Erode district

Erode District (previously known as Periyar District) is a district in the Kongu Nadu region (western part) of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It was the largest district by area in the state before the Formation of Tirupur District and the headquarters of the district is Erode. It is divided into two revenue divisions namely Erode and Gobichettipalayam and further subdivided into 10 taluks. Periyar district was a part of Coimbatore District before its division into two on September 17, 1979 and was renamed as Erode District in 1996.It is consider to be a largest city by area in Tamilnadu covering above 8000 sq.km. As of 2011, the district had a population of 2,251,744 with a sex-ratio of 993 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.

Erode District
District
Confluence of the Bhavani and Kaveri Rivers
Confluence of the Bhavani and Kaveri Rivers
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Coordinates: 11°21′N 77°44′E / 11.350°N 77.733°ECoordinates: 11°21′N 77°44′E / 11.350°N 77.733°E
CountryIndia
StateTamil Nadu
RegionWestern Tamil Nadu (Kongu Nadu)
HeadquartersErode
TaluksAnthiyur,

Bhavani,

Erode,

Gobichettipalayam,

Kodumudi,

Modakurichi,

Perundurai,

Sathyamangalam,

Thalavadi,

Nambiyur
Government
 • District CollectorThiru C.Kathiravan, IAS
 • Superintendent of PoliceThiru.sakthi Ganesan, IPS
Area
 • Total8,161 km2 (3,151 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 • Total2,251,744
 • Density397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTamil
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
638***
Telephone code0424 (Erode)
04285 (Gobichettipalayam)
04256 (Bhavani)
04295 (Sathyamangalam)
04294 (Perundurai)
ISO 3166 codeISO 3166-2:IN
Vehicle registrationTN 33 (Erode East)
TN 36 (Gobichettipalayam)
TN 56 (Perundurai)
TN 86 (Erode West) [1]
Largest cityErode
Sex ratioM-51%/F-49% /
Literacy72.96%
Lok Sabha seats3
Vidhan Sabha seats8
Central location:11°15′N 77°19′E / 11.250°N 77.317°E
Precipitation700 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature35 °C (95 °F)
Avg. winter temperature18 °C (64 °F)
Websitewww.erode.tn.nic.in

History

The region belonging to the present day districts were ruled successively by several dynasties of South India including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas. It was under the rule of Cheras in the first millennium and various rulers. During the 10th to 12th centuries the region was part of the larger Chola Empire.

The region became part of Vijayanagara empire in 1300's, later under Nayaks of Madurai until 17th century. Under the Madurai Nayaks, the Polygar system of administration was established, who were the Governors of the region. Since mid 17th century the region was part of Kingdom of Mysore but continuing the Polygar system of administration. The kodiveri dam constructed by Kongalvan king.

The Polygar chieftain Dheeran Chinnamalai was one of the governors of the region, who played a major part in the early struggle for Indian Independence in the Polygar Wars against the British East India Company. After the Polygar and Mysore wars in the late 18th century, the area came under control of the British until the Indian Independence in 1947. It was a part of the erstwhile Coimbatore district until its bifurcation in 1979.

Demographics

According to 2011 census, Erode district had a population of 2,251,744 with a sex-ratio of 993 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[2] A total of 195,213 were under the age of six, constituting 99,943 males and 95,270 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 16.41% and .97% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 66.29%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[2] The district had a total of 658,071 households. There were a total of 1,195,773 workers, comprising 173,376 cultivators, 331,414 main agricultural labourers, 48,960 in house hold industries, 557,301 other workers, 84,722 marginal workers, 4,794 marginal cultivators, 38,798 marginal agricultural labourers, 5,362 marginal workers in household industries and 35,768 other marginal workers.[3]

Geography

Western Ghats Gobi
Western Ghats as seen from Gobichettipalayam

The district is bounded by Chamarajanagar district of Karnataka to the north, and by Kaveri River to the east. Across the river lies Salem, Namakkal and Karur districts. Tirupur District lies immediately to the south, and Coimbatore and the Nilgiris district lie to the west. Erode District is landlocked and is situated at between 10 36" and 11 58" north latitude and between 76 49" and 77 58" east longitude. The district forms the meeting point of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats separated by Bhavani River.

