Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover

Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Hanover. As a fifth son, Ernest seemed unlikely to become a monarch, but none of his four elder brothers had a legitimate son who survived infancy. The Salic Law, which barred succession to or through a female, prevailed in Hanover; therefore, when his elder brother King William IV died in 1837, Ernest succeeded him as King of Hanover. In the United Kingdom the succession to the monarchy was determined by male-preference primogeniture, a different system, and his niece Victoria became queen, thus ending the personal union between the British and Hanoverian crowns that had existed since 1714.

Ernest was born in England but was sent to Hanover in his adolescence for his education and military training. While serving with Hanoverian forces near Tournai against Revolutionary France, he received a disfiguring facial wound. In 1799, he was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale. Although his marriage in 1815 to his twice-widowed cousin Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz met with the disapproval of his mother, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, it proved a happy one. By 1817, King George III had only one legitimate grandchild, Princess Charlotte of Wales, and when she died in childbirth, Ernest was the senior son to be both married and not estranged from his wife. This gave him some prospect of succeeding to the British throne. However, both of his unmarried elder brothers quickly married and King George III's fourth son, Edward, Duke of Kent, fathered the eventual British monarch, Victoria.

Ernest was an active member of the House of Lords, where he maintained an extremely conservative voting record. There were persistent allegations (reportedly spread by his political foes) that he had murdered his valet and had fathered a son by his sister, Princess Sophia. Before Victoria succeeded to the British throne, it was rumoured that Ernest intended to murder her and take the throne himself. When King William IV died on 20 June 1837, Ernest acceded to the Hanoverian throne. Becoming Hanover's first resident ruler since George I, he had a generally successful fourteen-year reign but excited controversy when he dismissed the Göttingen Seven (including the two Brothers Grimm) from their professorial positions for agitating against his policies.

Ernest Augustus
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Portrait by George Dawe, 1828
King of Hanover
Reign20 June 1837 –
18 November 1851
PredecessorWilliam IV
SuccessorGeorge V
Born5 June 1771
Buckingham House, London
Died18 November 1851 (aged 80)
Hanover
Burial26 November 1851
SpouseFrederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
IssueGeorge V of Hanover
HouseHanover
FatherGeorge III of the United Kingdom
MotherCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Signature
Ernest Augustus's signature

Early life (1771–1799)

Gainesboroughernest
The young Ernest Augustus by Thomas Gainsborough, 1782

Ernest Augustus, the fifth son of King George III and Queen Charlotte, was born at Buckingham House, London, on 5 June 1771, and baptised on 1 July 1771 at St James's Palace.[1] After leaving the nursery, he lived with his two younger brothers, Prince Adolphus (later Duke of Cambridge) and Prince Augustus (later Duke of Sussex), and a tutor in a house on Kew Green, near his parents' residence at Kew Palace.[2] At the age of fifteen, he and his two younger brothers were sent to the University of Göttingen, located in his father's domain of Hanover.[2] Though the King never left the United Kingdom in his life, he sent his younger sons to Germany in their adolescence. According to the historian John Van der Kiste, this was done to limit the influence Ernest's eldest brother George, Prince of Wales, who was leading an extravagant lifestyle, would have over his younger brothers.[3] Prince Ernest proved a keen student and after being tutored privately for a year, while learning German, he attended lectures at the university. Though King George ordered that the princes' household be run along military lines and that they follow the university's rules, the merchants of the Electorate proved willing to extend credit to the princes and all three fell into debt.[4]

1799cumberland
Colourised sketch of Ernest by James Gillray, 1799. Unusually, this depicts Ernest's disfigured left profile; most later portraits either show his right profile or omit the disfigurement.

In 1790, Ernest asked his father for permission to train with Prussian forces. Instead, in January 1791, he and Prince Adolphus were sent to Hanover to receive military training under the supervision of Field Marshal Wilhelm von Freytag. Before leaving Göttingen, Ernest penned a formal letter of thanks to the university and wrote to his father, "I should be one of the most ungrateful of men if ever I was forgetful of all I owe to Göttingen & its professors."[5]

As a lieutenant,[1] Ernest learned cavalry drill and tactics under Captain von Linsingen of the Queen's Light Dragoons and proved to be an excellent horseman, as well as a good shot.[6] After only two months of training, Freytag was so impressed by the Prince's progress that he gave him a place in the cavalry as captain. Ernest was supposed to receive infantry training, but the King, also impressed by his son's prowess, allowed him to remain with the cavalry.[7]

In March 1792, the King commissioned Prince Ernest Augustus as a colonel into the 9th Hanoverian Light Dragoons.[8] The Prince served in the Low Countries in the War of the First Coalition, under his elder brother Frederick, Duke of York, then commander of the combined British, Hanoverian and Austrian forces. Seeing action near the Walloon town of Tournai in August 1793, he sustained a sabre wound to the head,[9] which resulted in a disfiguring scar.[10] During the Battle of Tourcoing in northern France on 18 May 1794, his left arm was injured by a cannonball which passed close by him. In the days after the battle, the sight in his left eye faded. In June, he was sent to Britain to convalesce, his first stay there since 1786.[9]

Ernest resumed his duties in early November, by now promoted to major-general.[11] He hoped his new rank would bring him a corps or brigade command, but none was forthcoming as the Allied armies retreated slowly through the Netherlands towards Germany.[12] By February 1795, they had reached Hanover. Ernest remained in Hanover over the next year, holding several unimportant postings. He had requested a return home to seek treatment for his eye, but it was not until early 1796 that the King agreed and allowed Ernest to return to Britain.[13] There, Prince Ernest consulted a notable eye doctor, Wathen Waller, but Waller apparently found his condition inoperable, as no operation took place.[14] Once back in Britain, Ernest repeatedly sought to be allowed to join the British forces on the Continent, even threatening to join the Yeomanry as a private, but both the King and the Duke of York refused him permission. Ernest did not want to rejoin the Hanoverian forces, as they were not then involved in the fighting. In addition, Freytag was seriously ill and Ernest was unwilling to serve under his likely successor, Count von Wallmoden.[15]

Duke of Cumberland (1799–1837)

Coat of Arms of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Coat of arms as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

Military commander

Ernest1802
1802 drawing of Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, by Henry Edridge, who has omitted Ernest's disfiguring scar.

On 23 April 1799, George III created Prince Ernest Augustus Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh.[16] Though he was made a lieutenant-general, of both British and Hanoverian forces,[17] he remained in England and, with a seat in the House of Lords, entered politics. Ernest had extreme Tory views and soon became a leader of the right of the party.[18] King George had feared that Ernest, like some of his elder brothers, would display Whig tendencies. Reassured on that point, in 1801, the King had Ernest conduct the negotiations which led to the formation of the Addington Government.[19] In February 1802, King George granted his son the colonelcy of the 27th Light Dragoons, a post which offered the option of transfer to the colonelcy of the 15th Light Dragoons when a vacancy arose. A vacancy promptly occurred and the Duke became the colonel of the 15th Light Dragoons in March 1802. Although the post could have been a sinecure, Ernest involved himself in the affairs of the regiment and led it on manoeuvres.[20]

Ernest Augustus by Fischer 1823
Ernest Augustus in an 1823 miniature based on an 1802 portrait by William Beechey.

