Escort destroyer

An escort destroyer with United States Navy hull classification symbol DDE was a destroyer (DD) modified for and assigned to a fleet escort role after World War II. These destroyers retained their original hull numbers. Later, in March 1950, the post World War II ASW destroyer (DDK) classification was merged with the DDE classification, resulting in all DDK ships being reclassified as DDE, but again retaining their original hull numbers. On 30 June 1962, the DDE classification was retired, and all DDEs were reclassified as destroyers (DD).[1] Escort destroyers should not be confused with the cheaper, slower, less capable, and more lightly armed World War II destroyer escorts.

USS Bache (DD-470) underway at sea, in the 1960s
USS Bache following DDE conversion with Weapon Alpha replacing mount 52.

Concept

Following the outbreak of World War II, the Royal Navy had inadequate numbers of warships suitable for escort of trade convoys. While more modern destroyers were assigned to screen capital ships, destroyers built during World War I were modified to serve as trade convoy escorts. Four V and W-class destroyers were re-armed with modern anti-aircraft and anti-submarine weapons. Additional V & W destroyers received simpler modifications as shipyard resources became taxed by other wartime needs. The quarterdeck gun was removed to increase depth charge storage, and the after bank of torpedo tubes was replaced by a 3-inch (76 mm) anti-aircraft gun for escort of convoys in European coastal waters. Destroyers escorting trans-Atlantic convoys also replaced the forecastle gun with hedgehog, removed all torpedo tubes to improve seaworthiness, and replaced one boiler with additional fuel storage to increase range. Similar modifications were made to former United States destroyers obtained through the Destroyers for Bases Agreement.[2] Anticipating a possible need to defend convoys supplying NATO allies, the United States Navy modified older destroyers during the Cold War. In the absence of hostilities requiring escort of merchant shipping, escort destroyers operated with anti-submarine warfare carrier (CVS) hunter-killer groups. Operational doctrine anticipated each CVS would be accompanied by eight DDEs. Four DDEs would provide a close screen for the CVS while the other four attacked submarines detected by aircraft.[3]

Gearing class

Gearing class conversions were modified by replacing the B position 5"/38 caliber guns (mount 52) with either RUR-4 Weapon Alpha or hedgehog. A second Weapon Alpha was sometimes installed at the aft end of the 01 level above the aft 5"/38 gun mount.[4]

Fletcher class

Fletcher class conversions removed all torpedo tubes and three 5"/38 caliber gun mounts to retain only the main deck mounts fore and aft. A Weapon Alpha replaced the B position gun mount.[5]

Similar modifications were made by the Royal Navy, usually to older, World War I era vessels, to fit them for specific tasks such as convoy work.

See also

References

  1. ^ Derdall, Guy; DiGiulian, Tony. "USN Ship Designations". NavWeaps. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  2. ^ Lenton, H.T.; Colledge, J.J. (1968). British and Dominion Warships of World War II. New York: Doubleday and Company. pp. 79&80.
  3. ^ Friedman, Norman (1983). U.S. Aircraft Carriers. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 336–345. ISBN 0-87021-739-9.
  4. ^ Warship Identification Manual. United States Government Publishing Office. 1955. p. 32.
  5. ^ Warship Identification Manual. United States Government Publishing Office. 1955. p. 35.
Amenities ship

An amenities ship is a ship outfitted with recreational facilities as part of a mobile naval base. Amenities ships included movie theaters and canteens staffed by mercantile crews of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary service. These ships were intended to provide a place where British Pacific Fleet personnel could relax between operations.

Convoy PQ 15

Convoy PQ 15 was an Arctic convoy sent from Iceland by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during World War II. It sailed in late April 1942, reaching the Soviet northern ports after air attacks that sank three ships. Twenty-two ships arrived safely.

Escort destroyer (disambiguation)

Escort destroyer (DDE) is a US Navy post World War II classification for destroyers (DD) modified for and assigned to escort fleets.

Escort destroyer may also refer to:

Hunt-class destroyer, a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy designed to escort convoys

River-class destroyer escort, a class of escort destroyers operated by the Royal Australian Navy

V and W-class destroyer, a grouping of similar classes of Royal Navy First World War destroyers used for convoy escort in the Second World War

F-class escort ship, a class of fleet escorts used by the Kriegsmarine during the Second World War

Matsu-class destroyer escort destroyers built by the Imperial Japanese Navy not intended to work with the fleet

Tachibana-class destroyer escort destroyers built by the Imperial Japanese Navy not intended to work with the fleet

General stores issue ship

General stores issue ship is a type of ship used by the United States Navy during World War II and for some time afterwards.

The task of the general stores issue ship was to sail into non-combat, or rear, areas and disburse general stores, such as canned goods, toilet paper, office supplies, etc., to ships and stations.

Guard ship

A guard ship is a warship assigned as a stationary guard in a port or harbour, as opposed to a coastal patrol boat which serves its protective role at sea.

HMS Avon Vale (L06)

HMS Avon Vale (pennant number L06) was an escort destroyer of the Hunt Type II class. The Royal Navy ordered Avon Vale's construction three months after the outbreak of the Second World War. John Brown Shipbuilding & Engineering Company Ltd laid down her keel at their Clydebank yard on 12 February 1940, as Admiralty Job Number J1569. After a successful Warship Week national savings campaign in February 1942, Avon Vale was adopted by the civil community of Trowbridge, Wiltshire.

