Erotes

The Erotes (/əˈroʊtiːz/) are a collective of winged gods associated with love and sexual intercourse in Greek mythology. They are part of Aphrodite's retinue. Erotes (Greek ἔρωτες) is the plural of Eros ("Love, Desire"), who as a singular deity has a more complex mythology.

Other named Erotes are Anteros ("Love Returned"),[1] Himeros ("Impetuous Love" or "Pressing Desire"), Hedylogos ("Sweet-talk"), Hymenaios ("Bridal-Hymn"), Hermaphroditus ("Hermaphrodite" or "Effeminate"), and Pothos ("Desire, Longing," especially for one who is absent).[2]

The Erotes became a motif of Hellenistic art, and may appear in Roman art in the alternate form of multiple Cupids or Cupids and Psyches. In the later tradition of Western art, erotes become indistinguishable from figures also known as Cupids, amorini, or amoretti.[3]

Eros-piccadilly-circus
Anteros, popularly called Eros, by Alfred Gilbert, 1885; from the Shaftesbury Memorial in Piccadilly Circus.

General role and attributes

Hermaphroditus and Erotes. Onyx. 1st century B.C.
Hermaphroditos and the erotes, onyx cameo from Alexandria, 1st century BCE. Detailed image below in an engraving.
Ermafrodito e amorini

The erotes are a group of winged gods in Classical mythology. They are associated with love and sexual desire, and form part of Aphrodite's retinue. The individual erotes are sometimes linked to particular aspects of love, and are often associated with same-sex desire.[4][5][6][7] Sometimes the erotes are regarded as manifestations of a singular god, Eros.[8]

Stories of the erotes' mischief or pranks were a popular theme in Hellenistic culture, particularly in the 2nd century BCE.[9] Spells to attract or repel erotes were used, in order to induce love or the opposite.[10] Different erotes represented various facets of love or desire, such as unrequited love (Himeros), mutual love (Anteros) or longing (Pothos).[5]

The erotes were usually portrayed as nude, handsome, winged youths.[5] The earliest known sculptured friezes depicting a group of erotes and winged maidens driving chariots pulled by goats, were created to decorate theatres in ancient Greece in the 2nd century BCE.[11] The representation of erotes in such friezes became common, including erotes in hunting scenes.[12] Due to their role in the classical mythological pantheon, the erotes' representation is sometimes purely symbolic (indicating some form of love) or they may be portrayed as individual characters.[13] The presence of erotes in otherwise non-sexual images, such as of two women, has been controversially interpreted to indicate a homoerotic subtext.[13] In the cult of Aphrodite in Anatolia, iconographic images of the goddess with three erotes symbolized the three realms over which she had dominion: the Earth, sky, and water.[14]

Retinue Members

Groups of numerous erotes are portrayed in ancient Greek and Roman art. In addition, a number of named gods have been regarded as erotes, sometimes being assigned particular associations with aspects of love.

Anteros

Anteros (Greek: Ἀντέρως, Antérōs) was the god of requited love, literally "love returned" or "counterpart love". He punished those who scorned love and the advances of others, and was the avenger of unrequited love.[15] Anteros was the son of Ares and Aphrodite in Greek mythology, and given to his brother Eros as a playmate because the latter was lonely. In another version, Anteros arose from mutual feelings between Poseidon and Nerites.[16] Physically, Anteros was depicted as similar to Eros in every way, though sometimes with longer hair and butterfly wings. He has been described as armed with either a golden club or arrows of lead.

Eros

Eros bobbin Louvre CA1798
Eros. Attic red-figure bobbin, ca. 470–450 BCE.

Originally, Eros was the god of love and intercourse; he was also worshiped as a fertility deity. His Roman counterpart was Cupid (desire).

In later myths, he was the son of the deities Aphrodite and Ares: it is the Eros of these later myths who is one of the erotes. Eros was associated with athleticism, with statues erected in gymnasia,[6] and "was often regarded as the protector of homosexual love between men."[6] Eros was depicted as often carrying a lyre or bow and arrow. He was also depicted accompanied by dolphins, flutes, roosters, roses, and torches.[6]

Hedylogos

Hedylogos or Hedylogus (Ancient Greek: Ἡδυλογος) was the god of sweet-talk and flattery. He is not mentioned in any existing literature, but he is depicted on ancient Greek vase paintings.