In early 1803, the Duke of York appointed Ernest as commander of the Severn District, in charge of the forces in and around the Severn Estuary. When war with France broke out again after the Peace of Amiens, the Duke appointed Ernest to the more important Southwest District, comprising Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire. Though Ernest would have preferred command of the King's German Legion, composed mostly of expatriates from French-occupied Hanover, he accepted the post. The Duke of Cumberland increased the defences on the South Coast, especially around the town of Weymouth, where his father often spent time in the summer.[21]

The 1800 Acts of Union had given Ireland representation in Parliament, but existing law prevented Irish Catholics from serving there because of their religion. "Catholic emancipation" was a major political issue of the first years of the 19th century. The Duke of Cumberland was a strong opponent of giving political rights to Catholics, believing that emancipation would be a violation of the King's Coronation Oath to uphold Anglicanism and spoke out in the House of Lords against emancipation.[22] Protestant Irish organisations supported the Duke; he was elected Chancellor of the University of Dublin in 1805[23] and Grand Master of the Orange Lodges two years later.[24]

The Duke repeatedly sought a post with Allied forces fighting against France, but was sent to the Continent only as an observer. In 1807, he advocated sending British troops to join the Prussians and Swedes in attacking the French at Stralsund (today, in northeastern Germany). The Grenville government refused to send forces. Shortly afterwards, the government fell and the new Prime Minister, the Duke of Portland, agreed to send Ernest with 20,000 troops. However, they were sent too late: the French defeated Prussia and Sweden at the Battle of Stralsund before Ernest and his forces could reach the town.[25]

Ernest was promoted to full general of the army in 1808, backdated to 1805.[1]

Sellis incident and Weymouth controversy

In the early hours of 31 May 1810, Ernest, by his written account, was struck in the head several times while asleep in bed, awakening him. He ran for the door, where he was wounded in the leg by a sabre. He called for help and one of his valets, Cornelius Neale, responded and aided him. Neale raised the alarm and the household soon realised that Ernest's other valet, Joseph Sellis, was not among them and that the door to Sellis's room was locked. The lock was forced and Sellis was discovered with his throat freshly cut, a wound apparently self-inflicted.[26] Ernest received several serious wounds during the apparent attack and required over a month to recover from his injuries.[27] The social reformer and anti-monarchist Francis Place managed to get on the inquest jury and became its foreman. Place went to the office of a barrister friend to study inquest law and aggressively questioned witnesses. Place also insisted that the inquest be opened to the public and press, and so cowed the coroner that he basically ran the inquest himself. Nevertheless, the jury returned a unanimous verdict of suicide against Sellis.[28]

A financial survey of cumberland
A George Cruikshank cartoon mocking Ernest at the 1815 defeat of his increased allowance. The brown section at lower right covers an image of the ghost of Sellis (visible if enlarged), who hints at the Duke's involvement in his death (Cruikshank self-censored most copies for fear of a libel suit).[29]

Much of the public blamed Ernest for Sellis's death.[30] The more extreme Whig papers, anti-royal pamphleteers, and caricaturists all offered nefarious explanations for Sellis's death, in which the Duke was to blame.[31] Some stories had the Duke cuckolding Sellis, with the attack as retaliation, or Sellis killed for finding Ernest and Mrs. Sellis in bed together.[30] Others suggested that the Duke was the lover of either Sellis or Neale, and that blackmail had played a part in the death.[32] Both Roger Fulford and John Van der Kiste, who wrote books about George III's children, ascribe part of the animus and fear towards the Duke to the fact that he did not conduct love affairs in public, as did his older brothers. According to them, the public feared what vices might be going on behind the locked doors of the Duke's house and assumed the worst.[33][34]

In early 1813, Ernest was involved in political scandal during an election contest in Weymouth following the general election the previous year. The Duke was shown to be one of three trustees who were able to dictate who would represent Weymouth in Parliament. It being considered improper for a peer to interfere in an election to the House of Commons, there was considerable controversy and the Government sent Ernest to Europe as an observer to accompany Hanoverian troops, which were again engaged in war against France.[35] Though he saw no action, Ernest was present at the Battle of Leipzig, a major victory for the Allies.[36] Following this, Ernest received ultimate promotion, to Field Marshal, on 26 November 1813.[1]

Marriage

Ernest met and fell in love in mid-1813 with his first cousin, Duchess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of Prince Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels and widow of Prince Louis of Prussia. The two agreed to wed if Frederica became free to marry. Her marriage to Frederick William had not been a success; her husband, seeing the marriage was beyond hope, agreed to a divorce, but his sudden death in 1814 removed the necessity. Some considered the death too convenient and suspected the princess of poisoning her husband.[37] Queen Charlotte opposed the marriage: before the princess had married Frederick William, she had jilted Ernest's brother, the Duke of Cambridge, after the engagement was announced.[38]

Following the marriage in Germany on 29 May 1815, Queen Charlotte refused to receive her new daughter-in-law,[39] nor would the Queen attend the resolemnisation of the Cumberlands' marriage at Kew, which Ernest's four older brothers attended. The Prince of Wales (now Prince Regent) found the Cumberlands' presence in Britain embarrassing, and offered him money and the Governorship of Hanover if they would leave for the Continent. Ernest refused and the Cumberlands divided their time between Kew and St. James's Palace for the next three years. The Queen remained obstinate in her refusal to receive Frederica.[40] Despite these family troubles, the Cumberlands had a happy marriage.[41] The Government of Lord Liverpool asked Parliament to increase the Duke's allowance by £6,000 per year in 1815 (equal to about £408,000 today),[42] so he could meet increased expenses due to his marriage. The Duke's involvement in the Weymouth election became an issue and the bill failed by one vote.[43] Liverpool tried again in 1817; this time the bill failed by seven votes.[44]

At the time of the Duke's marriage in 1815, it seemed to have little dynastic significance to Britain. Princess Charlotte of Wales, only child of the Prince Regent, was the King's only legitimate grandchild. The young princess was expected to have children who would secure the British succession, especially after she married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in 1816.[45] Both the Prince Regent and the Duke of York were married but estranged from their wives, while the next two brothers, the Dukes of Clarence and Kent, were unmarried.[46] On 6 November 1817, Princess Charlotte died after delivering a stillborn son. King George was left with twelve surviving children and no surviving legitimate grandchildren.[47] Most of the unmarried royal dukes hurriedly sought out suitable brides and hastened to the altar, hoping to secure the succession for another generation.[46]

