Erzurum (Armenian: Կարին, Karin) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey). It is the largest city in and eponymous capital of Erzurum Province. It is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010.
As Ancient Theodosiopolis in Armenia (or "in Cappadocia"), the former bishopric remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Location of Erzurum
|• Mayor||Mehmet Sekmen (AKP)|
|Elevation||1,900 m (6,200 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (FET)|
The city was originally known in Armenian as Karno K'aghak' (Armenian: Կարնո քաղաք), meaning city of Karin, to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին). After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name).
During Roman times, Erzurum was named Theodosiopolis (Latin: Theodosiopolis, Greek: Θεοδοσιούπολις), or – in Armenia or – in Cappadocia to distinguish is from several namesakes. It got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
A neighboring commercial city named Artsn (Arcn, Artze, Arzan; Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048–49. Its Armenian, Syrian, and other Christian inhabitants moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" (meaning Arzan of the Rûm, i.e., Romans) to distinguish it from their former residence. After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name Karno K'aghak' (Armenian: Կարնո քաղաք), meaning "Karin City", to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին). Some older sources derive the name Erzurum from the Arabic Arḍ-ar-Rūm (Arabic: ارض الروم) 'land of the Rûm'.
In fact, the powerful noble family of the Kamsarakan in Armenia traced their genealogy to the Iranian Kārin Pahlav family of the Arsacid period, and specifically to one Pērōzmat (only attested by Movsēs Xorenacʿi, p. 219). The Armenian Kārins, the Kamsarakan, remained a powerful dynastic family in the region, directly involved in the history of the Byzantines and the Sasanians, and in Armenian political sphere up to the 14th century, carrying the surname of Pahlavuni, in commemoration of their origins. They lent their name to important localities, so that ancient Theodosiopolis was named Kārin, before the name was changed to Erzurum in later centuries.
The surroundings of Erzurum at the Urartian period presumably belonged to Diauehi. Later, Erzurum existed under the Armenian name of Karin. During the reigns of the Artaxiad and Arsacid kings of Armenia, Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin, in the province Bardzr Hayk' (Upper Armenia). After the partition of Armenia between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor Theodosius I. As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns.
Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik in 700/701. It became the capital of the emirate of Ḳālīḳalā and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine territory. Though only an island of Arab power within Christian Armenian-populated territory, the native population was generally a reliable client of the Caliph's governors. As the power of the Caliphate declined, and the resurgence of Byzantium began, the local Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors.
In 931, and again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos Kourkouas, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes, captured Theodosiopolis. Its Arab population was expelled and the city was resettled by Greeks and Armenians. Emperor Basil II rebuilt the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian population. In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks took possession of Theodosiopolis. The Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.
Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II. Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Sultanate of Rum in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate, and later on the city was under Empire of Trebizond occupation for a while around the 1310s. Then became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of Timur Lenk and White Sheep Turkmen. It subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the Ottomans under Selim I in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of Chaldiran. During the Ottoman Empire reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman military power in the region.
It served as the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the seventeenth century, the province was threatened by Safavid Persia and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts (the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Jelali), backed by Iran and lasted until 1628. In 1733, the Iranian Nader Shah took Erzurum during the Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), but if returned into Ottoman possession following his death in 1747.
In 1821, during the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the Ottomans were crushingly defeated at Erzurum despite a numerical superiority by the Iranian Qajars at the Battle of Erzurum (1821). In 1829 the city was captured by the Russian Empire, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), in September of the same year. During the Crimean war Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was unsuccessfully attacked (Battle of Erzurum (1877)) by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. However, in February 1878, the Russians took Erzurum without resistance, but it was again returned to the Ottoman Empire, this time under the Treaty of San Stefano. There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894–1896). The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires. This resulted in the capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich on February 16, 1916. Erzurum reverted to Ottoman control after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the key founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congress of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence. Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War.
Theodosiopolis was important enough in the Late Roman province of Armenia Tertia to become a bishopric, which the Annuario Pontificio lists as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Comachus, but in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the seventh and early tenth centuries, its (later?) Metropolitan is the Archdiocese of Caesarea in Cappadocia. In either case, it was in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Its historically recorded Suffragan Bishops were :
After the long Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572-591, Byzantine rule was extended to all western parts of Armenia, and emperor Maurice (582-602) decided to strengthen political control over the region by supporting pro-Chalcedonian fraction of the Armenian Church. In 593, regional council of western Armenian bishops met in Theodosiopolis, proclaimed allegiance to the Chalcedonian Definition and elected John (Yovhannes, or Hovhannes) of Bagaran as new Catholicos of Chalcedonian Armenians.
One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city has been Atatürk University. Established in 1950, it is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism also provides a portion of the province's revenues. The city is a popular destination in Turkey for winter sports at the nearby Palandöken Mountain.
Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.
