Ernest Ingersoll

Ernest Ingersoll (March 13, 1852 – November 13, 1946) was an American naturalist, writer and explorer.

Portrait of Ernest Ingersoll
Portrait of Ernest Ingersoll (no later than 1906)


A native of Monroe, Michigan, Ingersoll studied for a time at Oberlin College and afterward at Harvard University, where he was a pupil of Louis Agassiz. Agassiz died in 1873, and Ingersoll made his journalistic debut with an article for the New York Tribune in January 1874 on Agassiz' work, for which he received $40 and the request for more scientific articles. In 1874, he went West as zoologist in the Hayden survey of 1874. In 1875, Ingersoll published a scientific paper describing what he had collected, mostly mollusks. On the expedition he made friends with photographer William Henry Jackson. They were the first scientists to investigate and describe the Mesa Verde cliff dwellings. Ingersoll sent dispatches to the Tribune, and the result was an offer to join its staff that year, which he accepted. While working as a reporter, he also wrote articles for an antecedent of Field and Stream and other magazines.

In 1877, he made a second trip West, again writing articles for periodicals on his experiences. 1879 found him visiting Colorado and writing on mining operations. That year he also began his work describing shellfisheries for a joint project of the United States Fish Commission and the United States Census Bureau. That project lasted until 1881. His reports treated modern fisheries, and also discussed shellfish utilization much earlier by Native Americans and early societies worldwide.

Ingersoll was an early advocate of protection of wildlife and natural habitats, and preferred field notes and photographs to taking specimens. These views he presented in popular lectures around 1888. From the 1890s to 1905, he updated guide books for Rand McNally. He took up residence in New York City in 1900. At that time he was writing a weekly column for a Montreal paper. Letters he received from readers indicated a need for material on bird identification, and he did a series of articles presenting a list of Canadian birds with descriptions. He did a similar list for Canadian snakes, which his daughter Helen helped write and illustrate. Helen also helped illustrate some of his books. He stopped writing the column in 1938, when he retired. Ernest Ingersoll was 94 years old when he died in a Brattleboro, Vermont, nursing home after a four-year illness.


He married Mary Schofield (1853-1920) in 1873. They had two children: Helen (b. 1874), and Geoffrey (b. 1889).

Select bibliography



  • "At the Gateway of the Catskills". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 54 (Dec. 1876 – May 1877): 816–824.
  • "The City of Atlanta". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 60: 30–43. December 1879.
  • "La Villa Real de Santa Fe". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 60 (Dec. 1879 – May 1880): 667–682.
  • "Milwaukee". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 62 (Dec. 1880 - May 1881): 702–718.
  • "In the Wahlamet Valley of Oregon". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 65 (Jan.–Nov. 1882): 764–771.
  • "Wampum and its History". The American Naturalist. XVII (5): 469–479. May 1883. doi:10.1086/273355.
  • "The Scallop and its Fishery". The American Naturalist. XX (12): 1001–1006. December 1886. doi:10.1086/274381.

He also contributed articles to the New International Encyclopedia and Encyclopedia Americana.


External links

Media related to Ernest Ingersoll at Wikimedia Commons


The Boinae are a subfamily of boas found in Central and South America as well as the West Indies. Six genera are currently recognized.

But and ben

But and ben is an architectural style for a simple building, usually applied to a residence. The etymology is from the Scots language for a two-roomed cottage, The term has been used by archaeologists to describe a basic design of "outer room" conjoined with "inner room" as a residential building plan; the outer room, used as an antechamber or kitchen, is the but, while the inner room is the ben.Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald was born in a but and ben cottage in Lossiemouth, Scotland.

Cass Canfield

Augustus Cass Canfield (April 26, 1897 – March 27, 1986) was an American publishing executive who was the longtime president and chairman of Harper & Brothers, later Harper & Row.

Cave dweller

A cave dweller, or troglodyte (not to be confused with troglobite), is a human being who inhabits a cave or the area beneath the overhanging rocks of a cliff.


Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina.The genus includes the domestic cat. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm (15 to 17 in). The largest is the jungle cat with a head and body length from 62 to 76 cm (24 to 30 in).Felis species inhabit a wide range of different habitats, from swampland to desert, and generally hunt small rodents, birds and other small animals, depending on their local environment. The worldwide introduction of the domestic cat also made it common to urban landscapes around the globe.Genetic studies indicate that Felis, Otocolobus and Prionailurus diverged from a Eurasian progenitor about 6.2 million years ago, and that Felis species split off 3.04 to 0.99 million years ago.