Seeing little prospect of the Queen giving in and receiving her daughter-in-law, the Cumberlands moved to Germany in 1818. They had difficulty living within their means in Britain and the cost of living was much lower in Germany.[48] Queen Charlotte died on 17 November 1818, but the Cumberlands remained in Germany, living principally in Berlin, where the Duchess had relatives.[49] In 1817, the Duchess had a stillborn daughter; in 1819 she gave birth to a boy, Prince George of Cumberland. The Duke occasionally visited England, where he stayed with his eldest brother, who in 1820 succeeded to the British and Hanoverian thrones as George IV.[50] George III's fourth son, Edward, Duke of Kent, died six days before his father, but left a daughter, Princess Victoria of Kent.[51] With the death of George III, Ernest became fourth in line to the British throne, following the Duke of York (who would die without legitimate issue in 1827), the Duke of Clarence and Princess Victoria.[52]

Politics and unpopularity

Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Ernest Augustus wearing the robes of a Knight of the Order of St Patrick

In 1826, Parliament finally voted to increase Ernest's allowance. The Liverpool Government argued that the Duke needed an increased allowance to pay for Prince George's education; even so, it was opposed by many Whigs.[53] The bill, which passed the House of Commons 120–97, required Prince George to live in England if the Duke was to receive the money.[54]

In 1828, Ernest was staying with the King at Windsor Castle when severe disturbances broke out in Ireland among Catholics. The Duke was an ardent supporter of the Protestant cause in Ireland and returned to Berlin in August, believing that the Government, led by the Duke of Wellington, would deal firmly with the Irish.[55] In January 1829, the Wellington Government announced that it would introduce a Catholic emancipation bill to conciliate the Irish. Disregarding a request from Wellington that he remain abroad, Ernest returned to London and was one of the leading opponents to the Catholic Relief Act 1829, influencing King George IV against the bill.[56] Within days of his arrival, the King instructed the officers of his Household to vote against the bill. Hearing of this, Wellington told the King that he must resign as Prime Minister unless the King could assure him of complete support. The King initially accepted Wellington's resignation and Ernest attempted to put together a government united against Catholic emancipation. Though such a government would have had considerable support in the House of Lords, it would have had little support in the Commons and Ernest abandoned his attempt. The King recalled Wellington. The bill passed the Lords and became law.[57]

The Wellington Government hoped that Ernest would return to Germany, but he moved his wife and son to Britain in 1829. The Times reported that they would live at Windsor in the "Devil's Tower"; instead, the Duke reopened his house at Kew.[58] They settled there as rumours flew that Thomas Garth, thought to be the illegitimate son of Ernest's sister Princess Sophia, had been fathered by Ernest. It was also said that Ernest had blackmailed the King by threatening to expose this secret, though Van der Kiste points out that Ernest would have been ill-advised to blackmail with a secret which, if exposed, would destroy him.[59] These rumours were spread as Ernest journeyed to London to fight against Catholic emancipation. Whig politician and diarist Thomas Creevey wrote about the Garth rumour in mid-February and there is some indication the rumours began with Princess Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador.[60]

Newspapers also reported, in July 1829, that the Duke had been thrown out of Lord Lyndhurst's house for assaulting his wife Sarah, Lady Lyndhurst.[59] In early 1830, a number of newspapers printed articles hinting that Ernest was having an affair with Lady Graves, a mother of fifteen, now past fifty.[a] In February 1830, Lord Graves, Ernest's lord of the bedchamber and comptroller of his household, wrote a note to his wife expressing his confidence in her innocence, then cut his own throat. Two days after Lord Graves's death (and the day after the inquest), The Times printed an article connecting Lord Graves's death with Sellis's. After being shown the suicide note, The Times withdrew its implication there might be a connection between the two deaths. Nonetheless, many believed the Duke responsible for the suicide—or guilty of a second murder.[b] The Duke later stated that he had been "accused of every crime in the decalogue".[61] Ernest's biographer, Anthony Bird, states that while there is no proof, he has no doubt that the rumours against the Duke were spread by the Whigs for political ends.[62] Another biographer, Geoffrey Willis, pointed out that no scandal had attached itself to the Duke during the period of over a decade when he resided in Germany; it was only when he announced his intention to return to Britain that "a campaign of unparalleled viciousness" began against him.[63] The Duke of Wellington once told Charles Greville that George IV had said of Ernest's unpopularity, "there was never a father well with his son, or husband with his wife, or lover with his mistress, or a friend with his friend, that he did not try to make mischief between them."[64] According to Bird, Ernest was the most unpopular man in England.[65]

Reformact1832cartoon
Political cartoon supporting the Reform Act; King William sits above the clouds, surrounded by Whig politicians, below Britannia and the British Lion cause the Tories (Ernest, second from left) to flee.

The Duke's influence at Court was ended by the death of George IV in June 1830 and the succession of the Duke of Clarence as William IV. Wellington wrote that "the effect of the King's death will ... be to put an end to the Duke of Cumberland's political character and power in this country entirely".[66] King William lacked legitimate children (two daughters having died in infancy)[52] and Ernest was now heir presumptive in Hanover, since the British heir presumptive, Princess Victoria, as a female could not inherit there. William realised that, so long as the Duke maintained a power base at Windsor, he could wield unwanted influence. The Duke was Gold Stick as head of the Household Cavalry; William made the Duke's post responsible to the Commander in Chief rather than to the King, and an insulted Ernest, outraged at the thought of having to report to an officer junior to himself, resigned. King William again emerged triumphant when the new queen, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wished to quarter her horses in the stables customarily used by the consort, but which were then occupied by Ernest's horses. Ernest initially refused the King's order to remove the horses, but gave in when told that William's grooms would remove them if Ernest did not move them voluntarily.[66] However, Ernest and William remained friendly throughout the latter's seven-year reign.[67] Ernest's house at Kew was too small for his family; the King gave the Duke and Duchess lifetime residence in a nearby, larger house by the entrance to Kew Gardens.[68] Ernest opposed the Reform Act 1832 and was one of the "diehard" peers who voted against the bill on its final reading in which most Tories abstained under threat of seeing the House of Lords flooded with Whig peers.[69]

Ernest was the subject of more allegations in 1832, when two young women accused him of trying to ride them down as they walked near Hammersmith. The Duke had not left his grounds at Kew on the day in question and was able to ascertain that the rider was one of his equerries, who professed not to have seen the women. Nevertheless, newspapers continued to print references to the incident, suggesting that Ernest had done what the women stated and was cravenly trying to push blame on another. The same year, the Duke sued for libel after a book appeared accusing him of having his valet Neale kill Sellis and the jury found against the author.[c] Also in 1832, the Cumberlands suffered tragedy, as young Prince George went blind. The Prince had been blind in one eye from infancy; an accident at age thirteen took the sight of the other. Ernest had hoped that his son might marry Princess Victoria and keep the British and Hanoverian thrones united, but the handicap made it unlikely that George could win Princess Victoria's hand and raised questions about whether he should succeed in Hanover.[70]

The Duke spent William's reign in the House of Lords, where he was assiduous in his attendance. Wrote newspaper editor James Grant, "He is literally—the door-keeper of course excepted—the first man in the House and the last out of it. And this not merely generally, but every night."[71] Grant, in his observations of the leading members of the House of Lords, indicated that the Duke was not noted for his oratory (he delivered no speech longer than five minutes) and had a voice that was difficult to understand, though, "his manner is most mild and conciliatory."[71] Grant denigrated the Duke's intellect and influence, but stated that the Duke had indirect influence over several members, and that "he is by no means so bad a tactician as his opponents suppose."[72]

