Erich Marcks

Erich Marcks (6 June 1891 – 12 June 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II. He authored the first draft of the operational plan, Operation Draft East, for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, advocating what was later known as A-A line as the goal for the Wehrmacht to achieve, within nine to seventeen weeks.

Erich Marcks
Erich Marcks.jpeg
Born6 June 1891
Died12 June 1944 (aged 53)
Saint-Lô, France
Allegiance German Empire
 Weimar Republic
 Nazi Germany
Service/branchArmy
Years of service1910–44
RankGeneral der Artillerie
UnitLXXXIV Army Corps
Battles/warsWorld War I; World War II
AwardsKnight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves

Career

Born in 1891, Erich Marcks joined the Army in 1910 and fought in World War I. He completed General Staff Training and was transferred to the Imperial General Staff Corps in 1917. Marcks was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class and then 1st Class, and posted to the German Supreme Command.[1] After the war, Marcks fought with the paramilitary Freikorps. He joined the Army of the German Republic (Reichsheer); between 1921 and 1933, he held several staff and command positions, and then served in the Ministry of Defense. On 1 April 1933, after Hitler came to power, Marcks was transferred to the army, serving as Chief of Staff of VIII Corps. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves.

Operation Draft East

Marcks Plan for Operation Barbarossa
The Marcks Plan (published 5 August 1940) was the original German plan of attack for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Soviet Union during World War II, as depicted in a US Government study (March 1955)

As Chief of Staff VIII Corps, Marcks took part in the attack on Poland and was promoted to Chief of Staff 18th Army, serving with it during the Battle of France. In the summer of 1940, Franz Halder, chief of OKH General Staff, directed Marcks to draft an initial operational plan for the invasion of the Soviet Union. Marcks produced a report entitled "Operation Draft East". Citing the need to "protect Germany against enemy bombers", the report advocated the A-A line as the operational objective of the invasion of "Russia" (sic). This goal was a line from Arkhangelsk on the Arctic Sea through Gorky and Rostov to the port city of Astrakhan at the mouth of the Volga on the Caspian Sea. Marcks envisioned that the campaign, including the capture of Moscow and beyond, would require between nine and seventeen weeks to complete.[2]

Russia, Normandy, and Death

In December 1940 Marcks became commanding general of the 101st Light Infantry Division. In June 1941 he was gravely wounded un the Ukraine, necessitating the amputation of his left leg. After his recovery, he was named commanding general of the 337th Infantry Division from March 1942 until September 1942. Marcks was promoted to General der Artillerie and was named commanding general of the LXXXIV Corps, which he commanded during the Allied Normandy Invasion,[3] and having had his 53rd birthday on D-Day, he was wounded in an Allied air attack on 12 June 1944 and died the same day. Posthumously, he was awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (24 June 1944).[4]

In Popular Culture

In the film The Longest Day, Marcks was played by Richard Münch.

Awards

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Thomas 1998, p. 58.
  2. ^ Kay 2011, p. 31.
  3. ^ Citino, Robert M., "Danger Zone," World War II History, July–August 2016, p. 26.
  4. ^ a b c Scherzer 2007, p. 526.

Bibliography

  • Kay, Alex J. (2011) [2006]. Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political and Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940–1941. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845451868.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9.
Military offices
Preceded by
Generalleutnant Kurt Pflieger
Commander of 337. Infanterie-Division
15 March 1942 – 5 October 1942
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Otto Schünemann
Preceded by
none
Commander of LXXXVII. Armeekorps
5 November 1942 – 1 August 1943
Succeeded by
General der Infanterie Gustav-Adolf von Zangen
Preceded by
General der Infanterie Gustav-Adolf von Zangen
Commander of LXXXIV. Armeekorps
1 August 1943 – 12 June 1944
Succeeded by
General der Artillerie Wilhelm Fahrmbacher
101st Jäger Division (Wehrmacht)

The 101st Jäger Division was a light infantry Division of the German Army in World War II. It was formed in July 1942 by the redesignation of the 101st Light Infantry Division, which was itself formed in December 1940. It took part in the Battle of Kharkov, the Battle of the Caucasus, and the retreat into the Kuban, where it suffered heavy losses fighting both the Red Army and partisans. The division was then involved in the battles in the Kuban bridgehead before being evacuated. The 101st was subsequently transferred to the lower Dnieper River in late 1943. It was part of the 1st Panzer Army that was surrounded in March 1944; it formed the rear guard for the XLVI Panzer Corps during the breakout of the Kamenets-Podolsky pocket. The division then retreated across Ukraine. In October 1944, it was moved to Slovakia and took part in the Battle of the Dukla Pass.

During the last year of the war, it fought in Hungary and Austria; by the end of the war, it had been reduced to the size of a Kampfgruppe.

18th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 18th Army (German: 18. Armee) was a World War II field army in the German Wehrmacht.