HMS Bicester (L34)

HMS Bicester (pennant number L34) was an escort destroyer of the Type II Hunt class. The Royal Navy ordered Bicester's construction three months after the outbreak of the Second World War. Hawthorn Leslie & Co. laid down her keel at their Tyne yard on 29 May 1940, as Admiralty Job Number J4210. The ship was named after a fox hunt in Oxfordshire.

HMS Blackmore (L43)

HMS Blackmore (pennant number L43) was an escort destroyer of the Type II Hunt class. The Royal Navy ordered Blackmore's construction three months after the outbreak of the Second World War. A. Stephen & Sons laid down her keel at their Glasgow yard on 10 February 1941, as Admiralty Job Number J1479. The ship was adopted by the civil community of Langport, Somerset after a successful Warship Week campaign. The ship was sold to the Royal Danish Navy and renamed HDMS Esbern Snare.

HMS Harvester (H19)

HMS Harvester was an H-class destroyer originally ordered by the Brazilian Navy with the name Jurua in the late 1930s, but bought by the Royal Navy after the beginning of World War II in September 1939. Almost immediately after being commissioned, in May 1940, the ship began evacuating Allied troops from Dunkirk and other locations in France. Afterwards she was assigned to the Western Approaches Command for convoy escort duties. Harvester and another destroyer sank a German submarine in October. She was briefly assigned to Force H in May 1941, but her anti-aircraft armament was deemed too weak and she was transferred to the Newfoundland Escort Force in June 1941 for escort duties in the North Atlantic. The ship was returned to the Western Approaches Command in October 1941 and was converted to an escort destroyer in early 1942. Harvester was torpedoed and sunk in March 1943 by a German submarine after having rammed and sunk another submarine the previous day while escorting Convoy HX 228.

HMS Hursley (L84)

HMS Hursley was a Second World War Type II Hunt-class escort destroyer of the British Royal Navy. She is the only Royal Navy ship to have carried this name. Hursley is a village in Hampshire. Commissioned in 1942, she served in the Mediterranean, before being transferred to the Hellenic Navy in November 1943 and renamed Kriti. She took part in the landings in Sicily, Anzio, and southern France, and remained in Greek service until 1959.

HMS Hurworth (L28)

HMS Hurworth was a Second World War Type II Hunt-class escort destroyer of the British Royal Navy. She spent most of her career in the Mediterranean. She was lost to a mine in the Aegean Sea in 1943.

HMS Limbourne (L57)

HMS Limbourne (L57) was a Hunt-class escort destroyer, operated by the Royal Navy.

She was sunk in action, off German occupied Guernsey, on October 23, 1943.

HMS Talybont (L18)

HMS Talybont was a Type III Hunt-class escort destroyer who served in the Royal Navy. She was launched in February 1943 and completed in May that year, serving for the rest of the Second World War. She took part in the Normandy Landings in June 1944, supporting the landings at Omaha Beach and the Pointe du Hoc. Post war she served in the Mediterranean before being reduced to reserve at the end of 1947. She was sold for scrap in 1961, with disposal completed by 1962.

Hunt-class destroyer

The Hunt class was a class of escort destroyer of the Royal Navy. The first vessels were ordered early in 1939, and the class saw extensive service in the Second World War, particularly on the British east coast and Mediterranean convoys. They were named after British fox hunts. The modern Hunt-class GRP hulled mine countermeasure vessels maintain the Hunt names lineage in the Royal Navy.

Mine countermeasures vessel

A mine countermeasures vessel or MCMV is a type of naval ship designed for the location of and destruction of naval mines which combines the role of a minesweeper and minehunter in one hull. The term MCMV is also applied collectively to minehunters and minesweepers.

Minehunter

A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines. Minesweepers, on the other hand, clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of mines. A vessel that combines both of these roles is known as a mine countermeasures vessel (MCMV).

Repair ship

A repair ship is a naval auxiliary ship designed to provide maintenance support to warships. Repair ships provide similar services to destroyer, submarine and seaplane tenders or depot ships, but may offer a broader range of repair capability including equipment and personnel for repair of more significant machinery failures or battle damage.

USS Walker (DD-517)

USS Walker (DD-517), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Admiral John Grimes Walker (1835–1907).

Walker was laid down on 31 August 1942 by the Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine; launched on 31 January 1943, sponsored by Miss Sarah C. Walker; and commissioned on 3 April 1943, Commander O. F. Gregor in command.

The first seven months of Walker's service took place in the Atlantic where she was engaged in Caribbean escort duty and training exercises in preparation for Pacific combat duty. The highlights of this period included the capture on 7 August of 43 survivors of the U-615 which had been damaged by Navy air units off Cuba, and the responsibility of escorting the Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Casablanca to participate in the Moscow Conference of October 1943.

Škrda

Škrda, or Otok Škrda, is an uninhabited Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea with an area of 2.05 km2, and 7.177 km of coastline, located southwest of Pag. British escort destroyer HMS Aldenham was sunk by a naval mine near the island in December 1944.

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