Controversy arose in 1836 over the Orange Lodges. The lodges (which took anti-Catholic views) were said to be ready to rise and try to put the Duke of Cumberland on the Throne on the death of King William. According to Joseph Hume, speaking in the House of Commons, Victoria was to be passed over on the grounds of her age, sex, and incapacity.[73] The Commons passed a resolution calling for the dissolution of the lodges. When the matter reached the Lords, the Duke defended himself, saying of Princess Victoria, "I would shed the last drop of my blood for my niece."[74] The Duke indicated that the Orange Lodge members were loyal and were willing to dissolve the lodges in Great Britain. According to Bird, this incident was the source of the widespread rumours that the Duke intended to murder Princess Victoria and take the British Throne for himself.[75]

King of Hanover (1837–1851)

Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover
Coat of arms as King of Hanover

Domestic affairs

Constitutional controversy

On 20 June 1837, King William IV died and Princess Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom. Ernest became King of Hanover. On 28 June 1837, King Ernest entered his new domain, passing under a triumphal arch.[76] For the first time in over a century, Hanover would have a ruler living there.[77] Many Hanoverians were of a liberal perspective and would have preferred the popular viceroy, the Duke of Cambridge, to become king, but both of Ernest's younger brothers refused to lend themselves to any movement by which they would become king rather than their elder brother. According to Roger Fulford in his study of George III's younger sons, Royal Dukes, "In 1837, King Ernest was the only male descendant of George III who was willing and able to continue the connection with Hanover."[d]

German States Hannover Ernst August 5 Taler 1849-B (obv)
1849 five-thaler coin depicting King Ernest Augustus

Hanover had received its first constitution, granted by the Prince Regent, in 1819; this did little more than denote Hanover's change from an electorate to a kingdom, guaranteed by the Congress of Vienna. The Duke of Cambridge, as King William's viceroy in Hanover, recommended a thorough reorganisation of the Hanoverian government. William IV had given his consent to a new constitution in 1833; the Duke of Cumberland's consent was neither asked nor received, and he had formally protested against the constitution's adoption without his consent.[78] One provision of the constitution transferred the Hanoverian Domains (the equivalent of the British Crown Estate) from the sovereign to the state, eroding the monarch's power.[76]

Immediately upon his arrival in Hanover, the King dissolved the Hanoverian Parliament, which had been convened under the disputed constitution. On 5 July, he proclaimed the suspension of the constitution, on the grounds that his consent had not been asked and that it did not meet the kingdom's needs.[78] On 1 November 1837, the King issued a patent, declaring the constitution void, but upholding all laws passed under it.[79] The 1819 constitution was restored. The Crown Prince, Prince George, endorsed the action.[80]

In carrying the King's patent into effect, the Cabinet required all officeholders (including professors at Göttingen University) to renew their oaths of allegiance to the King. Seven professors (including the two Brothers Grimm) refused to take the oaths and agitated for others to protest against the King's decree. Since they did not take the oaths, the seven lost their positions and the King expelled the three most responsible (including Jacob Grimm) from Hanover.[79] Only one of the seven, orientalist Heinrich Ewald, was a citizen of Hanover, and he was not expelled.[81] In the final years of the King's reign, the three were invited to return.[82]

The King wrote of the incident to his brother-in-law, Frederick William III of Prussia, "If each of these seven gentlemen had addressed a letter to me expressing his opinion, I would have had no cause to take exception to their conduct. But to call a meeting and publish their opinions even before the Government had received their protest—that is what they have done and that I cannot allow."[83] Ernest received a deputation of Göttingen citizens who, fearing student unrest, applauded the dismissals. However, he was widely criticised in Europe, especially in Britain.[84] In the British House of Commons, MP Colonel Thomas Perronet Thompson proposed to Parliament that if the as-yet-childless Queen Victoria died, making Ernest the British King, Parliament should declare that King Ernest had forfeited all rights to the British Throne by his actions.[85]

A more significant protest against the revocation of the 1833 constitution was the refusal of a number of towns to appoint parliamentary deputies. However, by 1840 a sufficient number of deputies had been appointed for the King to summon Parliament, which met for two weeks in August, approving a modified version of the 1819 constitution, passing a budget and sending a vote of thanks to the King. The Parliament met again the following year, passed a three-year budget and adjourned again.[86]

National development and trade; 1848 crisis

At the time the King took the throne, the city of Hanover was a densely packed residential town and did not rise to the grand style of many German capitals. Once the political crises of the first years of his reign had subsided, he set out to remedy this state of affairs.[87] Ernest's support led to gas lighting in the city streets of Hanover, up-to-date sanitation and the development of a new residential quarter. He had the plans altered in 1841, after Queen Frederica's death, to leave standing the Altes Palais, where the two had lived since arriving in Hanover.[41] Ernest's interest in and support of the railroads led to Hanover becoming a major railway junction, much to the nation's benefit.[41] However, when court architect Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves in 1837 proposed the building of an opera house in Hanover, the King initially refused, calling the proposal "this utterly absurd idea of building a court theatre in the middle of this green field".[88] The King finally gave his consent in 1844 and the opera house opened in 1852, a year after the King's death.[88]

Ernest1850
Ernest Augustus portrait, circa 1850

Every week, the King travelled with his secretary to different parts of his kingdom, and anyone could lay a petition before him—although Ernest had petitions screened by the secretary so he would not have to deal with frivolous complaints.[89] Ernest opened high ministerial positions to those of any class, securing the services of several ministers who would not have been eligible without this reform.[90] Though the King had, while Duke of Cumberland, fought against Catholic emancipation in Britain and Ireland, he made no objection to Catholics in government service in Hanover and even visited their churches. Ernest explained this by stating that there were no historical reasons to restrict Catholics in Hanover, as there had been in the United Kingdom.[91] He continued to oppose admission of Jews into the British Parliament, but gave Jews in Hanover equal rights.[92]

The King supported a postal union and common currency among the German states, but opposed the Prussian-led customs union, the Zollverein, fearing that it would lead to Prussian dominance and the end of Hanover as an independent state. Instead, the King supported the Steuerverein, which Hanover and other western German states had formed in 1834. When the Steuerverein treaties came up for renewal in 1841, Brunswick pulled out of the union and joined the Zollverein, greatly weakening Hanover's position, especially since Brunswick had enclaves within Hanover. Ernest was able to postpone the enclaves' entry into the Zollverein and, when a trade war began, was able to outlast Brunswick. In 1845, Brunswick, Hanover and Prussia signed a trade agreement. In 1850, Ernest reluctantly permitted Hanover to join the Zollverein, though the entry was on favourable terms.[93] Ernest's forebodings about Prussia were warranted; in 1866, fifteen years after his death, Hanover chose the Austrian side in the Austro-Prussian War, was defeated and was annexed by Prussia.[94]