Hermaphroditus

Hermaphroditus was the god of hermaphrodites and of effeminate men. He was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. Born a remarkably handsome boy but after the water nymph Salmacis fell in love with him and she prayed to be united forever, their two forms merged into one.

Himeros

Himeros (Greek: Ἵμερος "uncontrollable desire", Latin: Himerus) represented desire and unrequited love.[17] Himeros was identified by his carrying a taenia, a colourful headband worn by athletes.[18] He is described in Hesiod's Theogony as being born alongside Aphrodite.

Hymenaeus/Hymen

Hymenaeus (Greek: Ὑμεναιος) or Hymen (Greek: Ὑμην) was the god of weddings, marriage, and the bridal hymen.

Pothos

Pothos Via Cavour Musei Capitolini MC2417 n1
Statue of Pothos at the Centrale Montemartini

Pothos (Greek: Πόθος "yearning") was one of Aphrodite's erotes and brother to Himeros and Eros. In some versions of myth, Pothos is the son of Eros, or is portrayed as an independent aspect of him.[5] Yet others called him son of Zephyrus and Iris.[19] He was part of Aphrodite's retinue, and carried a vine, indicating a connection to wine or the god Dionysus. Pothos represents longing or yearning.[17] In the temple of Aphrodite at Megara, there was a sculpture that represented Pothos together with Eros and Himeros which has been credited to Scopas.[20] Pothos is a name for the white Asphodelus albus flower, "used at funerals" according to Arthur Hort's index and translation of Theophrastus (VI, 8, 3).[21]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Emma Stafford, "From the Gymnasium to the Wedding: Eros in Athenian Art and Cult," in Erôs in Ancient Greece (Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 196.
  2. ^ Claude Calame, The Poetics of Eros in Ancient Greece (Princeton University Press, 1999, originally published 1992 in Italian), pp. 30–32.
  3. ^ John Ferguson, The Religions of the Roman Empire (Cornell University Press, 1970), p. 145; Leonard Barkan, Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance Culture (Yale University Press, 1999), p. 138.
  4. ^ Conner, p. 64, "Aphrodite"
  5. ^ a b c d Conner, p. 133, "Erotes"
  6. ^ a b c d Conner, p. 132, "Eros"
  7. ^ Conner, p.270, "Pothos"
  8. ^ Younger, p. 45, "Eros/Cupid)
  9. ^ Strong, p. 265
  10. ^ Collins, pp. 100, 167.
  11. ^ Sturgeon, p. 124–25.
  12. ^ Sturgeon, p. 126
  13. ^ a b Rabinowitz & Auanger, p. 239.
  14. ^ Ridgway, p. 115
  15. ^ Evans, p. 20
  16. ^ Aelian, On Animals, 14. 28
  17. ^ a b Younger, p. 40, "Desire"
  18. ^ Conner, p. 178, Himerus
  19. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 47. 340
  20. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 43. 6
  21. ^ https://archive.org/details/enquiryintoplant02theouoft

Sources

  • Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield; Sparks, Mariya (1998). Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol and Spirit. UK: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70423-7.
  • Sturgeon, Mary Carol (1977). Sculpture: the reliefs from the theater. ASCSA. ISBN 978-0-87661-092-3.
  • Collins, Derek. Magic in the Ancient Greek World. 2008: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 978-1-4051-3238-1.
  • Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin; Auanger, Lisa (2002). Among women: from the homosocial to the homoerotic in the ancient world. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77113-0.
  • Strong (1911). Roman sculpture from Augustus to Constantine, v. 2. Duckworth and co.
  • Ridgway, Brunilde Sismondo (2002). Hellenistic Sculpture: The styles of ca. 100-31 B.C. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-17710-2.
  • Evans, Bergen (1970). Dictionary of mythology, mainly classical. Centennial Press. ISBN 978-0-299-17710-2.
  • Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Eros"

External links

  • Pothos(livius.org: Dec. 8, 2007)
Amores

Amores may refer to:

Amores (Ovid), the first book by the poet Ovid, published in 5 volumes in 16 BCE

Amores (Lucian), a play by Lucian; also known as Erotes

Erotes (mythology), known as Amores by the Romans

Amores, a book of poetry by D. H. Lawrence

Amores, a piece for percussion group and prepared piano composed by John Cage

Amores (Lucian)

The Erōtes (Greek: Ἔρωτες; "Loves", or "The two kinds of love"), also known as the Amores or Affairs of the Heart, is a dialogue written in the Roman Empire in Ancient Greek. It is an example of contest literature, comparing the love of women and the love of boys, and concluding that the latter is preferable over the former. The dialogue is traditionally attributed to the satirist Lucian and was transmitted as part of the corpus of his writings. Some modern scholars believe that the dialogue was probably not written by Lucian on account of its style, but others—including among those who do not vouch for its authenticity—have posited that the style resembles that of Lucian. The work is normally cited under the name of Pseudo-Lucian. The Erōtes is also famous for its vivid description of the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles.

The same subject is treated in the Amatorius of Plutarch and Leucippe and Clitophon by Achilles Tatius, but with the opposite conclusion in the former and with the latter reaching no verdict. In terms of structure, the dialogue may be considered similar to Plato's works, in which Socrates is often in contest with another man.

Anteros

In Greek mythology, Anteros (Ancient Greek: Ἀντέρως Antérōs) was the god of requited love, literally "love returned" or "counter-love" and also the punisher of those who scorn love and the advances of others, or the avenger of unrequited love.Anteros was the son of Ares and Aphrodite in Greek mythology, given as a playmate to his brother Eros, who was lonely – the rationale being that love must be answered if it is to prosper. Alternatively, he was said to have arisen from the mutual love between Poseidon and Nerites. Physically, he is depicted as similar to Eros in every way, but with long hair and plumed butterfly wings. He has been described also as armed with either a golden club or arrows of lead.

Anteros, with Eros, was one of a host of winged love gods called Erotes, the ever-youthful winged gods of love, usually depicted as winged boys in the company of Aphrodite or her attendant goddesses.

An altar to Anteros was put up by the metics in Athens in commemoration of the spurned love of the metic Timagoras who was rejected by the Athenian Meles. Upon hearing Timagoras' declaration of love for him, the young man mockingly ordered him to throw himself down from the top of a tall rock. Seeing Timagoras dead, Meles repented and threw himself down from the same rock.Describing the nature of the emotion, Plato asserts that it is the result of the great love for another person. The lover, inspired by beauty, is filled with divine love and "filling the soul of the loved one with love in return." As a result, the loved one falls in love with the lover, though the love is only spoken of as friendship. They experience pain when the two are apart, and relief when they are together, the mirror image of the lover's feelings, is anteros, or "counter-love."Anteros is the subject of the Shaftesbury Memorial in Piccadilly Circus, London, where he symbolises the selfless philanthropic love of the Earl of Shaftesbury for the poor. The memorial is sometimes given the name The Angel of Christian Charity and is popularly mistaken for Eros.

Aphrodite of Knidos

The Aphrodite of Knidos (or Cnidus) was an Ancient Greek sculpture of the goddess Aphrodite created by Praxiteles of Athens around the 4th century BCE. It is one of the first life-sized representations of the nude female form in Greek history, displaying an alternative idea to male heroic nudity. Praxiteles' Aphrodite is shown nude, reaching for a bath towel while covering her pubis, which, in turn leaves her breasts exposed. Up until this point, Greek sculpture had been dominated by male nude figures. The original Greek sculpture is no longer in existence; however, many Roman copies survive of this influential work of art. Variants of the Venus Pudica (suggesting an action to cover the breasts) are the Venus de' Medici and the Capitoline Venus.

Ares

Ares (; Ancient Greek: Ἄρης, Áres [árɛːs]) is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians, the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror) and his lover, or sister, Enyo (Discord) accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him. An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality. His value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks.Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to. When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship. The most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device.The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars, who as a father of the Roman people was given a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion as a guardian deity. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule also recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares. Thus in the classical tradition of later Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures later became virtually indistinguishable.