The district comprises a long undulating plain, sloping gently towards the Kaveri River in the south-east. Three major tributaries of river Kaveri, the Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravati, run across the long stretch of mountains in the north. Palar River constitutes the boundary between Erode district and Karnataka in the north. The Bhavanisagar Dam and Kodiveri Dam provide storage facilities and numerous canals along with these rivers provide proper drainage and facilities for irrigation in the district.

Bhavani River

Bhavani rises in the Western Ghats of Silent Valley National Park in Palakkad District of Kerala. It is joined by Siruvani River , a perennial stream of Coimbatore District, and gets reinforced by the Kundah river before entering Erode District in Sathyamangalam. Bhavani is more or less a perennial river fed mostly by the southwest monsoon. The northeast monsoon also supplements its water resources. This river runs for over hundred miles through Erode District, traversing Bhavani and Gobichettipalayam taluks. It feeds the Bhavanisagar reservoir, which takes an easterly course after Sathyamangalam taluk. Near Gobichettipalayam lies the Kodiveri Dam, a mini dam constructed for agricultural purposes. It ultimately joins Kaveri in the island of Bhavani, Tamil Nadu, near Erode, with a holistic tributary river of Amutha Nathi, hence called Tiriveni Sangamam. The place where Bhavani joins with Kaveri River is famous for Sri Sangameshwara Temple of Lord Shiva, where according to the Hindu customs people perform the last rites for deceased near and dears.

Kaveri River

Kaveri rises in the Western Ghats of Kodagu (Coorg) District, in Karnataka, and is joined by many small tributaries. It runs eastward through Karnataka, and at Hogenakal fall takes a sharp turn, east to south. Before reaching this point, it is joined by its main tributary, the Kabini River. From here it runs towards the southeast, forming the boundary between Bhavani Taluk of Erode District and Tiruchengode Taluk of the neighbouring Namakkal District. The Bhavani River joins the Kaveri at the town of Bhavani.

Climate

The climate is mostly dry and characterized by good rainfall. Unlike nearby Coimbatore district, Erode District has dry weather throughout the year except during the monsoons. The Palghat Gap in Western Ghats, which has a moderating effect on the climate of Coimbatore district, does not help in bringing down the dry climate in this area. The cool moist wind that gushes out of the west coast through Palghat gap loses its coolness and becomes dry by the time it crosses Coimbatore district and reaches Erode. Generally the first two months of the year are pleasant, but in March the temperature begins to rise, which persists till the end of May. The highest temperatures are normally recorded during May. The scanty showers during this period do not provide much relief from the oppressive heat. However, there is an improvement in the climate during the June–August period. During the pre-monsoon period, the temperature reverses its trend. By September the sky gets heavily overcast, although the rains pour down. The northeast monsoon sets in vigorously only during October–November, and by December the rains disappear, rendering the climate clear and cold.

Administration

Erode District Collector's Office
Erode District Collector's Office

Erode District is divided into ten taluks under two revenue divisions for Administrative purpose.[4]

Erode District consists of one municipal corporation and four other municipalities:[7]

Politics

Erode District is divided between 3 Parliamentary Constituencies namely: Erode, Nilgiris and Tirupur. The district consists of 8 assembly constituencies namely Anthiyur, Bhavani, Bhavani Sagar, Erode East, Erode West, Gobichettipalayam, Modakurichi and Perundurai.

Members of Assembly

Constituency Political Party Elected Representative
Anthiyur AIADMK K. R. Rajakrishnan
Bhavani AIADMK K. C. Karuppannan
Bhavani Sagar AIADMK S. Eswaran
Erode East AIADMK K. S. Thennarasu
Erode West AIADMK K. V. Ramalingam
Gobichettipalayam AIADMK K. A. Sengottaiyan
Modakurichi AIADMK V. P. Sivasubramani
Perundurai AIADMK N. D. Venkatachalam
Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.[8][9]

Members of Parliament

Constituency Political Party Elected Representative
Erode AIADMK S. Selvakumara Chinnayan
Tirupur AIADMK V. Sathyabama
Nilgiris AIADMK C. Gopalakrishnan
Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.[8][9]

Economy

Erode rugs
Fabrics and rugs made in Erode are famous

Agriculture is the most important income source of the district. Paddy, plantain, silk, cotton, turmeric, coconut and sugarcane are some of the major products from agriculture and allied industries.

