Erich Köhler

Erich Köhler (June 27, 1892 – October 23, 1958) was a German politician. He was the 1st President of the Bundestag from 7 September 1949 to 18 October 1950.

Köhler co-founded the Christian Democratic Union (Germany) in 1945. He was elected as a member of the first German Bundestag for Wiesbaden's constituency in 1949.[1][2]

Erich Köhler
President of the Bundestag
In office
7 September 1949 – 18 October 1950
PresidentKarl Arnold (Acting)
Theodor Heuss
ChancellorKonrad Adenauer
Preceded byPosition Established
Succeeded byHermann Ehlers
Personal details
Erich Köhler

June 27, 1892
DiedOctober 23, 1958 (aged 66)
Political partyCDU


  1. ^ "Dr. Erich Köhler (CDU/CSU) 1949-1950". Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  2. ^ "Erich Köhler". Retrieved December 8, 2017.

External links

1892 in Germany

Events in the year 1892 in Germany.


The Bundestag (German pronunciation: [ˈbʊndəstaːk], "Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament. It can be compared to the lower house of parliament along the lines of the United States House of Representatives, the Irish Dáil Éireann or the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, with the Bundesrat, though a separate institution, having a similar role to the upper house of a bicameral parliament.

The Bundestag was established by chapter III of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Constitution) in 1949 as one of the legislative bodies of Germany and thus the historical successor to the earlier Reichstag.

Since 1999 it has met in the Reichstag Building in Berlin. Wolfgang Schäuble is the current President of the Bundestag. Members of the Bundestag (Mitglieder des Bundestages) are usually elected every four years by all adult German citizens in a mixed system of constituency voting and list voting. The constitutional minimum number of seats is 598; with overhang and leveling seats there are currently 709 seats. The Election Day can be called earlier than four years after the last if the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) loses a vote of confidence and asks the Federal President (Bundespräsident) to dissolve the Bundestag in order to hold new general elections.

In the 19th century, the name Bundestag was the unofficial designation for the assembly of the sovereigns and mayors of the Monarchies and Free Cities which formed the German Confederation (1815–1866). Its seat was in the Free City of Frankfurt on the Main.

Hans Robert Jauss

Hans Robert Jauss (German: Jauß; 12 December 1921 – 1 March 1997) was a German academic, notable for his work in reception theory (especially his concept of horizon of expectation) and medieval and modern French literature. His approach was derived from the hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer.

Heinrich Mann Prize

The Heinrich Mann Prize (German: Heinrich-Mann-Preis) is an essay prize that has been awarded since 1953, first by the East German Academy of Arts, then by the Academy of Arts, Berlin. The prize, which comes with a €8,000 purse, is given annually on 27 March, Heinrich Mann's day of birth. The laureate is selected by an independent three-member jury which usually includes the previous year's laureate.

Kai-Uwe von Hassel

Kai-Uwe von Hassel (21 April 1913 – 8 May 1997) was a German politician from Schleswig-Holstein associated with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). He served as Minister President of Schleswig-Holstein from 1954 to 1963, as Federal Minister of Defence from 1963 to 1966, and as Federal Minister for Displaced Persons, Refugees and War Victims from 1966 to 1969. From 1969 to 1972 he was the 4th President of the Bundestag.

Karl Carstens

Karl Carstens (14 December 1914 – 30 May 1992) was a German politician. He served as President of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1979 to 1984.


Köhler is a German surname.

List of German Christian Democratic Union politicians

A list of notable members of the Christian Democratic Union.


Norbert Lammert

Norbert Lammert (born 16 November 1948) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). He served as the 12th President of the Bundestag from 2005 to 2017.

Philipp Jenninger

Philipp Jenninger (10 June 1932 – 4 January 2018) was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union and diplomat. He was the President of the Bundestag from 1984 to 1988. He also served as Member of the German Parliament, the Bundestag (1969–1990), Minister of State at the German Chancellery (1982–1984), German Ambassador to Austria (1991–1995) and German Ambassador to the Holy See (1995–1997).

President of the Bundestag

The President of the Bundestag (German: Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the federal parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries. In the German order of precedence, his office is ranked second after the President and before the Chancellor. The 13th and current President of the Bundestag is Wolfgang Schäuble, since October 24, 2017.

Presidium of the Bundestag

The Presidium of the Bundestag is responsible for the routine administration of the Bundestag, including its clerical and research activities. The presidium consists of the President of the Bundestag and a variable number of Vice Presidents, currently six.

The president is elected by all members of the Bundestag during its first meeting; he almost always comes from the largest fraction in the Bundestag (tradition has made this a sort of an unwritten law). His administration ends with the end of the legislature, but he can be re-elected, as long as he is re-elected to the Bundestag.