Fur clothing

Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides. Fur is one of the oldest forms of clothing, and is thought to have been widely used as hominids first expanded outside Africa. Some view fur as luxurious and warm; however, others reject it due to moral concerns for animal rights. The term 'fur' is often used to refer to a coat, wrap, or shawl made from the fur of animals. Controversy exists regarding the wearing of fur coats, due to animal cruelty concerns. The most popular kinds of fur in the 1960s (known as the luxury fur) were blond mink, silver striped fox and red fox. These were mainly bought by the rich. Those who could not afford this wore pelts of wolf, Persian lamb or muskrat. It was common for ladies to wear a matching hat. However, in the 1950s, a 'must have' type of fur was the mutation fur (naturally nuanced colours) and fur trimmings on a coat that were beaver, lamb fur, Astrakhan and mink. To this day, some people consider fur as a trend and wear it.


Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) is an extinct subfamily of large, heavily armored relatives of armadillos, members of the mostly South American mammalian superorder Xenarthra. They developed in South America around 20 million years ago and spread to southern North America after the continents became connected several million years ago. The best-known genus within the subfamily is Glyptodon.

In 2016 an analysis of Doedicurus mtDNA found it was, in fact, nested within the modern armadillos as the sister group of a clade consisting of Chlamyphorinae and Tolypeutinae. For this reason, glyptodonts and all armadillos but Dasypus were relocated to a new family, Chlamyphoridae, and glyptodonts were demoted from the former family Glyptodontidae to a subfamily.

Harry Yount

Henry S. Yount (March 18, 1839 – May 16, 1924) was an American Civil War soldier, mountain man, professional hunter and trapper, prospector, wilderness guide and packer, seasonal employee of the United States Department of the Interior, and the first gamekeeper in Yellowstone National Park. He was nicknamed "Rocky Mountain Harry Yount".

Yount served two terms in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He first enlisted for a six-month term in November 1861. He was wounded and taken prisoner by the Confederate States Army in an opening skirmish of the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas in March 1862, and held as a prisoner of war for nearly a month until released in a prisoner exchange. He re-enlisted in August 1862 and served until the end of the war. He was promoted three times and was a company quartermaster sergeant when he was discharged in July 1865.

He worked as a hunter and a prospector, and as a bullwhacker for the U.S. Army, in the years following the Civil War. For seven years in the 1870s he worked as a guide, hunter and wrangler for the expeditions of the Hayden Geological Surveys, which mapped vast areas of the Rocky Mountains.

In 1880, Yount was hired by the United States Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, to be the first gamekeeper in Yellowstone National Park, and during his 14 months in that job wrote two annual reports for Schurz, which were then submitted to Congress. His reports described the challenges of protecting the wildlife in the first U.S. national park and influenced the culture of the National Park Service, which was founded 35 years later in 1916. Horace Albright, the second director of the National Park Service, called Yount the "father of the ranger service, as well as the first national park ranger". Yount was a prospector during much of the last four decades of his life.

Ingersoll (surname)

Ingersoll is a surname derived of the Old Norse words "Ingvar" or "Inger" and "sál", common words in found in modern Icelandic, Swedish and Norwegian.

Surnames derived from Old Norse have changed over time due the splitting of the language into modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Greenlandic, Faroese and Danish as well as names being changed with immigration into new countries like the United States.This surname has split over time into some of these common spellings: Ingersoll, Ingersöll, Ingersol, Ingersole, Ingvarsson, Ingersson, Inkersoll, and Ingwersol.

During the Viking Age, from the late 8th century to the mid-11th century, the Old Norse language expanded through Europe as the Vikings conquered and settled areas like Normandy (Normanni in Old Norse) and Inkersall (Ingvarsál in Old Norse).

Andrew Ingersoll (born 1940), American astronomer and professor of planetary science at the California Institute of Technology

Bob Ingersoll (born 1952), American lawyer and writer

C. Jared Ingersoll (1894-1988), American president of the Muskogee Company and brother of John H. W. Ingersoll

Charles Ingersoll (disambiguation), multiple people

Colin M. Ingersoll (1819-1903), United States. Representative from Connecticut, son of Ralph Isaacs Ingersoll

Ebon C. Ingersoll (1831-1879), United States Representative from Illinois

Ernest Ingersoll (1852-1946), American naturalist, writer and explorer

Frederick Ingersoll (1876-1927) American inventor, engineer, and entrepreneur who created the world's first amusement park chain

Jared Ingersoll (1749–1822), United States Constitution signer

John H. W. Ingersoll, American president of the Muskogee Company and brother of C. Jared Ingersoll