For now, Erzurum is the ending point of the South Caucasus Pipeline, also called the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (BTE) pipeline. Erzurum will also be the starting point of the planned Nabucco pipeline which will carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin to the European Union member states. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria to build the Nabucco pipeline was signed by five Prime Ministers on 13 July 2009 in Ankara. The European Union was represented at the ceremony by the President of the European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso and the Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs, while the United States was represented by the Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy Richard Morningstar and the Ranking Member of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Senator Richard Lugar.
Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the 13th century Çifte Minareli Medrese (the "Twin Minaret" madrasa). Visitors may also wish to visit the Çobandede Bridge, which dates back to late 13th century.
Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important skiing center on the Palandöken Mountain range. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, while the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The summit of Mt. Palandöken, which is called Büyük Ejder (Great Dragon), is at an altitude of 3188 metres. It can be reached with a chair lift which rises to an altitude of 3100 metres.
Nine kilometres to the west of Erzurum, in the village of Gezköy, stands the ruined Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes.
The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum Airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has the second longest runway in Turkey.
Kadayıf Dolması is an exquisite dessert made with walnut.
Other regional foodstuffs include Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı yayla çorbası (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), and kadayıf dolması
Erzurum has hosted the following international winter sports events:
Erzurum's football venue, the Cemal Gürsel Stadium, has a seating capacity for 21,900 spectators. To be able to carry out the competitions of the Winter Universiade, a ski jumping ramp, an ice hockey arena and a curling hall were built in Erzurum.
Erzurum has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers with cool nights. The average maximum daily temperature during August is around 27 °C (81 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 36.5 °C (97.7 °F), on 31 July 2000. However, the average minimum daily temperature during January is around −15 °C (5 °F); temperatures fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) most years. The lowest recorded temperature is −37.2 °C (−35.0 °F), on 28 December 2002.
|Climate data for Erzurum (1960–2012 normals)|
|Record high °C (°F)||7.9
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−9.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−14.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−41.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19.8
|Average precipitation days||11.6||11.4||12.8||14.8||16.7||11.1||6.8||5.5||4.9||10.1||9.5||11.5||126.7|
|Average snowy days||12||12||12||5||1||0||0||0||0||1||6||12||61|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||78||76||67||62||58||52||48||49||64||74||80||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93.0||109.2||151.9||180.0||241.8||303.0||344.1||331.7||267.0||204.6||132.0||86.8||2,445.1|
|Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü|
|Source #2: Climatebase.ru|
The XXV Winter Universiade, took place in Erzurum, Turkey between 27 January to 6 February. Erzurum is the city at the highest altitude in Turkey, at 1,850 m (6,070 ft), and has over 320 cultural landmarks. Located in Eastern Anatolia Region, it is a city on the traditional silk road and has been governed by many cultures over the centuries. The Erzurum Ice Hockey Arena, located on the Cemal Gürsel Sports Campus, was newly built with an ice rink of 60m x 30m and 3,000 seats for spectators.2012 IIHF World Championship Division III
The 2012 IIHF World Championship Division III was an international Ice hockey tournaments run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. It was contested in Erzurum, Turkey running from April 15–21, 2012.Aksu Dam
The Aksu Dam is an embankment dam in the preliminary stages of construction near the town of Aksu on the Çoruh River in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The dam is part of the Çoruh Development Plan and its construction will be supervised by Turkey's State Hydraulic Works. Construction on access roads and diversion tunnels began in 2010.Arkun Dam
The Arkun Dam an embankment dam on the Çoruh River near İspir in Erzurum Province, Turkey. Construction began in 2011 and the primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation. It is part of the Çoruh Development Plan and its construction is being supervised by Turkey's State Hydraulic Works. The dam and power plant were completed early, in June 2014. Water from the dam's reservoir supplies two power stations; one at the dam's toe (base) (11.92 MW) and the other downstream (225 MW) in Artvin Province.Atatürk University
Atatürk University (Turkish: Atatürk Üniversitesi) is a land-grant university established in 1957 in Erzurum, Turkey. The university consists of 22 faculties, 18 colleges, 8 institutes and 30 research centers. Atatürk University's main campus is in Erzurum city, Eastern Anatolia's largest city. It is now one of the city's most significant resources. Since its establishment in 1957, it has served as a hub of educational and cultural excellence for the eastern region.Battle of Erzurum (1821)
The Battle of Erzurum occurred in 1821 as part of the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823. The Persians, led by crown prince Abbas Mirza himself scored a crushing defeat over their Ottoman arch rivals near Erzurum, securing a Persian victory.
The Persians were heavily outnumbered with 30,000 men, led by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza, against the Turks with 50,000 men. However, the Persian army had recently been undergoing new modernisations according to the most up to date European models, with leadership of Abbas Mirza's brother, Dowlatshah, as part of the modernising policy known as Nezām-e Jadīd.Büyükşehir Belediye Erzurumspor
Büyükşehir Belediye Erzurumspor, commonly known as simply BB Erzurumspor or Erzurum BB, is a Turkish football club from Erzurum. The team was founded in 2005 and plays in blue white and blue kits.