With 43% share, the district is the top turmeric producer in Tamil Nadu.[10] Erode is also known as Turmeric city as it is an important market center for turmeric.

Erode district is also the leading producer of plantain, coconuts and white silk in Tamil Nadu.[11]

Gobichettipalayam is well known for its white silk, cotton, plantain and coconut production.

Erode district is the One of major producer of Foodproducts in the state The country's first automated silk reeling unit is located near Gobichettipalayam.

Erode, Bhavani and Chennimalai are well known for handloom, powerloom textile products and ready-made garments. In 2005, Bhavani Jamakkalam (Bhavani Bedsheets) was registered as a Geographical Indication by the Government of India. is also famous for textiles.

Anthiyur and Modachur (Gobichettipalayam) shandy are famous for cattle.

Transport

Erode brough road
Brough Road in Erode

The transportation system in the district is already well developed. Erode, being one of the prominent trading centers in the state, is well connected with all modern means of transport except air transport. The district is accessible by both road and rail from the state capital Chennai and other major cities. The district is divided into four RTO sub-divisions namely Erode East (TN 33), Gobichettipalayam (TN 36), Perundurai (TN 56) and Erode West (TN 86). Gobichettipalayam RTO has two sub offices namely Bhavani (TN 36W) and Sathyamangalam (TN 36Z).

Railways

The district has one major railway station namely, Erode Junction. It was built by the British to connect the west coast of India to the east coast of India. There are state of art ISO certified diesel and electric locomotive sheds at Erode Junction. Erode Junction, which has the distinction of being the third cleanest railway junction in India serves as the hub for water filling facilities and food provisions.

Roadways

The district is well connected by road. The following is the list of major arterial roads:

National Highways

Proposed Highways

State Highways

The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Coimbatore division-II headquartered at Erode (originally called as Jeeva Transport Corporation) services the inter and intra city routes. The State Express Bus Corporation (SETC) operates express services from Erode and Gobichettipalayam to major cities across the state. Erode Central Bus Terminus, which serves as a major hub is one of the largest in the state. Due to its proximity to states of Karnataka and Kerala, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation and Kerala State Road Transport Corporation buses also ply in the district.

Airways

The nearest airport is the Coimbatore International Airport located in the nearby Coimbatore district.

Waterways

Navigable waterways are available at five places in the district.

Communication

The district is also served by an extensive postal, telegraph and telephone networks. The district is divided into two postal divisions namely Erode and Gobichettipalayam. There are 3 head post offices at Erode, Bhavani and Gobichettipalayam apart from 319 post offices. The district is serviced by almost all the leading mobile phone operators in India.

Education

Erode district has several facilities for higher education including a Medical College at Perundurai and many engineering, arts and science colleges.The district is divided into two educational districts, Gobichettipalayam and Erode. Massachusetts Institute of Technology center of research and laboratory for rapid urbanization and architecture is located at Erode.

Places of interest

The district has many places of interest attracting tourists from all over the state and other neighboring states. Notable of them include:

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of RTOs" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  3. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Erode district". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  4. ^ "NPR Report: Tamil Nadu: Erode". National Population Register, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013.
  5. ^ "Kodumudi, Modakurichi and Thalavadi taluks take off". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Anthiyur becomes separate taluk in Erode district". The Hindu. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  7. ^ "List of Municipalities". Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Election results". Indian Elections. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08.
  9. ^ a b "Parties Statistics". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2008-12-18.
  10. ^ "Agriculture in Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  11. ^ "The changing industrial landscape of Erode". The Hindu. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2016.

External links

Anthiyur taluk

Anthiyur taluk(Tamil: அந்தியூர் வட்டம்) is a taluk of Erode district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Anthiyur became separate taluk in Erode district by restructuring Bhavani and Gobichettipalayam on 22 November 2012. It comprises four blocks – Anthiyur, Athani, Burgur and Ammapet It comes under Gobichettipalayam Revenue Division.

