Ernest Haycox

Ernest James Haycox (October 1, 1899 – October 13, 1950)[1] was an American author of Western fiction.

Biography

Haycox was born in Portland, Oregon, to William James Haycox and the former Martha Burghardt on October 1, 1899.[2] After receiving an education in the local schools of both Washington state and Oregon, he enlisted in the United States Army in 1915 and was stationed along the Mexican border in 1916.[2] During World War I he was in Europe, and after the war he spent one year at Reed College in Portland.[2] In 1923, Haycox graduated from the University of Oregon with a Bachelor of Arts degree in journalism,[3] where he also started writing under professor W. F. G. Thatcher.[2] In 1925, Haycox married Jill M. Chord, and they would have two children.[2]

He published two dozen novels and about 300 short stories, many of which appeared first in pulp magazines in the early 1920s. During the 1930s and '40s, he was a regular contributor to Collier's Weekly from 1931 and The Saturday Evening Post from 1943. Fans of his work included Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway, and the latter once wrote, "I read The Saturday Evening Post whenever it has a serial by Ernest Haycox."[4]

His story "Stage to Lordsburg" (1937) was made into the movie Stagecoach (1939), directed by John Ford and featuring John Wayne in the role that made him a star. The novel Trouble Shooter (1936), originally serialized in Collier's, was the basis for the movie Union Pacific (1939), directed by Cecil B. DeMille, starring Barbara Stanwyck and Joel McCrea. Haycox wrote the screenplay for Montana (1950), directed by Ray Enright, which stars Alexis Smith and Errol Flynn.

Haycox died after unsuccessful cancer surgery in 1950, at the age of 51, in Portland.[1] In 2005 the Western Writers of America voted Haycox one of the 24 best Western authors of the Twentieth Century.

Burnt Creek stories

While living in New York Haycox wrote his first series of interconnected stories set in Burnt Creek, a town in central Oregon.[5]

Stories set during the American Revolution

From 1924 through 1926 Haycox lived in New York city, and he became deeply interested in the American Revolution. Haycox made several trips to battlefields in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts and wrote eight stories and two novelettes set during that era. After publishing one of these stories, Haycox received a letter from a reader stating that Haycox did not describe the uniforms of the soldiers correctly. Haycox promptly purchased a book on the Revolutionary era military uniforms. After his move back to Oregon in 1926, Haycox concentrated on Westerns, and he precisely researched the military uniforms of eras he wrote about.[6]

New Hope stories

Appearing in Collier's between 1933 and 1938, these stories are set in New Hope, a trading town on the Missouri River in the 1880s. Many of these stories are told in the first person, a device Haycox used about a dozen times during his writing career.[7]

Serial and historical novels

Beginning in the mid-1930s, Haycox began to write novels and a few stories which are based on historical events. The first of these was Trouble Shooter (1936), followed by The Border Trumpet (1939), Alder Gulch (1942) and Bugles in the Afternoon (1943). At the same time as these novels were written, Haycox continued to write novels and short stories which had an ambiance and milieu of the West but which were not based on specific events or places. Somewhere in between these two kinds of novels is Trail Town, which is based on Abilene, Kansas, and Marshal Tom Smith,[8] but which is nonetheless a work of fiction, where Abilene becomes River Bend and Tom Smith becomes Dan Mitchell. Haycox did write a story set in Abilene with Sheriff Tom Smith as a character called On Texas Street. Haycox's historical novels are the ones which Professors Etulain and Tanner write most about in their essays and books about Haycox, but Luke Short preferred Haycox's non-historical novels: "My favorite Haycox yarns don’t lean on a known time or place…. In these stories, I suspect Haycox made his own geography, named his own towns and mountains and rivers; he peopled them with tough abrasive characters whose only law was their self will."[9]