Formed in November 1939 in Military Region (Wehrkreis) VI, the 18th Army was part of the offensive into the Netherlands (Battle of the Netherlands) and Belgium (Battle of Belgium) during Fall Gelb and later moved into France in 1940. The 18th Army was then moved East and participated in Operation Barbarossa in 1941.

The Army was a part of the Army Group North until early 1945, when it was subordinated to Army Group Kurland. In October 1944, the army was encircled by the Red Army offensives and spent the remainder of the war in the Courland Pocket.

243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 243rd Static Infantry Division was an infantry division of the German Army raised in July 1943. It was stationed in the Cotentin Peninsula when the Allies invaded in June 1944.

Generalleutnant Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben, commander of the 709th Infantry Division reported that the commander of the 922nd Grenadier Regiment, Oberstleutnant Franz Müller, who had been assigned to the 243rd Infantry Division on the west coast, had been transferred by Generalleutnant Heinz Hellmich with regimental troops of the 922nd Grenadier Regiment, the 3rd Battalion 922nd Grenadier Regiment, and one Battalion of the 920th Grenadier Regiment, and the engineer battalion of the 243rd Infantry Division to Montebourg by night march on June 6. Regiment Müller was to advance south with its left wing along Saint-Floxel-Fontenay-sur-Mer-Ravenoville road. Von Schlieben did not remember the purpose of the mission, but assumed it was to prevent a widening of the enemy bridgehead to the north and to support the left flank of the 1058th Grenadier Regiment which engaged in a counterattack at Ste-Mere-Eglise on June 7. An attack by Regiment Müller was prevented from making progress by heavy naval gunfire.

Oberstleutnant Günther Keil reported events slightly differently. He said Oberstleutnant Müller arrived on the evening of June 6 in the area north of Azeville-Saint-Marcouf with regimental troops of the 922nd Grenadier Regiment, the engineer battalion of the 243rd Infantry Division, and the 1st and 3rd Battalions of the 922nd Grenadier Regiment (not a battalion from the 920th Grenadier Regiment). He goes on to add that on the morning of June 7 Regiment Müller attacked, the 3rd Battalion 922nd Grenadier Regiment on the left wing operating against Saint-Marcouf. Saint-Marcouf was captured, but under the pressure of heavy fire from enemy ship based artillery had to give up the position. Making connection with the 3rd Battalion 739th Grenadier Regiment, Oberstleutnant Müller then entrenched with his front facing south. That evening, the 3rd Battalion 922nd Grenadier Regiment along with the 3rd Battalion 739th Grenadier Regiment under command of Oberstleutnant Müller were subordinated to Oberstleutnant Keil. Oberstleutnant Müller took over the southern front adjacent to Oberst Helmuth Rohrbach's taskforce with the boundary being the western edge of the park of Fontenay. This position was maintained until the evening of June 12, when the units withdrew under orders of General der Artillerie Erich Marcks.

Generalleutnant Hellmich also dispatched the 3rd Battalion of the 243rd Artillery Regiment (less the 10th Battery) from the west coast via Bricquebec to Valognes. The two batteries took up position during the fight of June 6 near Ecausseville (3.5 km south of Montebourg). They were assigned to Regimental Staff Seidel and supported the attack of the 1058th Grenadier Regiment on June 7. The 3rd Battalion of the 243rd Artillery Regiment remained with the defending forces around Montebourg after the failed attack of the 1058th Grenadier Regiment.

The division was destroyed in the Battle of Normandy, with its last elements lost in the fall of Cherbourg.

337th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 337th Infantry Division (German: 337. Infanterie-Division) was a German Army infantry division in World War II. It was formed on 16 November 1940 in Kempten. The division was destroyed on the Eastern front in July 1944 and formed the stab of Divisionsgruppe 337 on 7 August 1944 which later was the basis of the 337. Volks-Grenadier-Division.

A-A line

The Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, or A-A line for short, was the military goal of Operation Barbarossa. It is also known as the Volga-Arkhangelsk line, as well as (more rarely) the Volga-Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line. It was first mentioned on 18 December 1940 in Führer Directive 21 (Fall Barbarossa) which enunciated the set goals and conditions of the German invasion of the Soviet Union, describing the attainment of the "general line Volga-Archangelsk" as its overall military objective.

Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches

The Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches (English: Eagle Shield of the German Reich) was an honorary award (German: Ehrengabe) granted by the German president for scholarly or artistic achievements. It was introduced during the Weimar Republic, under President Friedrich Ebert and continued under Nazi Germany. It was a metal disc with a German imperial eagle on a pedestal. It was a high and infrequently awarded honor, received by around 70 people in total.

Allen Johnson (historian)

Allen Johnson (1870–1931) was an American historian, teacher, biographer, and editor, most notably of the Dictionary of American Biography.

