Ernest Gordon Rupp

Ernest Gordon Rupp FBA (1910–1986) was a Methodist preacher, historian and Luther scholar.[1]

Early life and education

Rupp was born on 7 January 1910 in London and attended Owen's School in Islington.[1] He studied history at King's College London,[2] theology at Cambridge's Wesley House, and in Strasbourg and Basel during 1936–1937.[3]


From 1938 to 1946 he served as a Methodist minister in New Eltham and Chislehurst (southeast London). He came to public notice in 1945 when he challenged the charge that Martin Luther was the spiritual ancestor of Hitler. The charge was made by Peter F. Wiener in a widely distributed pamphlet, Martin Luther: Hitler's Spiritual Ancestor.[1]

In 1946, Rupp served as the assistant to the Principle of Wesley House. In 1947, he was appointed assistant professor at Richmond College.[4]

Rupp participated in the reconstruction efforts of the World Council of Churches in Europe.[5] In 1947, he visited Berlin, Nuremberg, Stuttgart, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Bremen and Delmenhorst. During this time, he lectured at the conference of the Methodist church of Northwest Germany.[1]

After his tenure at Richmond (1947–1952), he served at Wesley House in Cambridge. In 1956, he was appointed professor of Church History at the University of Manchester. He lectured there until 1967, when he returned to Wesley House in Cambridge as its Principal. At the same time (1968–1977) he served as Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Cambridge. In 1968, he served as the president of the British Methodist church.[1] Rupp received honorary doctorates from Cambridge, University of Aberdeen, University of Manchester and University of Paris, and was appointed as a Fellow of the British Academy in 1970.[1]

Rupp died on 19 December 1986 in Cambridge.

Works by Gordon Rupp

  • Holy Book and holy tradition: International colloquium held in the Faculty of Theology, University of Manchester. ed. F.F.Bruce & E. Gordon Rupp. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1968.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. "I seek my brethren:" Bishop Bell and the German Churches. London: Epworth, 1975.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Is this a Christian Country?, 1941.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Luther's progress to the Diet of Worms, 1521.NL: NP, 1951.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. The King of Glory: Studies in St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians London: Epworth Press, 1940.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Martin Luther, Hitler's Cause or Cure? London and Redhill, Lutterworth press, 1945.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Religion in England 1688 - 1791. London : S.C.M. Press, 1975.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. The Righteousness of God: Luther studies., London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1953.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Study in the making of the English Protestant Tradition, Mainly into the Reign of Henry VIII. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1947.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Thomas More: the King's good servant, New York : Collins, 1978.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Principalities and Powers: Studies in the Christian Conflict in History, London: Epworth, 1952.
  • Rupp, E. Gordon. Patterns of Reformation, London: Epworth, 1969.


  1. ^ a b c d e Karl Heinz Voigt (1994). "Rupp, Ernest Gordon". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 8. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 1031–1034. ISBN 3-88309-053-0.
  2. ^ John Munsey Turner, "Gordon Rupp (1910–1986) as Historian" Epworth Review 18 (1991) No. 1:70.
  3. ^ Turner, 70.
  4. ^ Turner, 71.
  5. ^ Turner, 77.


  • Turner, John Munsey. "Gordon Rupp (1910-1986) as Historian" Epworth Review 18 (1991) No. 1:70-82.
  • Karl Heinz Voigt (1994). "Rupp, Ernest Gordon". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 8. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 1031–1034. ISBN 3-88309-053-0.

Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants. His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and other Protestant Reformers. Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Harmenszoon) was a student of Theodore Beza (Calvin's successor) at the Theological University of Geneva. Arminianism is known to some as a soteriological diversification of Protestant Calvinist Christianity; to others, Arminianism is a reclamation of early Church theological consensus.Dutch Arminianism was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the States General of the Netherlands. The Synod of Dort (1618–19) was called by the States General to consider the Five Articles of Remonstrance. These articles asserted that

Salvation (and condemnation on the day of judgment) was conditioned by the graciously-enabled faith (or unbelief) of man;

The Atonement is qualitatively adequate for all men, "yet that no one actually enjoys [experiences] this forgiveness of sins, except the believer ..." and thus is limited to only those who trust in Christ;

"That man has not saving grace of himself, nor of the energy of his free will," and unaided by the Holy Spirit, no person is able to respond to God's will;

The (Christian) Grace "of God is the beginning, continuance, and accomplishment of any good," yet man may resist the Holy Spirit; and

Believers are able to resist sin through Grace, and Christ will keep them from falling; but whether they are beyond the possibility of ultimately forsaking God or "becoming devoid of grace ... must be more particularly determined from the Scriptures.""These points", note Keith D. Stanglin and Thomas H. McCall, "are consistent with the views of Arminius; indeed, some come verbatim from his Declaration of Sentiments. Those who signed this remonstrance and others who supported its theology have since been known as Remonstrants."Many Christian denominations have been influenced by Arminian views on the will of man being freed by Grace prior to regeneration, notably the Baptists in the 16th century, the Methodists in the 18th century and the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 19th century. Some falsely assert that Universalists and Unitarians in the 18th and 19th centuries were theologically linked with Arminianism. Denominations such as the Anabaptists (beginning in 1525), Waldensians (pre-Reformation), and other groups prior to the Reformation have also affirmed that each person may choose the contingent response of either resisting God's grace or yielding to it.