Unpublished novel and story

Haycox wrote National Beauty in 1939 about a woman in Oregon who wins beauty contests, and goes to Hollywood, but is not successful in the movie industry. Collier's declined this novel,[10] and the manuscript apparently was destroyed, as it was not included in the preserved Ernest Haycox Papers.[11] Collier's also rejected the story "Boyhood."[12]

Land Rush stories

Starting in 1940 Haycox published five stories in Collier’s about settlers in a town named Ingrid. The stories are "Some Were Brave" (1940) (later retitled "Land Rush"), "Dark Land Waiting" (1940), "The Claim Jumpers" (1940), "Faithfully, Judith" (1942), and "Deep Winter" (1943). A sixth story, "Early Fall," was one of Haycox's rare rejections.[13]

Two novels concurrently serialized

Haycox was one of the most successful writers in the slick magazine market of the 1940s. In 1943 Collier's and The Saturday Evening Post serialized two different Haycox novels at the same time. Collier's serialized The Wild Bunch beginning on August 28, 1943, and continued on September 4, 1943, September 11, 1943, September 18, 1943, September 25, 1943 and concluded on October 2, 1943. The Saturday Evening Post serialized Bugles in the Afternoon beginning on August 21, 1943 and continued August 28, 1943, September 4, 1943, September 11, 1943, September 18, 1943, September 25, 1943, October 2, 1943, and concluded on October 9, 1943.[14]

The Mercy Family stories

At the end of 1948 through the beginning of 1949 Haycox published three stories, one in Collier's and two in The Saturday Evening Post, featuring the Mercy family. These stories are Haycox's "tribute to the pioneer mother."[15]

Quotations

"No sensible man watches his feet hit ground. He looks ahead to see what kind of ground they'll hit next." – Pioneer Loves. Call This Land Home

Selected works

Note: Many of Haycox's novels and stories have been published under more than one title. The list below shows the titles used for the original publications.

Novels

  • Free Grass (1928)
  • Chaffee of Roaring Hors (1929)
  • Whispering Range (1931)
  • Starlight Rider (1933)
  • Riders West (1934)
  • Rough Air (1934)
  • The Silver Desert (1935)
  • Trail Smoke (1936)
  • Trouble Shooter (1936)
  • Deep West (1937)
  • Sundown Jim (1937)
  • Man in the Saddle (1938)
  • The Border Trumpet (1939)
  • Saddle and Ride (1940)
  • Rim of the Desert (1940)
  • Trail Town (1941)
  • Alder Gulch (1942)
  • Action by Night (1943)
  • The Wild Bunch (1943)
  • Bugles in the Afternoon (1943—serialized in The Saturday Evening Post—Haycox's debut in that publication)
  • Canyon Passage (1945)
  • Long Storm (1946)
  • Head of the Mountain (1952)
  • The Earthbreakers (1952)
  • The Adventurers (1954)

