After the 1960s erotic photography began to be less commonly referred to as such, and to be increasingly described as glamour photography.
Erotic photography generally produces a composed image of a subject in a still position. Though the subjects of erotic photography are usually completely or mostly unclothed, that is not a requirement.
Erotic photography should be distinguished from nude photography, which contains nude subjects not necessarily in an erotic situation, and pornographic photography, which is of a sexually explicit nature. Pornographic photography generally does not claim any artistic or aesthetic merit.
Erotic photographs are normally intended for commercial use, including mass-produced items such as decorative calendars, pinups and for men's magazines, such as Penthouse and Playboy, but sometimes the photographs are intended to be seen only by a subject's partner.
The subjects of erotic photographs may be professional models, celebrities or amateurs. Very few well-known entertainers have posed nude for photographs. The first entertainer to pose nude for photographs was the stage actress Adah Isaacs Menken (1835–1868). On the other hand, a number of well-known film stars have posed for pinup girl photographs and been promoted in photography and other media as sex symbols. Traditionally, the subjects of erotic photographs have been female, but since the 1970s erotic images of men have also been published.
Before 1839, depictions of nudity and erotica generally consisted of paintings, drawings and engravings. In that year, Louis Daguerre presented the first practical process of photography to the French Academy of Sciences. Unlike earlier photograph methods, his daguerreotypes had stunning quality and did not fade with time. Artists adopted the new technology as a new way to depict the nude form, which in practice was the feminine form. In so doing, at least initially, they tried to follow the styles and traditions of the art form. Traditionally, in France, an académie was a nude study done by a painter to master the female (or male) form. Each had to be registered with the French government and approved or they could not be sold. Soon, nude photographs were being registered as académie and marketed as aids to painters. However, the realism of a photograph as opposed to the idealism of a painting made many of these intrinsically erotic.
In Nude Photography, 1840–1920, Peter Marshall notes: "In the prevailing moral climate at the time of the invention of photography, the only officially sanctioned photography of the body was for the production of artist's studies. Many of the surviving examples of daguerreotypes are clearly not in this genre but have a sensuality that clearly implies they were designed as erotic or pornographic images".
The daguerreotypes were not without drawbacks, however. The main difficulty was that they could only be reproduced by photographing the original picture since each image was an original and the all-metal process does not use negatives. In addition, the earliest daguerreotypes had exposure times ranging from three to fifteen minutes, making them somewhat impractical for portraiture. Unlike earlier drawings, action could not be shown. The poses that the models struck had to be held very still for a long time. Another limitation was the monochrome image that the technology could produce. Because of this, the standard pornographic image shifted from one of two or more people engaged in sex acts to a solitary woman exposing her genitals. The cost of the process also limited the spread of the technology. Since one picture could cost a week's salary, the audience for nudes mostly consisted of artists and the upper echelon of society.
Stereoscopy was invented in 1838 and became extremely popular for daguerreotypes, including the erotic images. This technology produced a type of three dimensional view that suited erotic images quite well. Although thousands of erotic daguerreotypes were created, only around 800 are known to survive; however, their uniqueness and expense meant that they were once the toys of rich men. Due to their rarity, the works can sell for more than ₤GB 10,000.
In 1841, William Fox Talbot patented the calotype process, the first negative-positive process, making possible multiple copies. This invention permitted an almost limitless number of prints to be produced from a glass negative. The technology also reduced the exposure time and made possible a true mass market for low cost commercial photography. The technology was immediately employed to reproduce nude portraits, classified by the standards of the time as pornographic. Paris soon became the centre of this trade. In 1848 only thirteen photography studios existed in Paris; by 1860, there were over 400. Most of them made income from the sale of illicit nude images to the masses who could now afford it. The pictures were also sold near train stations, by traveling salesmen and women in the streets who hid them under their dresses. They were often produced in sets (of four, eight or twelve), and exported internationally, mainly to England and the United States. Both the models and the photographers were commonly from the working class, and the artistic model excuse was increasingly hard to use. By 1855, no more photographic nudes were being registered as académie, and the business had gone underground to escape prosecution.
The Victorian pornographic tradition in Britain had three main elements: French photographs, erotic prints (sold in shops in Holywell Street, a long vanished London thoroughfare, swept away by the Aldwych), and printed literature. The ability to reproduce photographs in bulk assisted the rise of a new business individual, the porn dealer. Many of these dealers used the postal system to distribute erotic photography, sending the photographic cards to subscribers in plain wrappings. Victorian pornography had several defining characteristics. It reflected a very mechanistic view of the human anatomy and its functions. Science, the new obsession, was invoked to ostensibly study the nude human body. Consequently, the sexuality of the subject is often depersonalised, and is without any passion or tenderness. At this time, it also became popular to depict nude photographs of women of exotic ethnicities, under the umbrella of science.