The original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius himself are commonly defined as Arminianism, but more broadly, the term may embrace the teachings of Hugo Grotius, John Wesley, and others as well. Classical Arminianism, to which Arminius is the main contributor, and Wesleyan Arminianism, to which John Wesley is the main contributor, are the two main schools of thought. Wesleyan Arminianism is often identical with Methodism. Some schools of thought, notably semipelagianism—which teaches that the first step of Salvation is by human will—are confused as being Arminian in nature. But classical Arminianism holds that the first step of Salvation is solely the grace of God. Historically, the Council of Orange (529) condemned semi-Pelagian thought (as well as Supralapsarian Calvinism), and is accepted by some as a document which can be understood as teaching a doctrine between Augustinian thought and semi-Pelagian thought, relegating Arminianism to the orthodoxy of the early Church fathers.The two systems of Calvinism and Arminianism share both history and many doctrines, and the history of Christian theology. Arminianism is related to Calvinism historically. However, because of their differences over the doctrines of divine predestination and election, many people view these schools of thought as opposed to each other. The distinction is whether God allows His desire to save all to be resisted by an individual's will (in the Arminian doctrine) or if God's grace is irresistible and limited to only some (in Calvinism). Put another way, is God's sovereignty shown, in part, through His allowance of free decisions? Some Calvinists assert that the Arminian perspective presents a synergistic system of Salvation and therefore is not only by Grace, while Arminians firmly reject this conclusion. Many consider the theological differences to be crucial differences in doctrine, while others find them to be relatively minor.

Arthur Bury

Arthur Bury, D.D. (1624-1714?) was an English college head and Anglican theologian of controversial views. His 1690 antitrinitarian work, The Naked Gospel, first published anonymously, was commanded to be burnt at Oxford, and, in a complex sequence of events involving legal action, Bury lost his position as Rector of Exeter College, Oxford after being expelled initially in 1689.

William Prideaux Courtney in the Dictionary of National Biography stated that "His object was to free the gospel from the additions and corruptions of later ages, and he sums up its doctrines 'in two precepts—believe and repent." Jonathan Israel characterizes Bury as a “crypto-Socinian”; he is now often claimed as a Unitarian sympathizer, with a strong interest in the monotheism of Islam. Bury was in fact in the tradition of latitudinarianism and Protestant irenicism, and the early Unitarian Thomas Firmin had a hand in the publication, which suggested that a minimal set of articles of Christian faith should suffice; but he included Arianism as an acceptable position for salvation.


Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of God's law for believers, among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich. His followers were instantly deemed Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Very soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers. The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was already being developed. The movement was first called Calvinism, referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead. Some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, and Gordon Clark were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, R. C. Sproul, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, and Michael Horton.

Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity; most are presbyterian or congregationalist, though some are episcopalian. Calvinism is largely represented by Continental Reformed, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches.

Christian theology

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theologians may undertake the study of Christian theology for a variety of reasons, such as in order to:

help them better understand Christian tenets

make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions

defend Christianity against objections and criticism

facilitate reforms in the Christian church

assist in the propagation of Christianity

draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or perceived needChristian theology has permeated much of Western culture, especially in pre-modern Europe.

Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History

The Dixie Professorship of Ecclesiastical History is one of the senior professorships in history at the University of Cambridge.

Lord Mayor of London in the 16th century, Sir Wolstan Dixie, left funds to found both scholarships and fellowships at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1878 the fellowships were abolished and replaced by the professorship that still bears his name.

Free will in theology

Free will in theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. Religions vary greatly in their response to the standard argument against free will and thus might appeal to any number of responses to the paradox of free will, the claim that omniscience and free will are incompatible.