Short stories and novellas

1920s
  • "The Trap Lifters" (1922)
  • "The Coolie Catcher" (1923)
  • "A Burnt Creek Yuletide" (1924—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "The Ditch to Freedom" (1924)
  • "Budd Dabbles in Homesteads" (1924—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "When Money Went to His Head" (1924—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "Stubborn People" (1924—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "A Wooing in the Wilds" (1925)
  • "Prairie Yule" (1925—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "Red Knives" (1925—Set in the Ohio River Valley during the American Revolution)
  • "Light of the West" (1926)
  • "A Battle Piece" (1926—Set during the American Revolution)
  • "Frontier Blood" (1926)
  • "False Face" (1926—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "Rockbound Honesty" (1926—A Burnt Creek story)
  • "The Code" (1926)
  • "The Timberline Fugitive" (1927)
  • "The Gun-Shot Path" (1927)
  • "Winds of Rebellion" (1927—Set during the American Revolution)
  • "Drums Roll" (1927—Set during the American Revolution)
  • "Deserter at Valley Forge" (1927—Set during the American Revolution)
  • "Under Western Skies" (1927)
  • "The Belle of Sevensticks" (1927)
  • "A Rider of the High Mesa" (1927)
  • "A New Deal in Sevensticks" (1927)
  • "One Night in Blackfoot" (1927)
  • "The Man From Montana" (1927)
  • "Bound South" (1928-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "Starlight and Gunflame" (1928)
  • "The Octopus of Pilgrim Valley" (1928)
  • "The Desert Eye" (1928)
  • "Secret River" (1928)
  • "A Municipal Feud" (1928-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "The Sheriff of Crooked Rib" (1928)
  • "The Grim Canyon" (1928)
  • "Guns Up!" (1928)
  • "Sevensticks Gambler" (1928)
  • "Contention—Two Miles Ahead (1929-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "The Bandit from Paloma County" (1929)
  • "Renegade Law" (1929)
  • "Brand Fires on the Ridge" (1929)
  • "The Return of a Fighter" (1929)
  • "Fighting Man" (1929)
  • "Invitation by Bullet" (1929-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "Discovery Gulch" (1929)
  • "Night Raid" (1929-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "Wild Horse Lode" (1929)
  • "The Trail of the Barefoot Pony (1929-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "Five Hard Men" (1929-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "By Rope and Lead" (1929)--a Peach Murgatroyd story, not collected in the short story collection of the same name. Collected in Powder Smoke and Other Stories.
1930s
  • "The Killers" (1930-A Breedlove-Bowers story)
  • "Pistol Gap" (1930)
  • "Son of the West" (1930)
  • "Dolorosa, Here I Come" (1931—first appearance in Collier's)[16]
  • "Crossfire" (1931)
  • "Manhunt" (1931)
  • "The Gun Singer" (1931)
  • "Old Tough Heart" (1931)
  • "Ride Out!" (1931)
  • "Smoke Talk" (1931)
  • "McQuestion Rides" (1931)
  • "The Feudists" (1932)
  • "The Fighting Call" (1932)
  • "The Roaring Hour" (1932)
  • "Hang Up My Gun" (1932)
  • "Blizzard Camp" (1932)
  • "The Kid From River Red" (1932)
  • "Found Out" (1932)
  • "Breed of the Frontier" (1932)
  • "Farewell, Laramie, Farewell!" (1932)
  • "Their Own Lights" (1933—a New Hope story)
  • "The Decision" (1933)
  • "At Wolf Creek Tavern" (1933)
  • "The Hour of Fury" (1933—a New Hope story)
  • "Gambler's Heart" (1933)
  • "Odd Chance" (1933)
  • "Their Own Lights" (1933—aka "Episode −1880–" a New Hope Story)
  • "Second-Money Man" (1933)
  • "Smoky Pass" (1934) (A revised version of this serial was published as Riders West, by Doubleday Doran, not as Rough Air as is sometimes claimed.)
  • "Pride" (1934)
  • "The Man with Smoke Gray Eyes(1934—a New Hope story)
  • "High Wind" (1935)
  • "Way Up the Bozeman" (1935)
  • "Make Me Believe" (1935)
  • "Against the Mob" (1935—a New Hope story)
  • "Once and for All (1935—a New Hope story)
  • "Born to Conquer" (1936—from 1936 to 1942 Haycox's stories and novels appeared in Collier's)
  • "The Stranger" (1936)
  • "Proud People" (1936—a New Hope story)
  • "Woman Hungry" (1937)
  • "Stage to Lordsburg" (1937)
  • "Free Land" (1937)
  • "Scout Detail" (1938-a Military story)
  • "This Woman and This Man" (1938-not a Western story.)
  • "Down the River" (1938—a New Hope story)
  • "A Man Needs an Answer" (1938)
  • "An Interval in Youth" (1938—a New Hope story)
  • "Blizzard" (1939)
  • "Fourth Son" (1939)
  • "The Long Years" (1939)
  • "A Girl Must Wait" (1939-not a Western story.)
1940s and later
  • "The Drifter" (1940)(Collier's title for Haycox's novel The Rim of the Desert)
  • "The Silver Saddle" (1940)
  • "Change of Station" (1940)
  • "Room 515" (1940)
  • "On Don Jaime Street" (1940)
  • "Some Were Brave" (1940) (Later retitled "Land Rush" the first of the Land Rush stories.
  • "Dark Land Waiting" (1940) (The second Land Rush story.)
  • "The Claim Jumpers" (1940) (The third Land Rush story.)
  • "Weight of Command" (1940-a military story)
  • "Martinet" (1941-a military story)
  • "The Quarrel" (1941)
  • "Dispatch for the General" (1942-a military story)
  • "Second Choice" (1942)
  • "Faithfully, Judith" (1942) (The fourth Land Rush story.)
  • "Always Remember" (1942)
  • "A Young Man's Fancy" (1942)
  • "Skirmish at Dry Fork" (1942)
  • "Time of Change" (1942)
  • "The Colonel's Choice" (1942-a military story)
  • "Deep Winter" (1943) (The fifth Land Rush story.)
  • "Paycheck" (1943)
  • "Only the Best" (1943)
  • "From the Tuality" (1943)
  • "At Anselm's" (1944)
  • "Departure" (1946)
  • "Snow in the Canyon" (1948)
  • "Mrs. Benson" (1948)
  • "Custom of the Country" (1948)
  • "Dead-Man Trail" (1948)
  • "Night of Parting" (1948)
  • "Cry Deep, Cry Still" (Collier's November 28, 1948)--Story features the Mercy family.
  • "Call This Land Home" (Saturday Evening Post December 4, 1948)--Story features the Mercy family.
  • "Things Remembered" (1949)
  • "Violent Interlude" (Saturday Evening Post February 26. 1949)--Story features the Mercy family.
  • "Outlaw's Reckoning" (1949)
  • "The Land That Women Hate" (1949)
  • "The Inscrutable Man" (1951)