Johnson was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, where his father, Moses Allen Johnson (whose ancestor came to Massachusetts in 1630) worked for the Lowell Felting Mills. His mother was Elmira Shattuck. Johnson was the valedictorian of his high school in 1888, and then attended Amherst College, graduating in 1892.After graduation, he taught history and English in the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey from 1892 until 1894, and then held a graduate fellowship at Amherst University, reading philosophy and history. Johnson spent the years 1895 to 1897 studying history in Europe, with three semesters at the University of Leipzig (under Karl Gotthard Lamprecht and Erich Marcks), and one semester in Paris at the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. Johnson then finished his Ph.D. at Columbia University under James Harvey Robinson, with a dissertation entitled The Intendant as a Political Agent under Louis XIV (1899).Johnson began teaching history at Iowa College (now Grinnell College) in 1898. He left in 1905 to teach history and political science at Bowdoin College. In 1910, Johnson joined the faculty at Yale University, where he was appointed Larned Professor of American History. While on the Yale history faculty, Johnson published an article supporting the constitutionality of the fugitive slave act of 1850. An interpretation of the article is that it was part of the movement to reconcile North and South, while supporting the southern side in arguments about the Constitution.Johnson's work as editor of the fifty-volume Chronicles of America series, which was acclaimed for its scholarship and high standards, led to his invitation from the American Council of Learned Societies to edit the proposed Dictionary of American Biography, which led Johnson to leave his position at Yale in 1926 and move to Washington, DC, to oversee work on the DAB. After a few years, Johnson invited his former student from Yale, Dumas Malone, to become assistant editor of the project.Walking home on the evening of January 18, 1931, Johnson tried to cross a street against traffic and was struck by an automobile, whose driver brought him to the hospital, where he was pronounced dead within an hour of the accident. Dumas Malone was named to succeed him as DAB editor.Johnson married Helen K. Ross on June 20, 1900, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. She died in 1921. They had one son, Allen S. Johnson.Aside from serving as editor of the Chronicles of America series and the Dictionary of American Biography, Johnson was also the author of Stephen A. Douglas: A Study in American Politics (1908), Readings in American Constitutional History, 1776–1876 (1912), Union and Democracy (1915), The Historian and Historical Evidence (1926), and Readings in Recent American Constitutional History, 1876–1926 (1927). His Jefferson and His Colleagues (1921) was published in the Chronicles of America series.

General of the Artillery (Germany)

General der Artillerie (en: General of the artillery) may mean:

1. A rank of three-star general, comparable to modern armed forces OF-8 grade, in the Imperial Army, Reichswehr or Wehrmacht - the second-highest regular rank below Generaloberst. Cavalry officers of equivalent rank were called general of the cavalry, and infantry officers of equivalent rank general of the infantry. The Wehrmacht also had General der Panzertruppen (tank troops), General der Gebirgstruppen (mountain troops), General der Pioniere (engineers), General der Fallschirmtruppen (parachute troops), General der Nachrichtentruppen (communications troops). Today in the Bundeswehr, the rank of lieutenant general corresponds to the traditional rank of general of the artillery. There was no equivalent rank in the army of East Germany, where it was merged into that of Generaloberst.

2. in the Bundeswehr, the position of an artillery officer responsible for certain questions of troop training and equipment, usually with the rank of Brigadegenerals. The position of general of the artillery is connected with that of commander of the artillery school. Corresponding service positions also exist for other branches of the army. Since in this usage it refers to a position not a rank, an Oberst is sometimes "General of" his respective type of troops. The form of address is usually Herr General and/or Herr Oberst ; the form of address Herr General der Artillerie is unorthodox, since it does not refer to a rank.

German order of battle in the Balkans campaign (1941)

During World War II, the Axis invasions of Greece and Yugoslavia both commenced on 6 April 1941.

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (7 November 1892 – 1 May 1964) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II and a commander of the 15th Army in the Netherlands in 1944 during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves of Nazi Germany.

Index of World War II articles (E)

E. Frederic Morrow

E. Howard Hunt

E. Ion Pool

E. Lloyd Du Brul

E. R. Stephenson

E. S. Gosney

E. V. Loustalot

Earl E. Anderson

Earl G. Harrison

Earl Johnson (baseball)

Earl Kenneth Olsen

Earl N. Franklin

Earle Birney

Earle E. Partridge

Earle Wheeler

Earls Colne Airfield

Early timeline of Nazism

East African Campaign (World War II)

East Hebei Autonomous Council

East Hopei Army

East Indies Station

East Sea Fleet

East Wall (defensive line)

Easter Posey

Easter Sunday Raid

Eastern Approaches

Eastern District Army (Japan)

Eastern Fleet

Eastern Front (computer game)

Eastern Front (World War II)

Eastern Front Medal

Eastern Sierra Regional Airport

Easterwood Airport

Easy Company (comics)