Baltimore Painter

The Baltimore Painter was an ancient Greek Apulian vase painter whose works date to the final quarter of the 4th century BC. He is considered the most important Late Apulian vase painter, and the last Apulian painter of importance. His conventional name is derived from a vase kept at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore.

The Baltimore Painter's early work was strongly influenced by the Patera Painter. He mainly painted large format volute kraters, amphorae, loutrophoroi and hydriai. It is likely that his workshop was at Canosa.

He depicted sepulchral scenes (naiskos vases), usually depicting a naiskos on the front and a grave stele on the back, often characterised by figures in yellow-orange garments), mythological and dionysiac scenes, as well as erotes, weddings and scenes from the life of women.

Stylistically, especially in regard to vase shapes and pictorial themes, his work is very similar to that of the Underworld Painter. The Baltimore Painter's work is characterised by rich and fine detail, especially in ornamentation. Several painters were closely associated with him, including the Stoke-on-Trent Painter, who was either a very close colleague or may in fact be identical with him, and the painters of the T.C.-Group. His successors include the probable heir of his workshop, the White-Sakkos Painter, other painters of the White-Sakkos Group, the Sansone Painter, the Stuttgart Group and the Kantharos Group.

Cupid

In classical mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupīdō [kʊˈpiː.doː], meaning "desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection. He is often portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and the war god Mars. He is also known in Latin as Amor ("Love"). His Greek counterpart is Eros.

Although Eros is generally portrayed as a slender winged youth in Classical Greek art, during the Hellenistic period, he was increasingly portrayed as a chubby boy. During this time, his iconography acquired the bow and arrow that represent his source of power: a person, or even a deity, who is shot by Cupid's arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire. In myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves mostly to set the plot in motion. He is a main character only in the tale of Cupid and Psyche, when wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love. Although other extended stories are not told about him, his tradition is rich in poetic themes and visual scenarios, such as "Love conquers all" and the retaliatory punishment or torture of Cupid.

In art, Cupid often appears in multiples as the Amores, or amorini in the later terminology of art history, the equivalent of the Greek erotes. Cupids are a frequent motif of both Roman art and later Western art of the classical tradition. In the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable from the putto.

Cupid continued to be a popular figure in the Middle Ages, when under Christian influence he often had a dual nature as Heavenly and Earthly love. In the Renaissance, a renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex allegorical meanings. In contemporary popular culture, Cupid is shown drawing his bow to inspire romantic love, often as an icon of Valentine's Day.

Darius Painter

The Darius Painter was an Apulian vase painter and the most eminent representative at the end of the "Ornate Style" in South Italian red-figure vase painting. His works were produced between 340 and 320 BC.

The Darius Painter's conventional name is derived from his name vase, the "Darius Vase", which was discovered in 1851 near Canosa di Puglia and now on display at the Museo Archaeologico Nazionale, Naples (H3253). Many of his works, mostly volute kraters, amphorae and loutrophoroi, are of large dimensions. He most frequently depicted theatrical scenes, especially ones from the Classical tragedies by Euripides, and mythological themes. A number of mythological motifs not represented in surviving literary texts are known exclusively from his vases. On other shapes, especially pelikes, he also painted as wedding scenes, erotes, women, and dionysiac motifs. In contrast to other contemporary painters, sepulchral scenes (naiskos vases) by him are rare; where such motifs occur, they are virtually always on the back of the vessel. Some of his paintings, like those on the Darius Vase itself, show historical subjects.

One of the most striking features of his work is the frequent use of inscriptions. He does not limit these to the normal practice of naming individual figures, but also uses them thematically (such as persai - Persians). To some extent these inscriptions can be seen as "titles". He also tends to use all available space on a vase for figural depictions, often arranged in two or three registers. Sometimes, the individual zones are structured by opulent ornamental friezes. The Darius Painter is considered the first painter to have fully exploited the possibilities of large-format vase painting. His drawing style is reputed to be especially good, particular as regards faces, which he often depicts in a three-quarter profile.