Story and novella collections

  • Outlaw (1939)
  • Murder on the Frontier (1942—These stories appeared in Collier's from June 1931 to February 1942.)
  • Pioneer Loves (1948)
  • Prairie Guns (1949)
  • The Last Rodeo (1949)
  • Rough Justice (1950)
  • By Rope and Lead (1951)
  • Rawhide Range (1952—Collects ten stories first published in Collier's between 1939 and 1949.)
  • Vengeance Trail (1955)
  • Winds of Rebellion (1955—Collects Haycox's Revolutionary War stories.)
  • Gun Talk (1956—Collects six pulp stories published in Short Stories Magazine between 1927 and 1933.)
  • Brand Fires on the Ridge (1959)
  • The Feudists (1960)
  • Best Western Stories (1960 edition published by Bantam collects Rough Justice, By Rope and Lead, Pioneer Loves & Murder on the Frontier. 1975 edition published by Signet collects only Rough Justice & & Murder on the Frontier.)
  • The Man From Montana (1964—Collects 11 stories.)
  • Outlaw Guns (1964)
  • Sixgun Duo (1965)
  • Trigger Trio (1966)
  • Powder Smoke and Other Stories (1966)
  • Guns of Fury (1967)
  • Starlight and Gunflame (1973)
  • Frontier Blood (1974)
  • Burnt Creek: A Frontier Duo (1996—Collects Haycox's Burnt Creek stories and "Red Knives" a story set in the Ohio Valley)
  • New Hope (1998—Collects—The Roaring Hour—The Kid from Red River—The Hour of Fury—Haycox's New Hope Stories)