Hanover was little affected by the revolutions of 1848; a few small disturbances were put down by the cavalry without bloodshed.[95] When agitators arrived from Berlin at the end of May 1848 and there were demonstrations outside the King's palace, Ernest sent out the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister warned that, if the demonstrators made any inappropriate demands on the King, Ernest would pack up his things and leave for Britain, taking the Crown Prince with him. This would leave the country at the mercy of expansionist Prussia and the threat put an end to the agitation. Afterwards, the King granted a new constitution, somewhat more liberal than the 1819 document.[96]

Relations with Britain

Tohanovertoken
British "To Hanover" token or "Cumberland Jack", marking Ernest's departure from Britain. These pieces were struck through much of the 19th century as whist counters and were sometimes passed as real gold coins to the unwary.[97]

Ernest Augustus is supposed to have asked the advice of the Duke of Wellington as to what course he should take after Victoria's accession, with Wellington supposedly saying "Go before you are pelted out."[98] However, Bird dismisses this story as unlikely, given Wellington's customary respect to royalty and the fact that Ernest had little choice in what to do—he had to repair to his kingdom as quickly as possible.[99] One decision the new King did have to make was whether, in his capacity as Duke of Cumberland, to swear allegiance to Victoria in the House of Lords. Shortly after William's death, Ernest heard from Lord Lyndhurst that Lord Cottenham, the Lord Chancellor, had stated that he would refuse to administer the Oath of Allegiance to the King, as a foreign Sovereign. The King hurriedly appeared in the House of Lords, before his departure for Hanover, and subscribed to the Oath before the Chief Clerk as a matter of routine.[100] Ernest was heir presumptive to his niece until the birth of Queen Victoria's daughter, also named Victoria, in November 1840. The Lord Privy Seal, Lord Clarendon, wrote, "What the country cares about is to have a life more, whether male or female, between the succession and the King of Hanover."[101]

Almost immediately upon going to Hanover, the King became involved in a dispute with his niece. Victoria, who had a strained relationship with her mother, the Duchess of Kent, wanted to give the Duchess accommodation near her, for the sake of appearances—but not too near her. To that end, she asked the King to give up his apartments at St James's Palace in favour of the Duchess. The King, wishing to retain apartments in London in anticipation of frequent visits to England and reluctant to give way in favour of a woman who had frequently fought with his brother, King William, declined and Victoria angrily rented a house for her mother. At a time when the young Queen was trying to pay off her father's debts, she saw this as an unnecessary expense.[102] Her ill-feeling towards the King increased when he refused, and advised his two surviving brothers to refuse as well, to give precedence to her intended husband, Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Ernest argued that the standing of the various royal families had been settled at the Congress of Vienna and that the King of Hanover should not have to yield to one whom he described as a "paper Royal Highness".[103] The act, which naturalised Albert as a British subject, left the question of his precedence unresolved.[103]

Matters came to a head when Ernest returned for what would prove to be his only visit to England as King of Hanover, in 1843. He was welcomed warmly, everywhere but at the Palace.[104] At the wedding of Princess Augusta of Cambridge, he attempted to insist on a superior place to that of Prince Albert. The prince, 48 years Ernest's junior, settled things with what Albert described as a "strong push" and carefully wrote his name on the certificate under the Queen's, so close to his wife's as to leave no space for the King's signature.[105] The King apparently held no grudge, as he invited the Prince for a stroll in the park. When Albert demurred on the grounds that they might be jostled by crowds, the King replied, "When I lived here I was quite as unpopular as you are and they never bothered me."[106] Shortly after the wedding, the King injured himself in a fall, with Albert writing to his brother, "Happily he fell over some stones in Kew and damaged some ribs." This injury spared him further contact with Victoria and Albert.[107] During his visit, the King found time to take his place as Duke of Cumberland in the House of Lords. Victoria recorded in her journal that the King had stated when asked if he would speak in the Lords, "No, I shall not, unless the Devil prompts me!"[108] The Queen also recorded that though King Ernest greatly enjoyed listening to the debates, he did not himself speak.[108]

The monarchs engaged in one more battle—over jewels left by Queen Charlotte. Queen Victoria, who possessed them, took the position that they belonged to the British Crown. King Ernest maintained that they were to go to the heir male, that is, himself. The matter was arbitrated, and just as the arbitrators were about to announce a decision in Hanover's favour, one of the arbitrators died, voiding the decision. Despite the King's request for a new panel, Victoria refused to permit one during the King's lifetime and took every opportunity to wear the jewels, causing the King to write to his friend, Lord Strangford, "The little Queen looked very fine, I hear, loaded down with my diamonds." The King's son and successor, King George V, pressed the matter, and in 1858, after another decision in Hanover's favour, the jewels were turned over to the Hanoverian ambassador.[109]

The King made a point of welcoming British visitors to Hanover and when one Englishwoman told him that she had been lost in the city, the King denied that this was possible, as "the whole country is no larger than a fourpenny bit."[110]

Later life, death, and memorial

In 1851, the King undertook a number of journeys around Germany. He accepted an invitation from the Queen of Prussia to visit Charlottenburg Palace, near Berlin.[111] He visited Mecklenburg for the christening of the Grand Duke's son and Lüneburg to inspect his old regiment. In June, Ernest celebrated his 80th birthday by playing host to the King of Prussia. Late that summer, he visited Göttingen, where he opened a new hospital and was given a torchlight procession.[112]

The King continued his interest in British affairs and wrote to Lord Strangford about the Great Exhibition of 1851:

The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, and I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can possibly answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea ... must shock every honest and well-meaning Englishman. But it seems everything is conspiring to lower us in the eyes of Europe.[113]

Mausoleum im Berggarten (Herrenhäuser Gärten)
Mausoleum of King Ernest Augustus in the Berggarten of Herrenhausen Gardens

The King died on 18 November 1851 after an illness of about a month. He was mourned greatly in Hanover; less so in England, where The Times omitted the customary black border to its front page and claimed "the good that can be said of the Royal dead is little or none."[114] Both he and Queen Frederica rest in a mausoleum in the Berggarten of Herrenhausen Gardens.[115]

A large equestrian statue of King Ernest Augustus may be found in a square named after him in front of Hanover Central Station, inscribed with his name and the words (in German) "To the father of the nation from his loyal people." It is a popular meeting place; in the local phrase, people arrange to meet unterm Schwanz or "under the tail" (that is, of the horse which the King rides).[116]

Although The Times denigrated Ernest's career as Duke of Cumberland, it did speak well of his time as King of Hanover and of his success in keeping Hanover stable in 1848:

Above all, he possessed a resolute decision of character, which, however unfortunately it may have operated under different conditions, appeared to extraordinary advantage at the crisis of continental thrones. Bewildered by the revolutionary din, and oscillating ignominiously between fear and rage, resistance and concession, the clique of crowned heads suffered greatly by contrast with a Sovereign who at least knew his own mind and was prepared to abide by his opinions. In the European convulsions, therefore, King Ernest maintained the stability of his throne and the tranquillity of his people without damage from revolution or reaction. As Kings, indeed, are computed on the continent, he was an able and even a popular Monarch, and his memory may find, perhaps, in his ancestral dominions a sympathy which it would be vain to bespeak for it in the scenes of his manhood or the land of his birth.[117]