The Darius Painter worked in a large factory-like workshop, probably at Taras. It is possible that he was the owner or foreman of his workshop. Many vase-paintings are so close to his style, though not by his hand, that they are attributed to his workshop. He was the last important vase-painter in Apulia; Apulian vase painting rapidly declined in quality in the third century. Stylistically, he follows after the Varrese Painter and his group (e.g. the Painter of Copenhagen 4223), but outdoes their achievements. Contemporaries of his that did not simply produce mass wares include the Perrone Painter and the Phrixos Painter. His most important stylistic successor was the Underworld Painter. Arthur Dale Trendall, a key authority on South Italian vase painting, described the Darius Painter as the most important painter of mythological scenes within the total of the South Italian development.

Eretria

Eretria (; Greek: Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers"' Ancient Greek: Ἐρέτρια) is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow South Euboean Gulf. It was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th century BC, mentioned by many famous writers and actively involved in significant historical events.

Excavations of the ancient city began in the 1890s and have been conducted since 1964 by the Greek Archaeological Service (11th Ephorate of Antiquities) and the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece.

Eros

In Greek mythology, Eros (UK: , US: ; Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares, and with most of his siblings, was a part of group, consisting of winged love gods. However, sometimes he is also described as one of the primordial gods, but then, he is most often identified with Phanes.

Galatea (mythology)

Galatea (; Greek: Γαλάτεια; "she who is milk-white") is a name popularly applied to the statue carved of ivory by Pygmalion of Cyprus, which then came to life in Greek mythology. In modern English the name usually alludes to that story.

Galatea is also the name of Polyphemus's object of desire in Theocritus's Idylls VI and XI and is linked with Polyphemus again in the myth of Acis and Galatea in Ovid's Metamorphoses.

Gnathia vases

Gnathia vases are a type of pottery belonging to ancient Apulian vase painting of the 4th century BC.

They are named after the ancient city of Gnathia (now Egnazia) in Eastern Apulia. There, the first examples of the style were discovered in the mid-19th century. Their production began in Apulia around 370/360 BC, in parallel to the local version of the red-figure style which developed tendencies towards polychromy around that time. Typical of Gnathia vases is the application of different paints directly onto the glazed vase body. Additionally, internal details could be added by incision. The themes depicted include erotes, images from the life of women, theatre scenes and dionysiac motifs. Figural, painting is often limited to the upper half of the vessel body, while the bottom half often bears only ornamental decoration. The most common shapes were bell kraters, pelikes, oinochoai and skyphoi. The most important artists are the Konnakis Painter and the Rose Painter.

Initially, a broad palette of paints, including white, yellow, orange, red, brown, green and others, was used, but after 330 BC the extensive use of white paint dominated. At the same time, the thematic range was reduced, limiting itself to tendrils of vine, ivy or laurel, theatrical masks, and, within the tendrils, male and female heads, doves and swans. The lower half of the vessels was now often ribbed. Apart from oinochoai, skyphos and pelikes, shapes also included bottles, lekythoi, bowls and kantharoi. The most important painters of this phase are the Painter of the Louvre Bottle and the Dunedin Painter.

The final phase comprised about 25 years. It is marked by a return to figural painting, predominantly depicting erotes. Kantharoi and bowls with painted-on handles are now the main shapes. Ribbing is still in use, as is the copious application of white paint, now with yellow added for shading.

Unlike local red-figure pottery, South Italian Gnathia vases were also traded to other regions of the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. They had considerable influence on some local pottery styles, such as West Slope pottery. Gnathia vases were not only produced in Apulian, but also in Campanian, Paestan and Sicilian vase painting. In South Italy, only Lucanian vase painting did not generally imitate them. In Etruria, the Pocolum Class was produced by a vase painter who had emigrated from Southern Italy.

Hedylogos

In Greek mythology, Hedylogos or Hedylogus (Ancient Greek: Ἡδυλόγος) was the god of sweet-talk and flattery and one of the winged love gods called the Erotes. He is not mentioned in any existing literature, but he is depicted on ancient Greek vase paintings. A surviving example on a red-figure pyxis from the late 5th century BC shows Hedylogos alongside his brother Pothos drawing the chariot of Aphrodite.