Filmography

References

  1. ^ a b Haycox, Ernest, Jr. "Ernest Haycox (1899–1950)". Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission. Retrieved June 14, 2010.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e Corning, Howard M. (1989) Dictionary of Oregon History. Binfords & Mort Publishing. p. 110.
  3. ^ Five join SOJC's Hall of Achievement Archived September 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission". ochcom.org.
  5. ^ Burnt Creek p.7
  6. ^ Tanner, Ernest Haycox, Twayne, pp 30–32
  7. ^ New Hope pp 7–8
  8. ^ Etulain, Richard W., Ernest Haycox, p. 23, Bosie State University Press, Boise, Idaho 1988
  9. ^ Luke Short—quoted in Tuska, Jon (November 1, 1999). The Western Story: A Chronological Treasury. University of Nebraska Press. p. xxi. ISBN 9780803294394.
  10. ^ Tanner, Ernest Haycox, Twayne, pp 90–91
  11. ^ "Guide to the Ernest Haycox papers 1922-1974". wsu.edu.
  12. ^ Tanner, Ernest Haycox, Twayne, p. 72
  13. ^ Haycox Jr, On a Silver Desert, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 2003 pp 162–163
  14. ^ Guide to the Ernest Haycox Papers 1922–1974 Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Tanner, Ernest Haycox, Twayne, p. 97-99
  16. ^ Haycox first story for Collier's appeared in the February 28, 1931 issue—Etulain, Richard W., Ernest Haycox, p. 9, Bosie State University Press, Boise, Idaho 1988

External links

Apache War Smoke

Apache War Smoke is a 1952 American Western film starring Gilbert Roland, Glenda Farrell, and Robert Horton. The film was directed by Harold F. Kress and is based on the short story "Stage Station" by Ernest Haycox. It was released by MGM on September 25, 1952. An outlaw murders several Apaches and flees to a stagecoach station with the tribe in hot pursuit.

Bugles in the Afternoon

Bugles in the Afternoon is a 1952 Western feature film starring Ray Milland, based on the novel by Ernest Haycox. The story features the Battle of the Little Big Horn. It was filmed in Technicolor and released by Warner Bros..

Canyon Passage

Canyon Passage is a 1946 Technicolor Western film directed by Jacques Tourneur and set in frontier Oregon. It starred Dana Andrews, Susan Hayward and Brian Donlevy. Featuring love triangles and an Indian uprising, it was adapted from the Saturday Evening Post novel Canyon Passage by Ernest Haycox. Hoagy Carmichael (music) and Jack Brooks (lyrics) were nominated for Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Ole Buttermilk Sky".

Ernest Haycox Estate

The Ernest Haycox Estate, located in southwest Portland, Oregon, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Escape (radio program)

Escape was radio's leading anthology series of high-adventure radio dramas, airing on CBS from July 7, 1947 to September 25, 1954. Since the program did not have a regular sponsor like Suspense, it was subjected to frequent schedule shifts and lower production budgets, although Richfield Oil signed on as a sponsor for five months in 1950.

Despite these problems, Escape enthralled many listeners during its seven-year run. The series' well-remembered opening combined Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain with this introduction, as intoned by William Conrad and later Paul Frees:

"Tired of the everyday grind? Ever dream of a life of romantic adventure? Want to get away from it all? We offer you... Escape!"Following the opening theme, a second announcer (usually Roy Rowan) would add:

"Escape! Designed to free you from the four walls of today for a half-hour of high adventure!"

Heaven Only Knows (film)

Heaven Only Knows is a 1947 Western fantasy film directed by Albert S. Rogell, starring Robert Cummings, Brian Donlevy and Marjorie Reynolds.

List of Ace western numeric-series single titles

Ace Books have published hundreds of western titles, starting in 1952. Most of these were Ace Doubles (dos-à-dos format), but they also published a few single volumes. Between 1952 and 1968, the books had a letter-series identifier; after that date they were given five digit numeric serial numbers. There are 38 number-series western titles in the list below, but it may be incomplete.