Johannes Wolleb

Johannes Wolleb (Wollebius) (1589–1629) was a Swiss Protestant theologian. He was a student of Amandus Polanus, and followed in the tradition of a Reformed scholasticism, a formal statement of the views arising from the Protestant Reformation.He was the successor of Johann Jakob Grynaeus at Basel Cathedral. The Compendium Theologiae Christianae of 1626 is his major work; it is shorter than the Syntagma Theologiae Christianae (1609) of Polanus, and served as an abridgement and development. It was translated into English by Alexander Ross, as Abridgement of Christian Divinitie (1650).Wolleb influenced the Westminster Shorter and Larger Catechisms. His Compendium, with William Ames's Medulla, and Francis Turretin's writings, were used as textbooks into the 18th century and beyond. In the late 17th century, Wolleb's system began to displace Ames's in favour at Harvard University. Students at Yale University in the early 18th century used to study the Abridgement every Friday afternoon; the books by Wolleb and Ames were written into the university Regulations (1745).

In April 1784, the Compendium Theologiae was replaced with work from the new dissenting academies in England. Philip Doddridge (1712-1749) whose "Course of Lectures on Pneumatology, Ethics and Divinity became the new primary text for the divinity. Harvard began to separate the Divinity School from the 'other views'. This action placed the Divinity school's use of Wolleb's works squarely into the newly formed Divinity school at Harvard. Quincy, Josiah. History of Harvard University Vol ii. Boston. 1860 p 260.

List of people educated at Dame Alice Owen's School

Dame Alice Owen's School is a partially selective secondary school and sixth form with academy status located in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire in southern England. The school was founded in Islington as a boys' school for 30 students in 1613, which makes the school one of the oldest in the United Kingdom. It is named after its founder, the 17th-century philanthropist Alice Owen. Over time, the boys' school expanded. A girls' school was built in 1886, and the two were merged into a mixed school in 1973; after this, the school moved to its current location gradually between 1973 and 1976.

The school consistently achieves excellent examination results and has been rated outstanding by the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) in 2009. Its alumni include actors, musicians, sportspeople, scientists and politicians.


Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation.The divide centered primarily on two points: the proper source of authority in the church, often called the formal principle of the Reformation, and the doctrine of justification, often called the material principle of Lutheran theology. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition.Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination.

Owen Chadwick

William Owen Chadwick (20 May 1916 – 17 July 2015) was a British Anglican priest, academic, rugby international, writer and prominent historian of Christianity. As a leading academic, Chadwick became Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History from 1958 to 1968 and Regius Professor of History from 1968 to 1983. From 1956 to 1983, Chadwick was elected and served as the Master of Selwyn College, Cambridge.

In his obituaries, Chadwick was described as "one of the great religious historians of our time" by The Independent, and as "one of the most remarkable men of letters of the 20th century" by The Guardian.


Rupp or RUPP can refer to:

Rational Unified Process Product

Royal University of Phnom Penh

Roads used as public paths,Rights of way in England and Wales

Rights of way in ScotlandWarren Rupp Observatory

Rupp Industries, a Mansfield, Ohio producer of go-karts, mini-bikes, and snowmobiles from the late 1950s until 1978; founded by car racer Mickey RuppPeople called Rupp or Ruppe:

Adolph Rupp (1901–1977), an American basketball coach

Adolph Rupp Trophy, an American basketball trophy

Rupp Arena, an American basketball arena

Bernd Rupp (b. 1942), a German football player

Debra Jo Rupp (b. 1951), an American television actress

Duane Rupp (b. 1938), a Canadian ice hockey player

Ernest Gordon Rupp (1910–1986), a British preacher and historian

Galen Rupp (b. 1986), an American athlete

George Erik Rupp (b. 1942), an American educator and theologian

Hans Georg Rupp (1907-1989), German judge

Heinrich Bernhard Rupp (1688-1719), a German botanist

Herman Rupp (1872–1956), an Australian clergyman and botanist

Kerry Rupp, an American basketball coach

Leila J. Rupp (b. 1950), an American historian and feminist

Loret Miller Ruppe (1936–1996), an American administrator and diplomat

Michael Rupp (b. 1980), an American ice hockey player

Mickey Rupp (b. 1936), an American racecar driver

Pat Rupp (1942–2006), an American ice hockey player

Philip Ruppe (b. 1926), an American politician

Rainer Rupp (b. 1945), East German spy

Scott T. Rupp, an American politician

Sieghardt Rupp (1931–2015), an Austrian actor

Terry Rupp (born 1966), an American college baseball coach

Salvation in Christianity

Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various Christian denominations, being a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, as well as within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate. The fault lines include conflicting definitions of depravity, predestination, atonement, and most pointedly, justification.

Stephen Nye

Stephen Nye (1648–1719) was an English clergyman, known as a theological writer and for his Unitarian views.

Wesley House

Wesley House was founded as a Methodist theological college (or seminary) in Jesus Lane, Cambridge, England. It opened in 1921 as a place for the education of Methodist ministers. It was a founding member of the Cambridge Theological Federation. While serving as a gateway to theological scholarship for students and scholars of the Wesleyan and Methodist traditions from around the world, it is independent of the University of Cambridge.

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