisch group formed in 1950, that first gathered for discussions at the studio of the designer Wilhelm Landig in Vienna's 4th district of Wieden, in Austria. The circle's most prominent and influential members were Wilhelm Landig (1909–1997), Erich Halik (Claude Schweighardt) and Rudolf J. Mund (1920–1985). The circle has also been referred to as the Landig Circle, Vienna Group and Vienna Lodge.

Liechtenstein Homeland Service

Liechtenstein Homeland Service (German: Liechtensteiner Heimatdienst, LHD) was a political party in Liechtenstein that advocated corporate statism and the abolition of party politics.Established in the autumn of 1933, the party's positions began to radicalize and move toward National Socialist ideas within a few months of existence. By December 1933, this radicalization caused some members (such as co-founder Eugen Schafhauser) to abandon the party.LHD merged with the Christian-Social People's Party (VP) in 1936 to form the Patriotic Union (VU).

National Renaissance Party (United States)

The National Renaissance Party (NRP) was an American neo-fascist group founded in 1949 by James Hartung Madole. It was frequently in the headlines during the 1960s and 1970s for its involvement in violent protests and riots in New York City. After Madole's death in 1979 the party faded and had completely disappeared by 1981.

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom)

This article is about the current British group - for information about the earlier British group, see National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962). For other groups with this name, see National Socialist Movement.The National Socialist Movement (NSM) was a British neo-Nazi group active during the late 1990s. The group is not connected to the earlier National Socialist Movement of Colin Jordan.

Neo-völkisch movements

Neo-völkisch movements, as defined by the historian, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged especially in the English-speaking world since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th- and early 20th-century Germany in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism and multiculturalism. Some identify as neo-fascist, alt-right, neo-Nazi, or Third Positionist while others are politicised around some form of white ethnic nationalism or identity politics and may show neo-tribalist paganism tendencies such as the one promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship. Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes so that neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements.

Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right and Evolian traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity, pantheism and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity Movement, Cosmotheism and Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism and National Socialist black metal). According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, only pagan-type groups are recognized as neo-völkisch, excluding Christian Identity.

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (15 January 1953 – 29 August 2012) was a British historian and professor of Western Esotericism at University of Exeter, best known for his authorship of several scholarly books on inter-war German history, and esoteric traditions.

Occultism and the far right

Topics of occultism or Modern Paganism and the far right:

Ariosophy (pre-World War II Germanic mysticism)

Irminenschaft

Fascist mysticism

Nazism and occultism (1919s–1930s)

Neo-völkisch movements (1950s to present)

Esoteric Nazism (1950s–1980s)

Traditionalist School

National Socialist black metal

Savitri Devi

Savitri Devi Mukherji (30 September 1905 – 22 October 1982) was the pseudonym of the Greek-French-Italian writer Maximiani Portas (pronounced [mak.si.mja.ni pɔʁ.tɑ]; also spelled Maximine Portaz), a prominent proponent of deep ecology and Nazism, who served the Axis powers by committing espionage on the forces of the Allies of World War II in India. She wrote about animal rights movements and was a leading member of the Nazi underground during the 1960s.Devi authored the animal rights manifesto The Impeachment of Man in 1959 and was a proponent of Hinduism and Nazism, synthesizing the two, proclaiming Adolf Hitler to have been sent by Providence, much like an avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. She believed Hitler was a sacrifice for humanity which would lead to the end of the Kali Yuga induced by those who she felt were the powers of evil: the Jews. Her writings have influenced neo-Nazism and Nazi occultism. Among Savitri Devi's ideas was the classifications of "men above time", "men in time", and "men against time". Rejecting Judeo-Christianity, she believed in a form of pantheistic monism; a single cosmos of nature composed of divine energy-matter.She is credited with pioneering neo-Nazi interest in occultism, deep ecology, and the New Age movement, and more contemporaneously has influenced the alt-right. She also influenced the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano. In 1982, Franco Freda published a German translation of her work Gold in the Furnace, and the fourth volume of his annual review, Risguardo (1980–), was devoted to Savitri Devi as the "missionary of Aryan Paganism".Savitri was an associate in the post-war years of Françoise Dior, Otto Skorzeny, Johannes von Leers, and Hans-Ulrich Rudel. She was also one of the founding members of the World Union of National Socialists.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

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