Ebensee

Eberhard Jäckel

Eberhard Rees

Eberhard Taubert

Eberhard von Mackensen

Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris

Economic Cooperation Administration

Economy of Manchukuo

Economy of Nazi Germany

Economy of Paris

Ed Albosta

Ed and Lorraine Warren

Ed Bearss

Ed Derwinski

Ed Friendly

Ed Frutig

Ed Goddard

Ed Grothus

Ed Guthman

Ed Jucker

Ed Koch

Ed Levy

Ed McMahon

Ed Molinski

Ed Sabol

Edda Mussolini

Eddie Albert

Eddie Carnett

Eddie Chapman

Eddie Eagan

Eddie Jankowski

Eddie Layton

Eddie Rickenbacker

Eddie Slovik

Eddy Capron

Eddy Hamel

Eddy Wynschenk

Edelweiss Pirates

Edgar Aabye

Edgar André

Edgar Borges

Edgar Christensen

Edgar Faure

Edgar H. Lloyd

Edgar Herschler

Edgar Huff

Edgar Julius Jung

Edgar McCloughry

Edgar Meyer

Edgar Quinet (Paris Métro)

Edgar Quinet

Edgar Rădulescu

Edgar Ray Killen

Edgar Seligman

Edgar Sengier

Edgar Whitcomb

Edgard de Larminat

Edgard Potier

Edgardo Sogno

Edgardo Vaghi

Edge of Darkness (1943 film)

Edges of the Lord

Edith Bülbring

Edith Frank-Holländer

Edith Nourse Rogers

Edith Stein

Edler von Daniels

Edme-Armand-Gaston d'Audiffret-Pasquier

Edmond Decottignies

Edmond Delfour

Edmond Kramer

Edmond Malinvaud

Edmond Marin la Meslée

Edmond Rostand

Edmond Schreiber

Edmund Ernest García

Edmund Glaise-Horstenau

Edmund Graves Brown

Edmund H. Marriott (Captain)

Edmund Heines

Edmund Herring

Edmund Hoffmeister

Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside

Edmund Jankowski

Edmund Kiss

Edmund Knoll-Kownacki

Edmund Leopold de Rothschild

Edmund Lindmark

Edmund Minahan

Edmund Muskie

Edmund Osmańczyk

Edmund Roßmann

Edmund Sebree

Edmund Veesenmayer

Edouard Branly

Édouard Candeveau

Edouard Drumont

Edouard Le Roy

Edric Bastyan

Edsall-class destroyer escort

Edson Raff

Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler

Eduard Bona Bunić

Eduard Brücklmeier

Eduard Deisenhofer

Eduard Dietl

Eduard Ellman-Eelma

Eduard Meijer

Eduard Neumann

Eduard Pană

Eduard Pütsep

Eduard Ritter von Schleich

Eduard Schulte

Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli

Eduard von Bonin

Eduard von Knorr

Eduard von Steiger

Eduard Wirths

Eduardo Camet

Eduardo Propper de Callejón

Education for Death

Education in Poland during World War II

Educational reform in occupied Japan

Edvard Beneš

Edvard Hultgren

Edvard Kardelj

Edvard Kocbek

Edvin Wide

Edward A. Bennett

Edward A. Carter, Jr.

Edward A. Silk

Edward Addison

Edward Almond

Edward Amerasakera

Edward Ashmore

Edward Bernard Raczyński

Edward Brooke

Edward Bushnell

Edward C. Dahlgren

Edward C. Daly

Edward Chester Plow

Edward Colquhoun Charlton

Edward Condon

Edward D. Wood, Jr.

Edward Dunlop

Edward Ellsberg

Edward E. Gyatt

Edward F. Hennessey

Edward F. Rector

Edward Fielden (RAF officer)

Edward Ford (courtier)

Edward G. Breen

Edward G. Wilkin

Edward Gardner (MP)

Edward Gonzalez Carroll

Edward Gordon Jones

Edward Gourdin

Edward Graff

Edward H. Ahrens

Edward H. Brooks

Edward H. Howell

Edward S. Hamilton

Edward Hart (soccer)

Edward Heath

Edward Heffron

Edward Henry Allen

Edward J. Bonin

Edward J. Gurney

Edward J. Moskala

Edward J. O’Neill

Edward J. Ruppelt

Edward Jennings (rowing)

Edward Kenna

Edward Kennedy (journalist)

Edward Kirby

Edward Kobyliński

Edward L. Beach, Jr.

Edward L. Cochrane

Edward L. Jackson

Edward L. Sittler, Jr.

Edward Lansdale

Edward Leonard Ellington

Edward Marsh (rower)

Edward Marshall Boehm

Edward Mechling

Edward Micka

Edward N. Peterson

Edward Neville Syfret

Edward O'Hare

Edward O'Herron, Jr.

Edward P. King

Edward Peter

Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany

Edward Quinan

Edward Robert Sellstrom

Edward Roschmann

Edward Russell, 26th Baron de Clifford

Edward Rydz-Śmigły

Edward S. Michael

Edward Smith (VC)

Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen

Edward Stettinius, Jr.