Jonathan Ingersoll (died 1823), Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut from 1816 to 1823

Jonathan E. Ingersoll, (born circa 1949) American economist

Joseph Reed Ingersoll (1786–1868), American lawyer and statesman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Ralph Isaacs Ingersoll (1789–1872), United States Representative from Connecticut

Ralph McAllister Ingersoll (1900–1985), American publisher

Robert G. Ingersoll (1833–1899), American orator and political leader

Robert Stephen Ingersoll (1914-2010), American businessman and diplomat

Robert Sturgis Ingersoll (1891-1973), American president of the Philadelphia Art Museum from 1948 to 1964

Robert Hawley Ingersoll, co-founder of the Ingersoll Watch Company

Royal R. Ingersoll (1847–1931), Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy

Royal E. Ingersoll (1883–1976), Admiral, U.S. Navy

Royal R. Ingersoll, II (1913–1942), Lieutenant, U.S. Navy

Simon Ingersoll (1818–1894), American founder of Ingersoll Rand

Stuart H. Ingersoll (1898-1983), Admiral, U.S. Navy

Thomas Ingersoll (1749–1812), Canadian early settler

Land bridge

A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands. A land bridge can be created by marine regression, in which sea levels fall, exposing shallow, previously submerged sections of continental shelf; or when new land is created by plate tectonics; or occasionally when the sea floor rises due to post-glacial rebound after an ice age.

Linnaean Society of New York

The Linnaean Society of New York (LSNY) was established in 1878, in the city of New York, United States of America, by a group of amateurs interested in natural science, especially ornithology. The founding members included H.P. Bailey, Eugene Pintard Bicknell, Ernest Ingersoll, Clinton Hart Merriam and John Burroughs.


The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.The name Muridae comes from the Latin mus (genitive muris), meaning "mouse".

Nuttall Ornithological Club

The Nuttall Ornithological Club is the oldest ornithology organization in the United States.

Oyster glove

An oyster glove is a special glove worn to protect the hand holding an oyster when opening it with an oyster knife. The oyster glove is only worn on the hand holding the oyster. This glove traditionally is made with a heavy leather palm but are now often made of chain mail.

Rossport, Ontario

Rossport is a dispersed rural community and unincorporated place in the Unorganized part of Thunder Bay District in northwestern Ontario, Canada. It is on the north shore of Lake Superior in geographic Lahontan Township, and is on Ontario Highway 17. Rossport is a designated place served by a local services board, and has a population of 65.

Stilt house

Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water. Stilt houses are built primarily as a protection against flooding, and they also keep out vermin. The shady space under the house can be used for work or storage.

Stoney Squaw Mountain

Stoney Squaw Mountain, often called just Stoney Squaw is a mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park, adjacent to the town of Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Stoney Squaw is located between Cascade Mountain and Mount Norquay, in the Vermilion Range of the Canadian Rockies. Stoney Squaw is the second smallest mountain adjacent to the townsite, taller only than Tunnel Mountain. It is much rounder than many of the other mountains nearby.

Ernest Ingersoll wrote in his 1892 "Canadian Guide Book" that the mountain takes its name "from the traditional story that some years ago a brave old Assiniboine woman sustained her husband, who lay sick for several months in their lodge at its base, by hunting upon its top and sides, where there are open glades which still form favourite spring feeding-places for the big-horn or mountain sheep. The name became official in 1922. The adjacent Cascade Mountain used to be referred to as Stoney Chief, though this name is now largely defunct.


Troglofauna are small cave-dwelling animals that have adapted to their dark surroundings. Troglofauna and stygofauna are the two types of subterranean fauna (based on life-history). Both are associated with subterranean environments – troglofauna are associated with caves and spaces above the water table and stygofauna with water. Troglofaunal species include spiders, insects, myriapods and others. Some troglofauna live permanently underground and cannot survive outside the cave environment. Troglofauna adaptations and characteristics include a heightened sense of hearing, touch and smell. Loss of under-used senses is apparent in the lack of pigmentation as well as eyesight in most troglofauna. Troglofauna insects may exhibit a lack of wings and longer appendages.

Wildlife conservation

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat. Wildlife plays an important role in balancing the ecosystem and provides stability to different natural processes of nature like rainfall(transpiration from plant),changing of temperature(heat evolution by animals), fertility of soil (making of manure by earthworm). The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and also to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike. Many nations have government agencies and NGO's dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent non-profit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living species that is in the danger of becoming extinct because the species has a very low or falling population, or because they are threatened by the varying environmental or prepositional parameters like (land slides,increasement in temperature above optimum temperature, acid rain).

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