Studies of this type can be found in the work of Eadweard Muybridge. Although he photographed both men and women, the women were often given props like market baskets and fishing poles, making the images of women thinly disguised erotica.
Parallel to the British printing history, photographers and printers in France frequently turned to the medium of postcards, producing great numbers of them. Such cards came to be known in the US as "French postcards".
The initial appearance of picture postcards (and the enthusiasm with which the new medium was embraced) raised some legal issues that can be seen as precursors to later controversies over the Internet. Picture postcards allowed and encouraged many individuals to send images across national borders, and the legal availability of a postcard image in one country did not guarantee that the card would be considered "proper" in the destination country, or in the intermediate countries that the card would have to pass through. Some countries refused to handle postcards containing sexual references (such as of seaside scenes) or images of full or partial nudity (including images of classical statuary or paintings). Many French postcards featured naked women in erotic poses. These were described as postcards but whose primary purpose was not for sending by post because they would have been banned from delivery. Street dealers, tobacco shops, and a variety of other vendors bought the photographs for resale to tourists. The sale of erotica was banned, and many of these postcards were sold "under the counter".
Instead, nude and erotic photographs were marketed in a monthly magazine called La Beauté that was ostensibly targeted for artists looking for poses. Each issue contained 75 nude images which could be ordered by mail, in the form of postcards, hand-tinted or sepia toned.
The early 1900s saw several important improvements in camera design, including the 1913 invention of the 35 mm or "candid" camera by Oskar Barnack of the Ernst Leitz company. The Ur-Leica was a compact camera based on the idea of reducing the format of negatives and enlarging them later, after they had been exposed. This small, portable device made nude photography in secluded parks and other semi-public places easier, and represented a great advance for amateur erotica. Artists were enamored with their new ability to take impromptu photos without carrying around a clunky apparatus.
Early 20th century artist E. J. Bellocq, who made his best known images with the older style glass plate negatives, is best remembered for his down-to-earth pictures of prostitutes in domestic settings in the Storyville red light district of New Orleans. In contrast to the usual pictures of women awkwardly posed amid drapery, veils, flowers, fruit, classical columns and oriental braziers, Bellocq's sitters appear relaxed and comfortable. David Steinberg speculates that the prostitutes may have felt at ease with Bellocq because he was "so much of a fellow outcast."
Other photographers of nude women of this period include Alexandre-Jacques Chantron, Jean Agélou and Alfred Cheney Johnston. Chantron was already an established painter before experimenting with photography, while Agélou and Johnston made their career in photography.
Julian Mandel (possibly a pseudonym) became known in the 1920s and 1930s for his exceptional photographs of the female form. Participating in the German "new age outdoor movement," Mandel took numerous pictures in natural settings, publishing them through the Paris-based studios of Alfred Noyer and P-C Paris, Les Studios and the Neue Photographische Gesellschaft. The models often are found in highly arranged classical poses, photographed both in-studio and outdoors. The images are composed artfully, with exquisite tones and soft use of lighting—showing a particular texture created by light rather than shadow.
Another noteworthy photographer of the first two decades of the 20th century was the naturist photographer Arundel Holmes Nicholls (1923-2008). His work, featured in the archives of the Kinsey Institute, is artistically composed, often giving an iridescent glow to his figures. Following in Mandel's footsteps, Nicholls favored outdoor shots.
Many photographs from this era were intentionally damaged. Bellocq, for instance, frequently scratched out the faces of his sitters to obscure their identities. Some of his other sitters were photographed wearing masks. Peter Marshall writes, "Even in the relatively bohemian atmosphere of Carmel, California in the 1920s and '30s, Edward Weston had to photograph many of his models without showing their faces, and some 75 years on, many communities are less open about such things than Carmel was then."
Nude photographers of the mid-20th century include Walter Bird, John Everard, Horace Roye, Harrison Marks and Zoltán Glass. Roye's photograph Tomorrow's Crucifixion, depicting a model wearing a gas mask while on a crucifix caused much controversy when published in the English Press in 1938. The image is now considered one of the major pre-war photographs of the 20th century.