Edward Teller

Edward Thomas Chapman

Edward Tomkins

Edward Toms

Edward Turkington

Edward Tylor Miller

Edward W. Gosselin

Edward Witten

Edward Y. Hartshorne

Edwin A. Pollock

Edwin Alfred Howard

Edwin Barclay

Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall

Edwin D. Patrick

Edwin Duing Eshleman

Edwin H. May, Jr.

Edwin H. Whitehead

Edwin Hedley

Edwin J. Hill

Edwin Linkomies

Edwin McMillan

Edwin Murati

Edwin Swales

Edwin T. Layton

Edwin Walker

Edwin William Hurst

Edwina Sandys

Eero Berg

Eero Lehtonen

Eero Mäntyranta

Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city

Effects of World War II

Efraim Zuroff

Egbert Hayessen

Egon Bretscher

Egon Mayer

Egutu Oliseh

Egypt-Libya Campaign

Ehrenfeld Group

Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus

Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe

Ehrentempel

Eichmann Interrogated

Eiffel Tower in popular culture

Eiffel Tower

Eight-eight fleet

Eighteenth Air Force

Eighteenth Army (Japan)

Eighth Air Force

Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

Eighth Route Army

Eighth United States Army

Eiji Sawamura

Eileen Nearne

Einar Axel Malmstrom

Einar Gerhardsen

Einar Liberg

Eine Symphonie des Kampfwillens

Eino Leino (wrestler)

Eino Luukkanen

Einsatzgruppe Egypt

Einsatzgruppen Trial

Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzkommando

Einstein–Szilárd letter

Einstossflammenwerfer 46

Eisenwerke Oberdonau

Škorpion vz. 61

EL-DE Haus

Elżbieta Zawacka

Elaine Hendrix

Elbe Day

Elbert L. Kinser

Elbert Tuttle

Elbing-class torpedo boat

Elchonon Wasserman

Elco Naval Division

Elden H. Johnson

Eldon Edwards

Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited

Eldred World War II Museum

Elefant

Elektroboot

Elemér Somfay

Elena Văcărescu

Eleonore Poelsleitner

Eleuthère Irénée du Pont

Eleventh Air Force

Eleventh Army (Japan)

Elford Albin Cederberg

Elfriede Mohnecke

Elfriede Rinkel

Eli L. Whiteley

Eli Thomas Reich

Eli Wallach

Eliad Moreh

Eliane Karp

Eliane Plewman

Elias Degiannis

Elias Katz

Elie Aron Cohen

Elie Carafoli

Elie Frédéric Forey

Elie Wiesel National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania

Elie Wiesel

Elio Vittorini

Elisabeth Becker

Elisabeth Blochmann

Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme

Elisabeth de Rothschild

Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche

Elisabeth Heyward

Elisabeth Leseur

Elisabeth Lupka

Elisabeth Marschall

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Elisabeth of Bavaria (1876-1965)

Elisabeth Schumacher

Elisabeth Volkenrath

Elisabeth von Schleicher

Elisabeth von Thadden

Eliyahu Bet-Zuri

Eliyahu Hakim

Elizabeth Becker-Pinkston

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon

Elizabeth Devereux-Rochester

Elizabeth Dilling

Elizebeth Friedman

Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom

Elizabeth Lawrie Smellie

Elizabeth P. Hoisington

Elizabeth Wiskemann

Ella Maillart

Ellen King

Ellen Osiier

Elliot Meyerowitz

Elliot Richardson

Elliot Welles

Elliott Roosevelt

Ellis R. Weicht

Elme Marie Caro

Elmer Bernstein

Elmer Charles Bigelow

Elmer E. Fryar

Elmer Gedeon

Elmer Heindl

Elmer J. Burr

Elmer J. Holland

Elmer Knutson

Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.

Elmo Smith

Elmyr de Hory

Eloi Metullus

Elpida Karamandi

Elsa Gindler

Else Feldmann

Else Hirsch

Else Krüger

Else Ury

Elspeth Rostow

Elton Younger

Elverum Authorization

Elvira Popescu

Elvis Jacob Stahr, Jr.

Elwood Richard Quesada

Ely Jacques Kahn, Jr.

Elyesa Bazna

Emanoil Ionescu

Emanuel Lasker

Emanuel Moravec

Emanuel Querido

Emanuel Schäfer

Emanuele Beraudo di Pralormo

Embassy of Australia in Paris

Embassy of Canada in Paris

Embassy of Serbia in Paris

Embassy of the United States in Paris

Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II

Emergency circulating notes

Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists

Emergency Fighter Program

Emergency Relief and Construction Act

Emergency Shipbuilding program

Emerse Faé

Emerson Dickman

Emerson Norton

Emigration of Germans from Poland in the 20th century

Emil August Fieldorf

Emil Beier

Emil Bitsch

Emil Bodnăraş

Emil Calmanovici

Emil Clade

Emil Fackenheim

Emil Haţieganu

Emil Haussmann

Emil Hácha

Emil Jannings

Emil Kellenberger

Emil Kolben

Emil Konopinski

Emil Lang (fighter ace)

Emil Maurice

Emil Puhl

Emil Racoviţă

Emil Sembach

Emil Sitko

Emil Uzelac

Emil Zinner

Emile-Justin Menier

Émile Albrecht

Emile Boutroux

Emile Dechaineux

Emile Deleau, Jr.

