Erra Cinema

Erra Cinema (Telugu: ఎర్ర) refers to a collection of films in Telugu attributed to various left oriented political ideologies. Although it cannot be understood as a genre, it owes its nomenclature to the popular coinage and reference. The Communist parties in Andhra Pradesh are popularly referred to as the 'Erra partilu' (Red Parties) or 'Erra jenda partilu' (Red Flag Parties). This reference is extended to films which portray the struggles of the oppressed and the downtrodden often banded under the aegis of a 'Red flag' party. Significant here is the ambiguity in the affiliation to the ideologies of specific political parties who commonly use red flags as symbols. This cinema is not always of an art-house variety. As with other cinemas in India, Telugu cinema attracted the cultural workers of the left and the left leaning intellectuals. Erra Cinema regularly uses their literature and particularly songs penned or performed by them. Due to the portrayal of the triumph of the proletarian collective over the hegemonic order these films are considered to be anti-establishment. This view may have strengthened with the portrayal of Naxalites or Maoists in these films. These films are also referred to as Naxalite films.[1] K. B. Tilak, Dhavala Satyam, Vejjella Satyanarayana, Madala Ranga Rao, T. Krishna, R. Narayana Murthy, Dasari Narayana Rao, N. Shankar are some of the directors who have produced films categorised under Erra Cinema.


  1. ^ Srinivas, S V (2009). Megastar: Chiranjeevi and Telugu Cinema after N.T.Ramarao. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 198–199.
Acid Western

Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".

Dhavala Satyam

Davala Satyam is an Indian film director, producer and screenplay writer. He has worked predominantly in Telugu cinema since the early 1980s.

Satyam is known for his revolutionary movies known as Erra Cinema in Telugu. His film Yuvatharam Kadilindi won a Nandi Award for Best Feature Film from the Government of Andhra Pradesh and M. Prabhakar Reddy won the Nandi Award for Best Actor in 1980.He associated with film personalities such Dasari Narayana Rao, Madala Ranga Rao, Chiranjeevi, Murali Mohan and R. Narayana Murthy.

Satyam directed Chaitanya Ratham (1987), a controversial biopic on politician Vangaveeti Mohana Ranga and his brother Vangaveeti Radha despite the political pressures. Both Ranga and Radha were murdered by political opponents. The movie prints were destroyed.

Index of Andhra Pradesh-related articles

This is glossary index of articles and categories about Andhra Pradesh state in India. This index is as on 20 September 2013.

Index of Telangana-related articles

This is an index of all articles related to Telangana.

List of apocalyptic films

This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.

Madala Ranga Rao

Madala Rangarao (25 May 1948 – 27 May 2018) was an Indian film actor and producer primarily active in Telugu cinema. He is noted for Erra Cinema or revolutionary movies in Telugu film industry. He is popularly known as Red Star by people and associated with Communist Party of India and Prajanatya Mandali. Ranga Rao started his career with satirical Telugu film Chairman Chalamayya (1974). He started his own banner Navataram Pictures and produced and acted movies like Yuvatharam Kadilindi (1980), Erra Mallelu (1981) which also introduced his son Madala Ravi as a Child Artist, Mahaprasthanam (1982), Praja Shakthi (1983), Veera Bhadrudu (1984),.

Swarajyam, Maro Kurukshetram and Erra Suryudu. He acted in films such as Erra Pavuralu. "My films do not spread the naxalite ideology. They are aimed at bringing about social change," he says., He shown dark angles in politics and social issues in his films.

Meat pie Western

Meat pie Western, also known as Australian Western or kangaroo Western, is a broad genre of Western-style films or TV series set in the Australian outback or "the bush". Films about bushrangers (sometimes called bushranger films) are included in this genre. Some films categorised as meat-pie or Australian Westerns also fulfil the criteria for other genres, such as drama, revisionist Western, crime or thriller.

The term "meat pie Western" is a play on the term Spaghetti Western, used for Italian-made Westerns, relating in both cases to foods are regarded as national dishes.

Opera film

An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.

Romanian New Wave

The Romanian New Wave (Romanian: Noul val românesc) is a genre of realist and often minimalist films made in Romania since the mid-aughts, starting with two award-winning shorts by two Romanian directors, namely Cristi Puiu's Cigarettes and Coffee, which won the Short Film Golden Bear at the 2004 Berlin International Film Festival, and Cătălin Mitulescu's Trafic, which won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival later that same year.

Silent film

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no audible dialogue). In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. The term "silent film" is a misnomer, as these films were almost always accompanied by live sounds. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or even, in large cities, a small orchestra—would often play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from sheet music, or improvisation. Sometimes a person would even narrate the intertitle cards for the audience. Though at the time the technology to synchronize sound with the video did not exist, music was seen as an essential part of the viewing experience.

The term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, and the industry had moved fully into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue, music and sound effects.

Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was extremely unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video. It has often been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data.

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