Hermaphroditus

In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus or Hermaphroditos ( (listen); Ancient Greek: Ἑρμαφρόδιτος) was the son of Aphrodite and Hermes. According to Ovid, he was born a remarkably handsome boy with whom the water nymph Salmacis fell in love and prayed to be united forever. A god, in answer to her prayer, merged their two forms into one and transformed them into an androgynous form. His name is compounded of his parents' names, Hermes and Aphrodite. He was one of the Erotes.

Because Hermaphroditus was a son of Hermes, and consequently a great-grandson of Atlas, sometimes he is called Atlantiades (Greek: Ατλαντιάδης). Hermaphroditus' father, Hermes, was also called Atlantiades because his mother, Maia was the daughter of Atlas.

Hermaphroditus' name is the basis for the word hermaphrodite.

Hymen (god)

Hymen (Ancient Greek: Ὑμήν), Hymenaios or Hymenaeus, in Hellenistic religion, is a god of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song. Related to the god's name, a hymenaios is a genre of Greek lyric poetry sung during the procession of the bride to the groom's house in which the god is addressed, in contrast to the Epithalamium, which is sung at the nuptial threshold. He is one of the winged love gods, Erotes.

Hymen is the son of Apollo and one of the muses, Clio or Calliope or Urania or Terpsichore.

Ilioupersis Painter

The Ilioupersis Painter was an Apulian vase painter. His works are dated to the second quarter of the 4th century BC.

The Ilioupersis Painter begins to the beginning of the middle phase of Apulian vase painting, and the start of the so-called Ornate Style. His conventional name is derived from his name vase, a volute krater in the British Museum with depictions of the iloupersis (the sack of Troy). He followed the tradition of the Dijon Painter, but was an innovative artist who introduced significant aspects to Apulian vase painting. Thus, he introduced the depcitions of grave scenes (naiskos vases) into the repertoire of motifs, started the habit of rippling the lower parts of vessel surfaces, and invented the decoration of the handles of volute kraters with circular medaillons depicting faces. The motif of a female head rising between tendrils from a flower was also first painted by him. His motifs include mythological and dionysiac scenes, as well as genre scenes with erotes, men and women. His most important vessel shape is the volute krater, which became the dominant shape in Apulia maybe due to his influence. Nonetheless, the over 100 works attributed to him include many other shapes. He was one of the first vase painters to substantially use additional white and yellow colour. Sometimes, he also utilised red and brown. His most important collaborator and colleague at the same workshop was the Painter of Athens 1714; the many successors continuing his tradition include the Painter of the Dublin situlae.

LGBT themes in classical mythology

Greco-Roman mythology features male homosexuality in many of the constituent myths. In addition, there are instances of cross-dressing, and of androgyny which in post-1990s gender terminology has been grouped under the acronym LGBT.

Psychai

Psychai are the butterfly-winged goddesses/nymphs that are the progeny of Psyche. They are kin to the god Eros and his fellow Erotes. The only known psychai mentioned besides Psyche was her daughter, Hedone (Pleasure) or, to the Romans, "Voluptas". Because of them being butterfly-winged, they can often be confused with fairies or pixies, just as Eros and his Erotes can be confused with angels.

Eros

Cupid

Psyche

Fairy

Pixie

Angel

Nymph

Kentaurides

YZ Group

The YZ Group is an assumed group of ancient Greek Attic vase painters of the red-figure style.

Individual artists can only be identified with difficulty. The group was given its conventional name by John D. Beazley during his studies of Attic red-figure was painting. He named the group "YZ" because he recognised their work as the latest known figural red-figure paintings. In analogy with the alphabet, "YZ" stands for the end of red-figure painting in Athens. The group must have been active around 320 BC. The exact date of the end of red-figure painting remains unclear, because no detailed chronology can be developed from the vases. The fact that YZ vases are relatively numerous may indicate that their production, though short in duration, was large in output. They depict erotes, women and Nike. The tondos of bowls resemble works from the early 4th century, but are more casual and coarse in execution. Apart from bowls, askoi, pyxides and small lebetes gamikoi were also painted.

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