During the Second World War, pin-up girl photographs reached a wide audience. Unlike earlier erotic photographs, whose subjects were usually anonymous, a number of well-known film stars posed for pin-up photographs and they were promoted as sex symbols. The emphasis was initially on bare legs, short skirts or swim suits and shapely figures; but in the 1950s such photos started to show naked breasts.
Playboy magazine, founded in 1953, achieved great popularity and soon established the market for men's and lifestyle magazines. Erotic photography soon became closely associated with it and gained increasing public attention.
Founded in 1965, Penthouse magazine went a step further than Playboy and was the first to clearly display genitals, initially covered with pubic hair. The models looked usually directly into the camera, as if they would enter into relationship with the mostly male viewers.
In the 1970s, in the mood of feminism, gender equality and light humour, magazines such as Cleo included male nude centrefolds.
Unlike the traditional erotic photographs, which use any attractive female subjects, the male nude photographs are usually of celebrities.
The spread of the Internet in the 1990s and increasing social liberalization brought a renewed upsurge of erotic photography. There are a variety of print and online publications, which now compete against the major magazines (Playboy, Penthouse) and cater for the diverse tastes. There are a large number of online erotic photography sites, some of which describe themselves or are so described by others as pornography. Where the subject is presented in a romantic or sexually alluring manner, it may be described as glamour photography.
Aaron Hawks (born 1973) is an American multidisciplinary artist, best known for his conceptual fetish photography and installation art.Beefcake
Beefcake is a performance or a form of glamour photography depicting a large and muscular male body. Beefcake is also a publication genre. A role a person plays in a performance may be called beefcake. The term was believed to be first used by Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky.Billy Brandt
Billy Brandt, is an American pornographic actor, model and director. He first signed with Falcon Studios in 1999 and since then made films for such companies as Pacific Sun Entertainment and CockyBoys. He has appeared in magazines including Playgirl, Freshmen and Unzipped and is also the cover model for two of the three books of erotic photography which he has appeared in. Brandt retired from the adult film industry in 2008, after shooting his last scene for CockyBoys.Boudoir photography
Boudoir photography, or sensual photography, is a photographic style featuring intimate, sensual, romantic, and sometimes erotic images of its subjects in a photographic studio, bedroom or private dressing room environment, primarily intended for the private enjoyment of the subject and his or her romantic partners. It is distinct from glamour and art nude photography in that it is usually more suggestive rather than explicit in its approach to nudity and sexuality, features subjects who do not regularly model, and produces images that are not intended to be seen by a wide audience, but rather to remain under the control of the subject.Camera Mainichi
Camera Mainichi (カメラ毎日, Kamera mainichi) is a Japanese monthly magazine of photography that started in June 1954 and ceased publication in April 1985. The Mainichi Press was the founding company. Robert Capa was instrumental in the establishment of the magazine.As in most mass-market photography magazines, much of the editorial content of Camera Mainichi was devoted to news and reviews of cameras, lenses, and other equipment. But from the start it found space for first-rate and unconventional photography, and especially during the period 1963–78 when it was edited by Shōji Yamagishi it seemed more adventurous than its major rivals Asahi Camera and Nippon Camera (which both survived it). After Yamagishi left, it devoted more space to fashion and mildly erotic photography.
Camera Mainichi was based in Tokyo. The last editor of the magazine was Kazuo Nishii.The magazine also published the results of two photo contests sponsored by Mainichi Shinbun-sha: the Mainichi photography award (1955–58) and the Domon Ken Award (from 1982).Although mainichi literally means "daily", the magazine was instead named after its publisher, Mainichi Shinbun-sha (best known for its daily newspaper Mainichi Shinbun).Child erotica
Child erotica is non-pornographic material relating to children that is used by any individuals for sexual purposes. It is a broader term than child pornography, incorporating material that may cause sexual arousal such as nonsexual images, books or magazines on children or pedophilia, toys, diaries, or clothes. Law enforcement investigators have found that child erotica is often collected by pedophiles and child sexual abuse offenders. Child erotica may be collected as a form of compulsive behavior and as a substitute for illegal child pornography and is often a form of evidence for criminal behavior.The history of child erotica goes back at least as far as the paintings of the ancient Greeks, and continues through England's Libertine movement of the 1600s to the advent of the printing press, the camera and the case of Lewis Carroll. Painters of child erotica have included, for example, Balthus.Some child erotica images are distributed over the internet and presented in a fashion similar to non-erotic child modeling. Child beauty pageantry, which has attracted millions of viewers to shows such as Little Miss Perfect and Toddlers and Tiaras, is sometimes viewed as a form of child erotica similar to child modeling in that the children appear in provocative poses in bikinis and short skirts; but some participants' parents argue that the pageants help their children build positive qualities such as poise, individuality, and confidence.Much as there has been a push to relabel child pornography as "child abuse images," the use of the term "child erotica" is controversial due to the artistic and literary connotations of the word "erotica".Erotic photography model
An erotic photography model male or female who poses nude for erotic or sensual photos, which are intended to be displayed in exhibitions, art galleries, books, magazines, calendars, as well in other formats, most usually internet, DVDs and magazines. Erotic models pose in a manner which can be described as explicit, versus artistic or implied styles, where everything in not shown. The person can pose nude or with lingerie, swimsuits, etc, but in short order, erotic models are totally nude. To work as an erotic model, no qualifications are required outside of being of a legal age with, as some say, an open mind. The theme of erotic shoots can take many paths, it's up to the model and photographer to know what the shoot content will entail, which really makes knowing one's limitations essential.Erotica
Erotica is any literary or artistic work that deals substantively with subject matter that is erotically stimulating or sexually arousing but is not pornographic. Erotic art may use any artistic form to depict erotic content, including painting, sculpture, drama, film or music. Erotic literature and erotic photography have become genres in their own right.