In 1994 it was decided that every faction in the Bundestag should be represented by a Vice President.

Rainer Barzel

Rainer Candidus Barzel (20 June 1924 – 26 August 2006) was a German politician of the CDU. He served as the 8th President of the Bundestag from 1983 to 1984.

Richard Stücklen

Richard Stücklen (20 August 1916 – 2 May 2002) was German politician of the CSU. He had previously been a member of the NSDAP (1939–1945). From 1957 to 1966, he served as Federal Minister for Post and Communication. A member of the German parliament for more than 40 years, he served as the 7th President of the Bundestag from 1979 to 1983.

Rita Süssmuth

Rita Süssmuth (German pronunciation: [ˈʁiːta ˈzʏsmuːt]; born 17 February 1937) is a German politician and a member of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

SMS Karlsruhe

SMS Karlsruhe was a light cruiser of the Karlsruhe class built by the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy). She had one sister ship, SMS Rostock; the ships were very similar to the previous Magdeburg-class cruisers. The ship was laid down in 1911, launched in November 1912, and completed by January 1914. Armed with twelve 10.5 cm SK L/45 guns, Karlsruhe had a top speed of 28.5 knots (52.8 km/h; 32.8 mph), which allowed her to escape from British cruisers during her career.

After her commissioning, Karlsruhe was assigned to overseas duties in the Caribbean. She arrived in the area in July 1914, days before the outbreak of World War I. Once the war began, she armed the passenger liner SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, but while the ships were transferring equipment, British ships located them and pursued Karlsruhe. Her superior speed allowed her to escape, after which she operated off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Here, she captured or sank sixteen ships. While en route to attack the shipping lanes to Barbados on 4 November 1914, a spontaneous internal explosion destroyed the ship and killed the majority of the crew. The survivors used one of Karlsruhe's colliers to return to Germany in December 1914.

Salut d'amor

A salut d'amor (Occitan: [saˈlyd daˈmuɾ], Catalan: [səˈlud dəˈmoɾ, saˈlud daˈmoɾ]; "love letter", lit. "greeting of love") or (e)pistola ("epistle") was an Occitan lyric poem of the troubadours, written as a letter from one lover to another in the tradition of courtly love. Some songs preserved in the Italian Quattrocento and Cinquecento chansonniers are labelled in the rubrics as saluts (or some equivalent), but the salut is not treated as a genre by medieval Occitan grammarians. The trouvères copied the Occitan song style into Old French as the salut d'amour. There are a total of nineteen surviving Occitan saluts and twelve French ones, with a Catalan examples (of the salutació amorosa) also.

The poetic form probably derives from the classical Latin love letter and through a blending of the ars dictaminis and the early Occitan canso. Occitan scholar Pierre Bec argued that the salut was tripartite, possessing an introduction, body, and conclusion. Christiane Leube believes that the Latin five-part division of salutatio, captatio benevolentiae, narratio, petitio, and conclusio formed the basis for the salut, but that the salutatio and captatio blended into one segment and all but the conclusio being less rigidly delineated. Dietmar Rieger regards the salut less as a letter than as a variant of the canso intended not to be sung in performance but to be read. The Occitan saluts do not have stanzas or refrains, but several French ones do (salut à refrains). Structurally they are usually octosyllabic rhyming couplets, but a few are hexasyllabic and Raimon de Miraval wrote a heterometric salut. They often end with a one-word verse, unrhymed with anything previous, that gives the addressee: Domna or Dompna.The first salut d'amor was probably Domna, cel qe'us es bos amics, written by Raimbaut d'Aurenga and he served as a model for many later troubadours. Arnaut de Mareuil wrote five saluts, the most of any individual, and Don Alfred Monson has crowned him the maître incontesté du salut ("the uncontested master of the salut"). They served as a model for Amanieu de Sescars, who wrote two precisely datable saluts in 1278 and 1291. Falquet de Romans wrote a salut d'amor (epistola in the rubric) of 254 lines. The only female author of a salut was Azalais d'Altier. Her 101 verses of rhyming couplets were designed to reconcile two lovers and were addressed to a woman, possibly Clara d'Anduza. In French the only named author of a salut with refrains is Philippe de Rémi.

Destret d'emors mi clam a vos is a 708-line long anonymous Catalan salut.

Wilhelm Busch Museum

The Wilhelm Busch Museum (German: Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und Zeichenkunst Wilhelm Busch, "German Museum of Caricature and Drawings Wilhelm Busch") is a museum in Hanover, Germany. It features the world's largest collection of works by Busch, as well as contemporary comic art, illustrations and drawings.

It is located in the Georgengarten (part of the Herrenhausen Gardens) in a palace known as the Georgenpalais, dating from around 1780. The museum is run by the Wilhelm Busch Society, which formed in 1930.

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