Currently the club plays in the Süper Lig.Erzurum Eyalet
The Erzurum Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت ارضروم; Eyālet-i Erżurūm) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. It was established after the conquest of Western Armenia by the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 11,463 square miles (29,690 km2).Erzurum Offensive
The Erzurum Offensive (Russian: Эрзурумское сражение Erzurumskoe srazhenie ;Turkish: Erzurum Taarruzu) or Battle of Erzurum (Turkish: Erzurum Muharebesi) was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign, during the First World War, that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum. Ottoman forces, in winter quarters, suffered a series of unexpected reverses that led to a Russian victory.Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province (Turkish: Erzurum ili) is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.Erzurum Technical University
Erzurum Technical University is a public university located in Erzurum, Turkey. It was founded in 2010 as one of the six technical universities in Turkey. The university consists of 6 faculties, 1 graduate school and 3 institutes. The undergraduate and graduate education have started in 2012, and the number of undergraduate and graduate students is over 1,000 in 2013. Erzurum Technical University aims to become a research hub in the region.Erzurum Vilayet
The Vilayet of Erzerum (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت ارضروم, Vilâyet-i Erzurum) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
The vilayet of Erzurum shared borders with the Persian and Russian empires in the east and north-east, in the north with the Trebizond Vilayet, in the west with the vilayet of Sebastia, and in the south with the vilayets of Bitlis, Mamuret-ül Aziz and Van.
At the beginning of the 20th century it reportedly had an area of 29,614 square miles (76,700 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 645,702. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. It was one of the six Armenian vilayets in the eastern part of Anatolia, and, prior to World War I, had a large number of Armenians living there as well as Georgians, Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks, and other ethnic groups, both Muslim and Christian [mainly Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox/Gregorian)].Güllübağ Dam
The Güllübağ Dam is a gravity dam near the town of Güllübağ on the Çoruh River in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power production. Construction on the river diversion tunnel began in 2009 and the dam was complete in 2012. That same year the first generator became operational and the final generator was operational in March 2013. Water from the dam is sent down downstream through a 3,200 m (10,500 ft) long penstock where it reaches an 84 MW power station. The dam is part of the Çoruh Development Plan and it is owned by Turkey's State Hydraulic Works.Hamidian massacres
The Hamidian massacres (Armenian: Համիդյան ջարդեր, Turkish: Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896 and Great Massacres, were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire that took place in the mid-1890s. It was estimated casualties ranged from 80,000 to 300,000, resulting in 50,000 orphaned children. The massacres are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who, in his efforts to maintain the imperial domain of the collapsing Ottoman Empire, reasserted Pan-Islamism as a state ideology. Although the massacres were aimed mainly at the Armenians, they turned into indiscriminate anti-Christian pogroms in some cases, such as the Diyarbekir massacre, where, at least according to one contemporary source, up to 25,000 Assyrians were also killed.The massacres began in the Ottoman interior in 1894, before becoming more widespread in the following years. Between 1894 and 1896 was when the majority of the murders took place. The massacres began tapering off in 1897, following International condemnation on Abdul Hamid. The harshest measures were directed against the long persecuted Armenian community as calls for civil reform and better treatment from the government went ignored. The Ottomans observed no distinction between the victims' age or sex, and massacred them with brutal force. This occurred at a time when the telegraph could spread news around the world, and the massacres received extensive coverage in the media of Western Europe and North America.Kaysefe
Kaysefe is a type of Turkish dessert made of dried fruits and melted butter. It is a regional specialty of Erzurum. Different fruits may be used including dried apricots, mulberries or mulberries. First the dried fruit is boiled in water with sugar. Butter is spooned over the boiled fruit and the dessert is garnished with chopped or ground walnuts, pistachios or hazelnuts.Kuzgun Dam
The Kuzgun Dam is an embankment dam on the Serçeme River in Erzurum Province, Turkey. Constructed between 1985 and 1996, the development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. The dam has a 23 MW power station and provides water for the irrigation of 22,276 hectares (55,050 acres)Laleli Dam
The Laleli Dam is an embankment dam, currently under construction near the town of Laleli on the Çoruh River in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power production. After a prolonged legal battle, construction on the dam began in 2013 and it is expected to be complete in 2017. The dam, which will power a 99 MW power station, will also flood several villages to include Laleli. The dam's reservoir will stretch east into Bayburt Province.Palandöken Dam
Palandöken Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam on the Lezgi River near Çat in Erzurum Province, Turkey. Constructed between 1985 and 1988, the development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. The purpose of the dam is irrigation and it provides water for up to 11,678 ha (28,857 acres) of land.Tortum Dam
Tortum Dam is a dam on the Tortum River in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The development, backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works, was built on a natural landslide near Tortum Waterfall and raises the level of the existing lake for hydroelectric power production.