Athani, Erode

Athani is a panchayat town located about 12 km from Gobichettipalayam in Anthiyur taluk of Erode district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

Bhavani (state assembly constituency)

Bhavani is a state assembly constituency in Erode district in Tamil Nadu.It covers Bhavani and some parts of Erode City.

It is included in Tirupur Parliamentary Constituency.

Bhavanisagar (state assembly constituency)

Bhavanisagar is a state assembly constituency in Erode district in Tamil Nadu.

Bhavanisagar dam

Bhavanisagar Dam or Lower Bhavani Dam, is located in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India. It is constructed on the Bhavani river. It is one of the world's largest earthen dams. The dam is situated some 16 km (9.9 mi) west of Sathyamangalam, is 15 km (9.3 mi) from Punjai Puliampatti ,is 15 km (9.3 mi) from Gobichettipalayam and is 36 km (22 mi) north-east of Mettupalayam.

Erode division

Erode division is a revenue division in the Erode district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Erode taluk

Erode taluk is a taluk of Erode district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The headquarters of the taluk is the town of Erode. In 2016, Erode Taluk has been trifurcated into Erode, Modakurichi and Kodumudi. It falls under Erode Revenue Division.

Gobichettipalayam (state assembly constituency)

Gobichettipalayam is a state assembly constituency in Erode district in Tamil Nadu.

Gobichettipalayam division

Gobichettipalayam division is a revenue division in the Erode district of Tamil Nadu, India.

Kodumudi taluk

Kodumudi taluk is a taluk of Erode district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Kodumudi became a separate taluk in Erode district by trifurcation of the erst-while Erode taluk, along with Modakurichi taluk on 8 March 2016. The new taluk will have control over the same geographic entity of the Kodumudi revenue block with Kodumudi as the headquarters. It falls under Erode Revenue division.

Kundha River

Kundha is a river flowing in the Erode district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

List of educational institutions in Erode district

This article consists of a non exhaustive list of educational institutions in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India.

Muthur

Muthur Tamil: முத்தூர் is a panchayat town in Kangeyam taluk in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu, India.

Perundurai (state assembly constituency)

Perundurai is a state assembly constituency in Erode district in Tamil Nadu. It covers Perundurai and some parts of Erode City. It is included in Tirupur Parliamentary Constituency. The constituency is in existence since 1957 election.

Elections and winners in the constituency are listed below.

Perundurai railway station

Perundurai railway station is a railway station near Perundurai in Erode District of Tamil Nadu. It is officially known by the station code PY.

Sathyamangalam

Sathyamangalam (also known as Sathy) is a town and municipality in Erode district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It lies on the banks of river Bhavani, a tributary of River Cauvery in the foothills of the Western Ghats. It is about 65 km from Erode ,55 km from Tiruppur and 70 km from Coimbatore. As of 2011, the town had a population of 57,814.

Tiruppur Kumaran

Kumaran also known as Tiruppur Kumaran (04th October 1904 – 11 January 1932) was an Indian revolutionary who participated in the Indian independence movement.

Kumaran was born in Chennimalai in Madras Presidency, British India (current Erode district in Tamil Nadu). He founded Desa Bandhu Youth Association and led protests against the British. He died from injuries sustained from a police assault on the banks of Noyyal River in Tiruppur during a protest march against the British government on 11 January 1932. At the time of his death, he was holding the flag of the Indian Nationalists, which had been banned by the British giving rise to the epithet Kodi Kaththa Kumaran (Kumaran who protected the flag).A commemorative stamp was issued by India post in October 2004 on his 100th birth anniversary. A statue has been erected in Tirupur in his honor which is often used as a focal point for public demonstrations.

Varattupallam Dam

Varattu Pallam Dam is an artificial dam constructed in hills 12 km (7.5 mi) from Anthiyur in the Erode District. This dam irrigates nearby areas. A mountain road from Anthiyur leads to Kollegal.

Vellakoil

Vellakovil is a municipal town in Kangeyam taluk of Tirupur District, in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on National Highway 67 between Trichy and Coimbatore. The town is spread in an area of 64.75 km2. As of 2011, the town had a population of 40,359.

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