Curiosa is erotica and pornography as discrete, collectable items, usually in published or printed form. In the antiquarian book trade, pornographic works are often listed under "curiosa", "erotica" or "facetiae".Feminateek
Feminateek, also known as the Fenomenale Feminateek ("Phenomenal Library of Women"), is a collection of 22400 images of female eroticism compiled in 144 volumes by Flemish author Louis Paul Boon.Boon started his hobby of collecting and filing female erotic photographs and images from periodicals in 1954, and continued to do so until his death in 1979. Boon organised his collection thematically, according to a scheme he wrote down in what is known as De Catalogus Van De Fenomenale Feminateek ("The Catalogue of the Phenomenal Library of Women").In 2004 Meulenhoff/Manteau published a selection of the Fenomenale Feminateek, together with the Catalogue. At the time of this publication an exposition of a limited part of the Feminateek was put up in the Letterkundig Museum in The Hague.In 2008 two expositions of images of the Feminateek were planned in Belgium. One was planned from 20 June in the FotoMuseum of Antwerp, but was cancelled after an intervention by the provincial authority. The curator of the "Zogezegd" literary festival in Gent confirmed shortly after the Antwerp decision became known end of January 2008, that the plans to show the images at the Gent festival on 4 April remain unchanged.Glamour photography
Glamour photography is a genre of photography in which the subjects are portrayed in erotic poses ranging from fully clothed to nude. The term may be a euphemism for erotic photography. For glamour models, body shape and size are directly related to success.This type of photography is colloquially known as "cheesecake" for women and "beefcake" for men.Glamour photography is generally a composed image of a subject in a still position. The subjects of "glamour" photography for professional use are often professional models, and the photographs are normally intended for commercial use, including mass-produced calendars, pinups and men's magazines such as Maxim; but amateur subjects are also sometimes used, and sometimes the photographs are intended for private and personal use only. Photographers use a combination of cosmetics, lighting and airbrushing techniques to produce an appealing image of the subject.Goliath Books
Goliath Books is a publisher of art and photography books founded in 1997 by Miki Bunge in New York. Goliath’s objective is to publish diverse and daring photography and art books and to introduce controversial, erotic and fringe themes to a mainstream audience. Goliath continues to be noteworthy for their ongoing publication of artists who fall outside traditional practices. The publisher’s ongoing mission is to explore and transform the public’s approach to art, erotic themes, pornography and perspectives from a range of subcultures.InterCourses
InterCourses: An Aphrodisiac Cookbook is a 1997 cookbook written by Martha Hopkins and Randall Lockridge with photography by Ben Fink, and published by Terrace Publishing.It focuses primarily on recipes and foods appropriate for romantic settings and seduction, covering traditionally sexually-associated foods such as chocolate, strawberries, oysters, honey, and avocados, as well as less-traditional foods such as pine nuts, coffee, and chiles. The recipes are illustrated with numerous personal stories interviewed for each edition and extensive, non-explicit erotic photography.
According to the book's official website, at least 240,000 copies have been sold and the book was extensively reviewed in both editions by both print and electronic media.The book was followed by a sequel entitled The New InterCourses.Irina Ionesco
Irina Ionesco (born September 3, 1930) is a French photographer born in Paris, France. She traveled and painted for several years before discovering photography and eventually became known for her erotic photography and most controversially for using her pre-pubescent daughter as a model.List of glamour models
This is a list of notable glamour models.Maxim Jakubowski
Maxim Jakubowski (1944) is a crime, erotic, science fiction and rock music writer and critic.