The list given here gives a date of publication; in all cases this refers to the date of publication by Ace, and not the date of original publication of the novels. For more information about the history of these titles, see Ace Books, which includes a discussion of the serial numbering conventions used and an explanation of the letter-code system.

04745 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Bandit of Hell's Bend

14194 WE Nelson Nye Death Valley Slim

14198 WE John Bickham Decker's Campaign

14240 WE Wayne C. Lee Die-Hard

14247 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Deputy Sheriff of Comanche County

22725 WE Nelson Nye Hellbound for Ballarat (1970)

28911 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Girl from Hollywood

29741 WE Todhunter Ballard Gold in California (1965)

29743 WE Todhunter Ballard Gold in California (1965)

30710 WE Giles A. Lutz Gun Rich

32575 WE Charles O. Locke The Hell Bent Kid

48877 WE Giles A. Lutz The Lonely Ride

48918 WE Nelson Nye Long Run

51642 WE Ray Hogan The Man from Barranca Negra

52740 WE L.P. Homes The Maverick Star (1969)

54460 WE Edgar Rice Burrough The Mucker (1974)

64512 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Outlaw of Torn

67131 WE L. L. Foreman Plundering Gun

71076 WE Clifton Adams Reckless Men

71816 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Return of the Mucker

72280 WE Edgar Rice Burroughs The Rider

72360 WE John Callahan Ride the Wild Land & Jernigan (1965)

73425 WE L. L. Foreman Rogue's Legacy (1968)

75617 WE Ray Hogan Showdown on Texas Flat

76015 WE Robert Mccaig The Shadow Maker (1970)

76181 WE Louis L'Amour (as Jim Mayo) Showdown at Yellow Butte

77520 WE Wayne Lee Son of a Gunman

77918 WE James Powell Stage to Seven Springs

78830 WE Giles A. Lutz The Stranger

79805 WE Roy Manning Tangled Trail

80400 WE Nelson Nye The Texas Gun

80575 WE Nelson Nye Thief River

82401 WE Ernest Haycox Trigger Trio

82410 WE D.B. Newton Triple Trouble

82430 WE Nelson Nye Trouble At Quinn's Crossing

88010 WE T.V. Olsen Westward They Rode

90426 WE Lee Hoffman Gunfight at Laramie

90701 WE Robert J. Hogan The Wolver

List of Armed Services Editions

Armed Services Editions (ASEs) were small paperback books of fiction and nonfiction that were distributed in the American military during World War II. From 1943 to 1947, some 122 million copies of more than 1,300 ASE titles were published and printed by the Council on Books in Wartime (CBW) and distributed to servicemembers, with whom they were enormously popular.

This list of all 1,322 ASEs is based, unless otherwise indicated, on the data in appendix B to Molly Guptill Manning's book When Books Went To War (2014), a history of the ASEs and related efforts to promote wartime reading in the United States. Some full author names are taken from the list in the appendix to John Y. Cole's study of the ASEs from 1984.

Man in the Saddle (1951 film)

Man in the Saddle is a 1951 Western film directed by Andre DeToth starring Randolph Scott. The screenplay is based on the novel of the same name by Ernest Haycox.Man in the Saddle was the first of the many lucrative collaborations between its star Randolph Scott and producer Harry Joe Brown.The film's plot centers on a farmer (Scott) who turns to violence when a powerful and ruthless land baron (Knox) tries to take over his land. In the process he is caught between two women, the ambitious Laurie (Leslie) and the down-to-earth Nan (Drew). The climax of the film is a fierce fistfight between Scott and John Russell.

Marilyn Krysl

Marilyn Krysl (born 1942) is an American writer of short stories and poetry who is known for her quirky and witty storytelling. She has published four short story collections along with seven collections of poetry. She has won several awards for her work, including the 2008 Richard Sullivan Prize for short fiction for her collection of short stories, Dinner With Osama, which is a sociopolitical satire of post-9/11 America. Krysl also submits work to The Atlantic journal, The Nation journal, and The New Republic journal, as well as being an editor of Many Mountains Moving: A Literary Journal of Diverse, Contemporary Voices along with Naomi Horii.