Honours

British and Hanoverian

Foreign

Ancestry

Ancestors of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover[118]
16. George I of Great Britain
8. George II of Great Britain
17. Princess Sophia Dorothea of Celle
4. Frederick, Prince of Wales
18. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
9. Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
19. Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach
2. George III of the United Kingdom
20. Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
21. Princess Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
22. Charles, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst
11. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
23. Princess Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels
1. Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
24. Adolphus Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
12. Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
25. Duchess Marie Katharina of Brunswick-Dannenberg
6. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
26. Christian William I, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
13. Princess Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
27. Countess Antonie Sybille of Barby-Mühlingen
3. Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
28. Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
29. Countess Sophie Henriette of Waldeck
7. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
30. George Louis I, Count of Erbach-Erbach
15. Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
31. Countess Amelie Katherine of Waldeck

References

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 235. "For some months, the newspapers had been hinting at an amour between the Duke and a certain Lady Graves."
  2. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 235–236. "... and inevitably had the effect of making the public believe that the Duke had murdered Lord Graves as well as Sellis."
  3. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 221–224. "but sneering references to the Duke's supposed misdemeanour and his cowardice in trying to blame it on an equerry continued to appear".
  4. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 244. "the rather opinionated Liberalism of the Hanoverians" "The Duke of Cambridge loyally refused to listen to the whispers that he should supersede King Ernest".

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gibbs, Vicary; Doubleday, H. A., eds. (1913), "Cumberland, Duke of", The Complete Peerage, III, St Catherine Press, p. 575
  2. ^ a b Fulford 1933, pp. 200–201.
  3. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 35.
  4. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 35–37.
  5. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 47.
  6. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 33–34.
  7. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 47–48.
  8. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 48.
  9. ^ a b Van der Kiste 2004, p. 58.
  10. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 204.
  11. ^ Bird 1966, p. 47.
  12. ^ Bird 1966, p. 48.
  13. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 50–51.
  14. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 50, 58.
  15. ^ Bird 1966, p. 62.
  16. ^ London Gazette 1799-04-23.
  17. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 63–64.
  18. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 222–223.
  19. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 66–67.
  20. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 67–68.
  21. ^ Bird 1966, p. 74.
  22. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 73–74.
  23. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 69–70.
  24. ^ Bird 1966, p. 82.
  25. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 85–86.
  26. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 207–209.
  27. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 99.
  28. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 93–95.
  29. ^ Patten 1992, pp. 116–117.
  30. ^ a b Fulford 1933, p. 206.
  31. ^ Bird 1966, p. 96.
  32. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 100.
  33. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 205–206.
  34. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 97–98.
  35. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 212–213.
  36. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 111.
  37. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 114.
  38. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 214.
  39. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 216.
  40. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 124.
  41. ^ a b c Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 197–198.
  42. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  43. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 217–218.
  44. ^ Wardroper 2002, p. 100.
  45. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 124–125.
  46. ^ a b Bird 1966, pp. 153–154.
  47. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 129–130.
  48. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 136.
  49. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 219.
  50. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 219–221.
  51. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 142–143.
  52. ^ a b Wardroper 2002, p. 101.
  53. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 218.
  54. ^ Wardroper 2002, p. 147.
  55. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 221–222.
  56. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 224–226.
  57. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 171.
  58. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 169–170.
  59. ^ a b Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 171–172.
  60. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 196–197.
  61. ^ Wilkinson 1886, p. 6.
  62. ^ Bird 1966, p. 196.
  63. ^ Willis 1954, p. 408.
  64. ^ Greville, Charles C. F. (1874), A Journal of the Reigns of King George IV and King William IV, I, London: Longmans, Green & Co, London, p. 218
  65. ^ Bird 1966, p. 212.
  66. ^ a b Ziegler 1971, pp. 175–176.
  67. ^ Bird 1966, p. 186.
  68. ^ Willis 1954, p. 204.
  69. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 238.
  70. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 220–221.
  71. ^ a b Grant 1836, p. 84.
  72. ^ Grant 1836, p. 85.
  73. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 241–242.
  74. ^ Bird 1966, p. 245.
  75. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 245–247.
  76. ^ a b Van der Kiste 2004, p. 189.
  77. ^ Bird 1966, p. 256.
  78. ^ a b Wilkinson 1886, p. 55.
  79. ^ a b Van der Kiste 2004, p. 190.
  80. ^ Wilkinson 1886, pp. 55–56.
  81. ^ Willis 1954, pp. 292–295.
  82. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 208.
  83. ^ Willis 1954, p. 295.
  84. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 190–191.
  85. ^ Wilkinson 1886, p. 56.
  86. ^ Wilkinson 1886, p. 58.
  87. ^ Willis 1954, p. 279.
  88. ^ a b Horst 2000, pp. 14–15.
  89. ^ Wilkinson 1886, p. 60.
  90. ^ Wilkinson 1886, pp. 60–61.
  91. ^ Bird 1966, p. 278.
  92. ^ Bird 1966, p. 279.
  93. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 299–300.
  94. ^ Wardroper 2002, p. 251.
  95. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 204.
  96. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 245–246.
  97. ^ Notes and Queries, p. 26.
  98. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 243.
  99. ^ Bird 1966, pp. 253–254.
  100. ^ Willis 1954, pp. 273–274.
  101. ^ Wardroper 2002, p. 236.
  102. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 200.
  103. ^ a b Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 193–194.
  104. ^ Fulford 1933, pp. 247–248.
  105. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 201.
  106. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 201–202.
  107. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, p. 202.
  108. ^ a b Willis 1954, p. 348.
  109. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 202–203.
  110. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 251.
  111. ^ Bird 1966, p. 313.
  112. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 207–208.
  113. ^ Van der Kiste 2004, pp. 206–207.
  114. ^ Fulford 1933, p. 252.
  115. ^ Herrenhäuser Gärten.
  116. ^ Horst 2000, pp. 64–65.
  117. ^ The New York Times 1851–12–12.
  118. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 5.

Bibliography

Online sources

Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 5 June 1771 Died: 18 November 1851
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William IV
King of Hanover
1837–1851
Succeeded by
George V
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
1799–1851
Succeeded by
George V of Hanover
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Earl of Armagh
1799–1851
Succeeded by
George V of Hanover
Military offices
Preceded by
The Lord Dorchester
Colonel of the 15th (King's Own) Light Dragoons
1801–1827
Succeeded by
Sir Colquhoun Grant
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards (The Blues)
1827–1830
Succeeded by
The Lord Hill
Academic offices
Preceded by
HRH The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Chancellor of the University of Dublin
1805–1851
Succeeded by
Lord John Beresford
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
The Earl O'Neill
Grand Master of the Orange Institution of Ireland
1828–1836
Succeeded by
The Earl of Roden
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Harrowby
Senior Privy Counsellor (UK)
1847–1851
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
1771

1771 (MDCCLXXI)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1771st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 771st year of the 2nd millennium, the 71st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1771, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Brunswick River (Western Australia)

Brunswick River is a river in the South West region of Western Australia.