Emile Druart

Emile Lachapelle

Emilie Schindler

Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Banfi

Emilio Esteban Infantes

Emilio G. Segrè

Emilio Lussu

Emma Watson

Emma Zimmer

Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie

Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy

Emmanuel Dorado

Emmanuel Foulon

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Emmerich Danzer

Emmett H. Walker, Jr.

Emmett O'Donnell, Jr.

Emmy Andriesse

Emory S. Land

EMP 44

Empire Comfort

Empire of Japan

Empire of the Rising Sun

Empire of the Sun (film)

Empire of the Sun

Empire of Vietnam

Empire Peacemaker

Empire Rest

Empire Shelter

Employee and Worker Faithful Service Medal

Empress of Britain (1930)

Enabling Act of 1933

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaign against Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet

Encirclement Campaigns

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust

Encyclopedia of the Third Reich

End of World War II in Europe

End of World War II in the Pacific

Endel Puusepp

Endsieg

Enemy at the Door

Enemy at the Gates

Enemy Coast Ahead

Enemy Objectives Unit

Enfield revolver

Engelbert Endrass

Engineer combat group

Engineering School Leonard de Vinci

England First Party

Englandspiel

Enigma (2001 film)

Enigma (novel)

Enigma machine

Enigma: Rising Tide

Enoch Powell

Enola Gay

Enomoto Takeaki

Enrico Berlinguer

Enrico Bombieri

Enrico Fermi

Enrico Mattei

Enrique de Lucas

Ensemble InterContemporain

Ensign Pulver

Entertainments National Service Association

Entwicklung series

Environmental Measurements Laboratory

Enzian

Enzo Biagi

Enzo Sereni

Enzo Traverso

Enzo Trossero

Ephraim Oshry

Ephraim P. Holmes

Ephraim Urbach

Ephrata Municipal Airport

EPK (Pyrkal) Machine gun

Equipment losses in World War II

Erbkrank

Erbo Graf von Kageneck

ERCO Ercoupe

Ercole Olgeni

Eremia Grigorescu

Ergänzungsjagdgeschwader

Erhard Heiden

Erhard Keller

Erhard Milch

Erhard Raus

Eric "Winkle" Brown

Eric Alfred Winkler

Eric Anderson (VC)

Eric Bols

Eric Burchmore

Eric Calcagno

Eric Carlberg

Eric Charles Twelves Wilson

Eric Djemba-Djemba

Eric Dorman-Smith

Eric Erickson (spy)

Eric Feldt

Eric Fombonne

Eric G. Gibson

Eric Gandar Dower

Eric Gascoigne Robinson

Eric Grant Miles

Eric Halstead

Eric James Brindley Nicolson

Eric Kandel

Eric Koenig

Eric Lawrence Moxey

Eric Lemming

Eric Lock

Eric Lomax

Eric Malmberg (sport wrestler)

Eric Marcus Municipal Airport

Eric Maschwitz

Eric Muhsfeldt

Eric Newby

Eric Pleasants

Eric Rabesandratana

Eric Ravilious

Eric Schwarzkopf

Eric Sykes

Eric W. Harris

Eric William Wright

Eric Williams (writer)

Erich Abraham

Erich Albrecht

Erich Bey

Erich Brandenberger

Erich Bärenfänger

Erich Dethleffsen

Erich Fellgiebel

Erich Fronhöfer

Erich Gimpel

Erich Hartmann

Erich Hilgenfeldt

Erich Hoepner

Erich Hohagen

Erich Honecker

Erich Kahn

Erich Kempka

Erich Klausener

Erich Kleiber

Erich Knauf

Erich Koch

Erich Kordt

Erich Kästner (World War I veteran)

Erich Leie

Erich Leinsdorf

Erich Loewenhardt

Erich Ludendorff

Erich Maas

Erich Marcks

Erich Mende

Erich Mix

Erich Mühsam

Erich Naumann

Erich Neumann (politician)

Erich Priebke

Erich Raeder

Erich Rudorffer

Erich Salomon

Erich Schmidt-Leichner

Erich Topp

Erich Vermehren

Erich von dem Bach

Erich von Manstein

Erich von Selle

Erich Walther

Erich Wolfgang Korngold

Erik Adlerz

Erik Andersson (water polo player)

Erik Bohlin

Erik Byléhn

Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema

Erik Heinrichs

Erik Lundquist

Erik Rhodes (actor, born 1906)

Erik Sætter-Lassen

Erik Scavenius

Erik von Amsberg

Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn

Erik Wilén

Erika Bergmann

Erika Lechner

Erika von Brockdorff

Erillinen Pataljoona 4

Erling Aastad

Erling Dekke Næss

Erling Foss

Ermil Gheorghiu

Ermont Eaubonne railway station

Ernő Schubert

Erna Flegel

Erna Furman

Erna long-range recce group

Erna Paris

Erna Petermann

Ernest A. Watkinson

Ernest Aderman

Ernest Albert Egerton

Ernest B. Price

Ernest Borgnine

Ernest Buckmaster

Ernest Childers

Ernest E. Evans

Ernest Gordon

Ernest H. Dervishian

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Herbert Pitcher

Ernest Hollings

Ernest Ivy Thomas, Jr.