Montana (1950 film)

Montana is a 1950 American Technicolor Western film directed by Ray Enright and starring Errol Flynn. It was only the second time Flynn played an Australian on screen, the first time being Desperate Journey (1942).The film was Flynn's fourth and final pairing with frequent co-star Alexis Smith.

Popular Library

Popular Library was a New York paperback book company established in 1942 by Leo Margulies and Ned Pines, who at the time were major pulp magazine and newspaper publishers. The company's logo of a pine tree was a tribute to Pines, and another Popular Library signature visual was a reduced black-and-white copy of the front cover on the title page.

A native of Malden, Massachusetts, Pines became the president of Pines Publications in 1928 and continued to lead the company until 1961. He was the president of Popular Library from 1942 to 1966 and its chairman from 1966 to 1968. Retiring in 1971, he continued to work as a consultant.

Short Stories (magazine)

Short Stories was an American fiction magazine that existed between 1890 and 1959.

Stagecoach (1939 film)

Stagecoach is a 1939 American Western film directed by John Ford and starring Claire Trevor and John Wayne in his breakthrough role. The screenplay, written by Dudley Nichols, is an adaptation of "The Stage to Lordsburg", a 1937 short story by Ernest Haycox. The film follows a group of strangers riding on a stagecoach through dangerous Apache territory.

Stagecoach was the first of many Westerns that Ford shot using Monument Valley, in the American Southwest on the Arizona–Utah border, as a location, many of which also starred John Wayne. Scenes from Stagecoach, including a famous sequence introducing John Wayne's character the Ringo Kid, blended shots of Monument Valley with shots filmed on the Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, California, RKO Encino Movie Ranch, and other locations. Similar geographic incongruencies are evident throughout the film, up to the closing scene of Ringo (Wayne) and Dallas (Trevor) departing Lordsburg, in southwestern New Mexico, by way of Monument Valley.

The film has long been recognized as an important work that transcends the Western genre. Philosopher Robert B. Pippin has observed that both the collection of characters and their journey "are archetypal rather than merely individual" and that the film is a "mythic representation of the American aspiration toward a form of politically meaningful equality." In 1995, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in their National Film Registry. Still, Stagecoach has not avoided controversy. Like most Westerns of the era, its depiction of Native Americans as simplistic savages has been criticized as clear evidence of racism.

Union Pacific (film)

Union Pacific is a 1939 American dramatic western film directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Barbara Stanwyck and Joel McCrea. Based on the novel Trouble Shooter by Western fiction author Ernest Haycox, the film is about the building of the railroad across the American West.

University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication

The University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication (SOJC) is a public post-secondary school in the U.S. state of Oregon. The first journalism class was offered in 1901, and in 1912 the Department of Journalism was formed by newspaperman Eric Allen. The department was elevated to the School of Journalism four years later in 1916. The SOJC is located in Allen Hall on the University of Oregon's Eugene campus. Named after Eric Allen. Dean Juan-Carlos Molleda transferred to the UO SOJC in 2016 from the University of Florida's Public Relations department. The school is one of 112 journalism schools in the U.S. accredited by the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications. The school also runs the George S. Turnbull Portland Center in Portland. SOJC organizes the annual Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.The average graduating class of the SOJC per year is around 560 students per year(ir.uoregon.edu/students) with many different focuses within the SOJC. There are four different avenues that a student can take within the SOJC including Advertising, Public Relations, Traditional Journalism also known as Super J, and Media Studies. Each different avenues have different clubs connected with the focus. For example, Public Relations has PRSSA which connects students with professionals within the Public Relations field. Super J has Duck TV which gives students a chance to practice their Journalism skills in a professional manner while still being under the SOJC.

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