The river rises in the Darling Range then flows south-west discharging into the Collie River near Australind.

The river was named in 1830 by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, the fifth son and eighth child of George III. Over a period of 5 days in December 1813, while in command of H. M. Sloop Brazen, Captain Stirling took the Duke and his entourage to Wijk aan Zee in Holland.The Brunswick has six tributaries; Wellesley River, Ernest River, Elvira Gully, Augustus River, Frederic River and Lunenburgh River.

Charles Wilkinson (cricketer)

Charles Allix Wilkinson (9 August 1813 – 18 April 1889) was an English clergyman and a cricketer who played in eight first-class cricket matches for Cambridge University, Norfolk and the Gentlemen between 1833 and 1835. He was born at Swaffham Prior in Cambridgeshire and died at Boxworth, also in Cambridgeshire.

Wilkinson was educated at Eton College and at King's College, Cambridge. He played cricket for Eton as a middle-order batsman and a bowler and appeared in the 1832 Eton v Harrow match at Lord's, when he was captain of the Eton team. It is not known whether he was right- or left-handed in either batting or bowling. At Cambridge University, he appeared in six games over three seasons that have since been designated as first-class, and was successful as a batsman. Against the Cambridge Town Club in 1833, he played an innings of 58 which was the highest of the match; against the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in 1835, he opened the innings and carried his bat for an unbeaten 86 out of a total of 170. He played in the 1834 Gentlemen v Players game, but made no impact. The University Match between the cricket clubs of Oxford and Cambridge Universities was not played in the seasons that Wilkinson was in the Cambridge side.

Wilkinson became a Fellow of King's College in 1836 and graduated from Cambridge University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1837, which converted to a Master of Arts in 1841. In 1841 also, he was ordained in the Church of England as a deacon, becoming a priest the following year. From 1843 to 1865, he was the domestic chaplain to Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover and to his successor, George V of Hanover, the kingship of Hanover having separated from that of the United Kingdom at the death of William IV in 1837, when Queen Victoria succeeded to the UK throne. Returning to England in 1865, he was vicar of Sixhills, Lincolnshire and rector of nearby South Willingham to 1879, and then rector of Boxworth and of Childerley in Cambridgeshire to his death in 1889. He wrote a book about his experiences at the court of Hanover.Wilkinson's nephew, Edward Wilkinson, was also a first-class cricketer for Cambridge University.

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the wife of King George III. She served as Queen of Great Britain and Queen of Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801, after which she was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1818. She was also the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, after which she was also queen consort of Hanover.

Charlotte was a patron of the arts and an amateur botanist who helped expand Kew Gardens. She was distressed by her husband's bouts of physical and mental illness, which became permanent in later life and resulted in their eldest son's appointment as Prince Regent in 1811. George III and Charlotte had 15 children in total, 13 of whom survived to adulthood. She was the mother of two future British monarchs, George IV and William IV. Her other children included Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, and Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg.

Descendants of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Here follows a list of children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren of George III of the United Kingdom and his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Their children include George IV of the United Kingdom, William IV of the United Kingdom, and Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. Their grandchildren include Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and King George V of Hanover. Their great-grandchildren include King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover.

Ernst August (ship)

Ernst August was a wooden paddle steamer and corvette in the navy of the German Confederation, named after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover.

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Friederike Louise Caroline Sophie Charlotte Alexandrine) (3 March 1778 – 29 June 1841) was a German princess who became, by marriage, princess of Prussia, princess of Solms-Braunfels, Duchess of Cumberland in Britain and Queen of Hanover (in Germany) as the consort of Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (the fifth son and eighth child of King George III).

She was born in the Altes Palais of Hanover as the fifth daughter of Charles II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and his first wife, Frederica, daughter of Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt.Her father assumed the title of Grand Duke of Mecklenburg on 18 June 1815. Duchess Frederica was the niece of her future mother-in-law, Queen Charlotte, through her father.

Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves

Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (17 December 1788 – 30 April 1864) was a German architect, civil engineer and urban planner. Born in Uslar, Lower Saxony, he lived and worked primarily in the city of Hanover and also died there. He was appointed Oberhofbaudirektor, "court master builder", in 1852. As the leading architect of the Kingdom of Hanover for a career spanning 50 years, he had great influence on the urban development of this city. Alongside Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Berlin and Leo von Klenze in Munich, Laves was one of the most accomplished neoclassical style architects of Germany. As an engineer he developed a special iron truss lenticular or "fishbelly" beam bridge construction method, the so-called "Lavesbrücke". Laves found his final resting place in the Engesohde Cemetery (Engesohder Friedhof) in Hanover.

Among his most important works are:

Full reconstruction of the Leineschloss (Leine Palace or Leine Castle), between 1816 and 1844 (severely damaged in World War II and again re-built by Dieter Oesterlen between 1957 and 1962).

Hanover Opera House, home of the Staatsoper Hannover, built between 1845 and 1852 (severely damaged in World War II and re-built in 1948).

Wangenheim palace for Count Georg von Wangenheim, built between 1829 and 1832.

The facade of Herrenhausen Palace (Schloss Herrenhausen) in neoclassical style, about 1820/21 (destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in 2013).

The Palmenhaus ("Palm-house"), a conservatory in the Berggarten built between 1846 and 1849 (destroyed in World War II). The building housed the most extensive and valuable collection of palms in Europe.

The mausoleum for King Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, and his consort Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in the garden of the Chapel at Schloss Herrenhausen (the mausoleum today is situated in the Berggarten, part of the Herrenhausen Gardens), built between 1842 and 1847.

Waterloo Square with Waterloo Column, built between 1826 and 1832.

Some structures designed or remodeled in the landscape garden around the Derneburg Castle near Hildesheim, owned by Count Ernst zu Münster

George V of Hanover

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.

Göhrde

Göhrde is a municipality in the district of Lüchow-Dannenberg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

The municipality was named after the Göhrde State Forest, which has an area of about 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi), famous for its oaks, beeches and game preserves. The hunting lodge situated in the forest was built in 1689 and was restored by Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. It is known to history on account of the constitution of Gohrde, promulgated here in 1719.

It is also notable for the Battle of the Göhrde on 16 September 1813 during the War of the Sixth Coalition, in which Allied forces under Wallmoden defeated the French forces commanded by Pecheux.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Göhrde". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 191.

Hanoverian princess by marriage

This is a list of Hanoverian princesses by marriage from the accession of George III to the throne of the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814.

House of Hanover

The House of Hanover (German: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians (), is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line. The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.

Order of Ernst August

The Order of Ernst August was founded 15 December 1865 by King George V of Hanover in memory of his father Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. The order was awarded for both civil and military merit. It was divided in five classes:

Grand Cross

Grand Commander

Commander

Officer

Knight

Order of St. George (Hanover)

The Order of St. George (German: Sankt Georgs-Orden), was founded by Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, on 23 April 1839. In the statutes establishing the order it was designated as the House Order of the Crown of Hanover. The order is of a single grade and limited to 16 members, excluding members of the royal family.

Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover

Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover (German: Christian Oskar Ernst August Wilhelm Viktor Georg Heinrich Prinz von Hannover; 1 September 1919 – 10 December 1981) was the fourth child of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and his wife Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.

Prince Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels

Prince Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels (22 October 1770 in Braunfels – 13 April 1814 in Slawentzitz) was a Prussian Major General.

He was the fourth son of Ferdinand William Ernest, 2nd Prince of Solms-Braunfels (1721–1783) and Countess Sophie Christine Wilhelmine of Solms-Laubach (1741–1772).

He became known mainly through his marriage to Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was the widow of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia (1773–1796). When she became pregnant in 1798, he married her in order to avoid a scandal. The daughter died soon after birth. Frederick William was alleged to have been strongly inclined to consume alcohol and had to quit military service in 1805 for health reasons. He also lost his income and even his brother advised Frederica to divorce. She was initially against it, but when in 1813, she met Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (1771–1851), she, too, wanted the divorce. Before they got around to it, however, Frederick William died, in 1814 in Sławięcice.

Prince George William of Hanover (1880–1912)

George William, Hereditary Prince of Hanover (Georg Wilhelm Christian Albert Edward Alexander Friedrich Waldemar Ernst Adolf Prinz von Hannover; 28 October 1880 – 20 May 1912) was the eldest son of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover (1845–1923) and Princess Thyra of Denmark (1853–1933), the youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark (1818–1906) and Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1817–1898). George William was a great-great-grandson of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820) and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818).

Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt

Princess Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt (20 August 1752 – 22 May 1782) was a member of the House of Hesse and by marriage a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

She is a direct matrilineal ancestor (through women only) of Queen Margarethe II of Denmark, King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, King Albert II of Belgium, King Harald V of Norway, and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg.

Street names of Regent's Park

This is a list of the etymology of street names in the London area of Regent’s Park (i.e. the park, its immediately surrounding terraces, and the estate to the east); the area has no formal boundaries, though it generally thought to be delimited by Prince Albert Road to the north, Park Village East and Hampstead Road/the Euston railway line/Eversholt Street to the east, Euston Road/Marylbone Road to the south and Park Road and Baker Street to the west,

Albany Street, Albany Terrace and Little Albany Street – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Allsop Place – as this area was formerly Allsop’s farm, after Thomas Allsop

Augustus Street – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Avenue Road – simply a descriptive name

Baker Street – after Edward Baker, friend and business partner of the Portman family

The Broad Walk – descriptive

Brock Street

Brunswick Place – after Caroline of Brunswick, wife of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cambridge Gate, Cambridge Gate Mews, Cambridge Terrace and Cambridge Terrace Mews – after Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cardington Street – after the Dukes of Bedford, who also owned land at Cardington, Bedfordshire

Charles Place

Chester Close North, Chester Close South, Chester Court, Chester Gate, Chester Place, Chester Road and Chester Terrace – after the Prince Regent (George IV), also Earl of Chester

Clarence Gardens, Clarence Gate and Clarence Terrace – after the future William IV, Duke of Clarence, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cobourg Street – after Leopold I of Belgium off Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, husband of Princess Charlotte of Wales, George IV’s daughter

Compton Close

Cornwall Terrace and Cornwall Terrace Mews

Cumberland Market, Cumberland Place, Cumberland Terrace and Cumberland Terrace Mews – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Drummond Street – after Lady Caroline Drummond, a member of the Duke of Grafton's family

Edward Mews and Little Edward Street – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Euston Grove, Euston Road, Euston Square, Euston Station Colonnade, Euston Street and Euston Underpass – after the earl of Euston, son of the duke of Grafton, local landowners when the road was built in the 1760s

Eversholt Street –after the Dukes of Bedford, whose seat was at Woburn Abbey near Eversholt, Bedfordshire

Everton Buildings

Exmouth Mews – presumably by relation to Exmouth Street, now Starcross Street

Foundry Mews

George Mews – presumably for the Prince Regent (George IV)

Gloucester Gate, Gloucester Gate Bridge and Gloucester Gate Mews – after Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, sister of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Granby Terrace – after John Manners, Marquess of Granby, noted Georgian-era military commander

Hampstead Road – as it leads to the north London district of this name

Hanover Gate, and Hanover Terrace and Hanover Terrace Mews – after the House of Hanover, reigning dynasty when the square and street were built in 1713

Harrington Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Inner Circle and Outer Circle – simply descriptive names

Kent Passage and Kent Terrace – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Laxton Place – after its 1806 developer, the baker George Laxton

Longford Street

Macclesfield Bridge – after George Parker, 4th Earl of Macclesfield, chairman of the Regent’s Canal Company in the 17th century

MacFarren Place – after George Alexander Macfarren, composer and principal at the nearby Royal Academy of Music

Mackworth Street – after Thomas Mackworth, local landowner who is buried nearby; it was formerly Rutland Street, after John Manners, Marquess of Granby (also Duke of Rutland), but was changed in 1938 to avoid confusion with several other similarly named streets

Marylebone Road – from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church (1817); the original church was built on the bank of a small stream or "bourne", called the Tybourne or Tyburn. This stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form, Marylebone

Melton Street – unknown

Mornington Street – after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, noted 18th - 19th century statesman

Munster Square – after the future William IV, Earl of Munster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Nash Street – after John Nash, architect of the terraces around Regent’s Park

Netley Street – possibly after Netley in Hampshire

North Gower Street – after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, wife of local landowner John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford; it is the northern extension of Gower Street

Nottingham Terrace – after Nottinghamshire, where local landowners the dukes of Portland owned property

Osnaburgh Street and Osnaburgh Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Osnaburgh in English), brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Park Road – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Square, Park Square East, Park Square Mews and Park Square West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Village East and Park Village West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Peto Place – after Samuel Morton Peto, MP, entrepreneur, civil engineer and railway developer, who paid for a Batist chapel to be built here in 1855 (since closed)

Prince Albert Road – after Albert, Prince Consort; formerly Primrose Hill Road

Prince of Wales Passage – after the Royal family

Prince Regent Mews – after the Prince Regent, later George IV, by association with Regent’s Park

Redhill Street

Regnart Buildings

Robert Street

St Andrew’s Place – after the later William IV, Duke of St Andrews, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

St Katherine’s Precinct – after the former Anglican chapel of St Katharine's Hospital, which retains its original dedication to Saint Katharine, and was built in 1826-8 (now the Danish Church)

Stanhope Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Starcross Street – formerly Exmouth Street, it was renamed after the town of this name in Devon to avoid confusion with similarly named streets

Station Approach – descriptive, next to Euston station

Stephenson Way – after Robert Stephenson, Victoria-era builder of the adjacent Euston station

Sussex Place – after Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Tolmers Square – after the village of this name in Hertfordshire; the New River flowed from the county and this land was formerly a reservoir owned by the New River Company

Triton Square and Triton Street – after the Greek god of this name

Ulster Place and Ulster Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Varndell Street – after the architect CE Varndell, who took over as surveyor the Regent’s Park development from John Nash

William Road – after the later William IV, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Wybert Street

York Bridge, York Gate, York Terrace East and York Terrace West – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

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