Ernest King

Ernest Klein

Ernest Lavisse

Ernest Lawrence

Ernest Legouvé

Ernest Lenard Hilbert

Ernest Moreau de Melen

Ernest Oliver Gidden

Ernest Renan

Ernest Smith

Ernest Sykes (VC)

Ernest Tassart

Ernest Vaast

Ernest Vandiver

Ernest W. Prussman

Ernest William Sansom

Ernest William Titterton

Ernie Case

Ernie Curtis

Ernie Dickens

Ernie Koy

Ernie Pyle

Ernst-Günther Baade

Ernst-Günther Schenck

Ernst-Robert Grawitz

Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert

Ernst Arndt (actor)

Ernst Barkmann

Ernst Bergmann (philosopher)

Ernst Biberstein

Ernst Bloch

Ernst Boepple

Ernst Busch (military)

Ernst Cohen

Ernst Düllberg

Ernst Fast

Ernst Felle

Ernst Gadermann

Ernst Graf zu Reventlow

Ernst Gustav Kirsch

Ernst Hanfstaengl

Ernst Heinkel

Ernst Herman van Rappard

Ernst Hermann Meyer

Ernst Hoppenberg

Ernst Jünger

Ernst Kaether

Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kantorowicz

Ernst Kitzinger

Ernst Knaack

Ernst Krankemann

Ernst Kretschmer

Ernst Kupfer

Ernst Lerch

Ernst Lindemann

Ernst Linder

Ernst Melchior

Ernst Niekisch

Ernst Nolte

Ernst Pöhner

Ernst R. G. Eckert

Ernst Röhm

Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg

Ernst Rüdin

Ernst Sagebiel

Ernst Schultz

Ernst Schäfer

Ernst Stuhlinger

Ernst Thälmann

Ernst Tiburzy

Ernst Toch

Ernst Udet

Ernst von Bodelschwingh-Velmede

Ernst von Harnack

Ernst von Weizsäcker

Ernst W. Mayr

Ernst Wiechert

Ernst Wilhelm Bohle

Ernst Zündel

Erprobungskommando

Erwin Böhme

Erwin Bumke

Erwin Clausen

Erwin Engelbrecht

Erwin König

Erwin Planck

Erwin Rösener

Erwin Rommel

Erwin Schild

Erwin Schrödinger

Erwin Schulhoff

Erwin Thaler

Erwin von Lahousen

Erwin von Witzleben

Escape by Night (1960 film)

Escape from Colditz

Escape from Sobibor

Escape to Athena

Escape to Victory

Eschwege displaced persons camp

ESCP-EAP European School of Management

Escuadrón 201

ESISAR

Eske Brun

Esmond Knight

Esmond Romilly

Espace Dalí

Espeland concentration camp

Esplanade de La Défense (Paris Métro)

ESPO

Esprit Fléchier

Essex-class aircraft carrier

Essex County Division

Essex Scottish Regiment

Esso Tower

Estella Agsteribbe

Esterwegen

Esther Bubley

Esther Béjarano

Estonia in World War II

Estonian anti-German resistance movement 1941–1944

Estuaire (biennale)

Et in Arcadia ego

Ethel Lackie

Etienne Léandri

Etienne Marc Quatremère

Etorofu-class escort ship

Ettore Bastico

Etty Hillesum

Eugen-Ludwig Zweigart

Eugen Beyer

Eugen Bolz

Eugen Fischer

Eugen Hadamovsky

Eugen Honig

Eugen Lunde

Eugen Meindl

Eugen Ott (ambassador)

Eugen Ott (general)

Eugen Ritter von Schobert

Eugen Schmidt

Eugen Sigg

Eugen von Knilling

Eugene A. Chappie

Eugene A. Greene

Eugene A. Valencia, Jr.