Jakubowski was born in 1944 in England to Russian-British and Polish parents, but raised in France. Jakubowski has also lived in Italy and has travelled extensively. Jakubowski edited the science fiction anthologies Twenty Houses of the Zodiac (1979), for the 37th World Science Fiction Convention (Seacon '79) in Brighton, and Travelling Towards Epsilon, an anthology of French science fiction. He also contributed a short story to that anthology.
He has worked in book publishing for many years, which he left to open the Murder One bookshop, the UK's first specialist crime and mystery bookstore. He contributes to a variety of newspapers and magazines, and was for eight years the crime columnist for Time Out and, from 2000 to 2010, the crime reviewer for The Guardian. He is also the literary director of London's Crime Scene Festival and a consultant for the International Mystery Film Festival, Noir in Fest, held annually in Courmayeur, Italy. He is one of the leading editors in the crime and mystery and erotica field, in which he has published many major anthologies, including the annual Mammoth Books of Best New Erotica and Best British Crime. In addition, he has over 80 other anthologies to his credit, including titles on Vintage Crime, Pulp Fiction, Jack the Ripper, the Kama Sutra and countless areas of popular culture. He has edited several classic lists such as Black Box Thrillers for Zomba Books, Blue Murder for Simon & Schuster and (later) Xanadu, Eros Plus and Neon and the MaXcrime imprint for British publishers John Blake Publishing. He is a past winner of the Karel and the Anthony awards. He is also a translator from French and Italian.
His novels include It's You that I Want to Kiss, Because She Thought She Loved Me, The State of Montana, On Tenderness Express, Kiss Me Sadly, Confessions of a Romantic Pornographer and I Was Waiting for You. His short story collections are Life in the World of Women, Fools for Lust and the collaborative American Casanova. He is a regular broadcaster on British TV and radio and was voted the fourth Sexiest Writer of 2007 on a poll on the Crimespace website. Ekaterina and the Nightwas published in 2011 and combined crime with erotica, as does his latest novel 'The Louisiana Republic' (2018).
He is strongly rumoured to be one of the authors behind the bestselling erotic author Vina Jackson, but this has never been confirmed.
For many years, Jakubowski was Chair of the Arthur C. Clarke Award and is now chair and judge for the Crime Writers' Association Debut John Creasey Dagger; he is also on the committee of the Crime Writers' Association and a frequent commentator on radio and TV. He is currently joint Vice Chair of the Crime Writers' Association.
He wrote the short story "Un Avocat pour Dolorès" under the nom de plume of "Adam Barnett-Foster". When asked why he took the name when he was already known and well-respected, he is quoted as shrugging and saying Le pseudonyme fou vient de frapper - "The mad pseudonym just hit me..."Jakubowski also wrote a number of books on rock music during the 1980s.His website is at www.maximjakubowski.co.uk, and lists his complete bibliography.Pinups (magazine)
Pinups is a triannual artists' publication in the United States playing on the historical centerfold practice of nudie magazines by making the centerfold the sole feature. There are no words—just an exaggeration of the classic centerfold. The magazine exists in book form but can be taken apart and tiled to reveal a 70" x 32" image. Pinups is created by Christopher Schulz and printed in New York City.Ron Raffaelli
Ron Raffaelli (September 20, 1943 - November 7, 2016) was an American photographer known for his documenting rock music icons in the 1960s and 1970s, such as Jimi Hendrix, for whom Raffaelli acted as official photographer in 1968. Raffaelli is known also for his fine art and erotic photography. His work has appeared in hundreds of magazine layouts, 50 album covers, over 40 posters, in six books and in public exhibitions.Softcore pornography
Softcore pornography or softcore porn is commercial still photography or film that has a pornographic or erotic component but is less sexually graphic and intrusive than hardcore pornography, defined by a "lack of penetration" (such as stripteases, lingerie modeling, erotic masturbation, etc.) and emphasis the sensual appreciation of the female or male form. It typically contains nude or semi-nude actors involved in love scenes, and is intended to be sexually arousing and aesthetically beautiful.Taschen
Taschen is an art book publisher founded in 1980 by Benedikt Taschen in Cologne, Germany. As of January 2017, Taschen is co-managed by Benedikt and his eldest daughter, Marlene Taschen.
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