Eugene B. Fluckey

Eugene Blair

Eugene Bullard

Eugene Colson

Eugene E. Lindsey

Eugene Earle Amick

Eugene Esmonde

Eugene F. George

Eugene Hollander

Eugene Lazowski

Eugene M. Zuckert

Eugene McDonnell

Eugene Meyer

Eugene Morland Key

Eugene Oberst

Eugene P. Wilkinson

Eugene Rabinowitch

Eugene Sledge

Eugene T. Booth

Eugenics in Showa Japan

Eugenio Calò

Eugenio Monti

Eugeniusz Horbaczewski

Eugeniusz Lokajski

Eugeniusz Nowak

Eugeniusz Stasiecki

Eugène Apert

Eugène Auguste Ernest Havet

Eugène Balme

Eugène Belgrand

Eugène Besse

Eugène Chavant

Eugène Choisel

Eugène Constant

Eugène de Beauharnais

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Deloncle

Eugène Ionesco

Eugène Isabey

Eugène Marin Labiche

Eugène Mougin

Eugène Schueller

Eugène Scribe

Euphemia Welby

Euphrasia Donnelly

Euro Disney S.C.A.

EuroBasket 1951

Euronext Paris

Europa (wargame)

Europa Europa

Europe (Paris Métro)

Europe first

Europe

European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal

European-American Unity and Rights Organization

European Advisory Commission

European Air War

European Kindred

European Molecular Biology Laboratory

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

European Theater of Operations

European Theater

European Theatre of World War II

Europäische Freiwillige

Eustaquio de Escandón y Barrón

Eva-Maria Buch

Eva Braun

Eva Green

Eva Olliwier

Eva Schulze-Knabe

Evacuation of civilians from the Channel Islands in 1940

Evacuation of Finnish Karelia

Evacuation of German civilians during the end of World War II

Evacuation of Karafuto and Kuriles

Evacuation of Manchukuo

Evacuation of Tallinn (1941)

Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II

Evald Mikson

Evan Mecham

Evans Carlson

Evelyn Barker

Evelyn Colyer

Evelyn Owen

Evelyn Sharp (aviator)

Evelyn Waugh

Evelyn Witthoff

Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor

Events preceding World War II in Asia

Events preceding World War II in Europe

Everett F. Larson

Everett P. Pope

Evert Lundquist

Evert Nilsson

Everton Santos

Everybody Go Home

Evripidis Bakirtzis

Evsei Vainrub

Ewa Paradies

Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald Walch

Ewan Murray Robson

Ewell Ross McCright

Ewen Montagu

Ewing Kauffman

Ex-Voto de 1662

Ex parte Endo

Ex parte Quirin

Excelsior tank

Execution (novel)

Executive Order 9066

Executive Order 9102

Exelmans (Paris Métro)

Exercise Eskimo

Exercise Tiger

Exeter International Airport

Expansion operations and planning of the Axis Powers

Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil

Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937)

Expulsion of Germans after World War II

Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia

Expulsion of Poles by Germany

Extermination camp

Extermination of Soviet prisoners of war by Nazi Germany

Extermination through labour

Extraordinary State Commission

Eye of the Needle (film)

Eye of the Needle (novel)

June 12

June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 202 days remaining until the end of the year.

June 6

June 6 is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 208 days remaining until the end of the year.

Kurt Pflieger

Kurt Pflieger (19 September 1890 – 19 September 1958) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several divisions. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

List of Freikorps members

Freikorps (English: Free Corps) were German volunteer military or anti-communist paramilitary units. The term was originally applied to voluntary armies formed in German lands from the middle of the 18th century onwards. Between World War I and World War II the term was also used for the paramilitary organizations that arose during the Weimar Republic. This is a list of post-World War I Freikorps members.

Marcks

Marcks is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Erich Marcks (1891–1944), German general

Gerhard Marcks (1889–1981), German sculptor

Greg Marcks (born 1976), American director, writer and actor

Megan Marcks (born 1972), Australian rower

Werner Marcks (1896–1967), German general

Operation Mallard

Operation Mallard was the codename for an airborne forces operation, which was conducted by the British Army on 6 June 1944, as part of the Normandy landings during the Second World War.

The mission's objective was to airlift glider infantry of the 6th Airlanding Brigade and divisional troops to reinforce the British 6th Airborne Division on the left flank of the British invasion beaches. Using two landing zones, one to the west of the Caen canal and the other to the east of the River Orne, Mallard was the third airborne operation involving units of the division on D-Day. The first, Operation Deadstick, had captured what are now known as the Pegasus and Horsa Bridges. Operation Tonga followed, dropping the division's two parachute brigades near Caen to the east.

Mallard proved successful with 246 of the 256 gliders towed by aircraft from No. 38 Group RAF and No. 48 Group, arriving safely at their landing zones. The landings included the first Tetrarch tanks to be delivered into combat by air.

Otto Schünemann

Otto Schünemann (6 October 1891 – 29 June 1944) was a German general during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. Schünemann was killed on 29 June 1944 near Mogilev in Belarus during the Soviet 1944 summer offensive, Operation Bagration.

Richard Münch (actor)

Richard Heinrich Ludwig Münch (10 January 1916 – 6 June 1987), better known as Richard Münch, was a German actor, best known for portraying Alfred Jodl in Patton (1970). He also portrayed General Erich Marcks in The Longest Day (1962).

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the 101st Jäger Division (101st Light Infantry Division)

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