Erbil Governorate

Erbil Governorate (Kurdish: Parêzgeha Hewlêr - پارێزگای ھەولێر‎, Syriac: ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܐܲܪܒܝܠ‎, Arabic: محافظة أربيل‎ Muḥāfaẓat Arbīl), sometimes referred to by the alternative spelling Arbil Governorate, is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.

.[4] It derives its name from the city of Erbil (Kurdish: Hewler), which is its capital.

Erbil Governorate covers an area of 15,074 km2 in the north of Iraq, with a population of 2,113,391 (2017) people. It is largely populated by Kurds but has minority populations of Turkmens, Arabs and Assyrians.

Erbil Governorate

پارێزگای ھەولێر ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܐܲܪܒܝܠ

Parêzgeha Hewlêr
Clockwise, from top: Canyon in Rawandiz, Koy Sanjaq, Shaqlawa and Citadel of Erbil
Clockwise, from top: Canyon in Rawandiz, Koy Sanjaq, Shaqlawa and Citadel of Erbil
Location of the  Erbil Governorate  (red) – in Iraq  (red, beige & light grey) – in the Kurdistan Region  (red & beige)
Location of the  Erbil Governorate  (red)

– in Iraq  (red, beige & light grey)
– in the Kurdistan Region  (red & beige)

Erbil Governorate within Kurdistan Region[1]
Erbil Governorate within Kurdistan Region[1]
Coordinates: 36°11′N 44°2′E / 36.183°N 44.033°ECoordinates: 36°11′N 44°2′E / 36.183°N 44.033°E
Country Iraq
Region Kurdistan
GovernorNawzad Hadi Mawlood
 • Total14,872 km2 (5,742 sq mi)
 • Total2,113,391
HDI (2017)0.676[3]



Hewler governorate 2012
Districts of the Erbil Governorate[6]
District Population
Number of
Erbil 792,981 152,899
Dashty Hawler 186,346 34,264
Makhmur (disputed) 173,801 30,678
Soran 154,945 27,707
Shaqlawa 124,628 23,420
Koya 95,246 18,727
Kabat 93,442 16,015
Mergasor (partially disputed) 44,661 9,711
Choman 23,730 4,749
Rawanduz 21,280 4,235
Total 1,713,461 322,719

Cities and towns

  • Behirke (بحركه), population 6,758
  • Beni Silawey Gewre (بنصلاوة), population 37,322
  • Kasnazan, population 12,783
  • Derbend (دربند), population 10,086
  • Erbil (اربيل), population 850,000
  • Ankawa, population 100,000
  • Xelekan (كلك), population 6,846
  • Kune Gurg (کونە گورگ), population 30,283
  • Koya Senjaq (كويسنجق), population 15,123
  • Mexmur (مخمور), population 18,128
  • Rewanduz (ڕەواندز, رواندوز), population 95,089
  • Selaheddin (صلاح الدين), population 18,205
  • Shaweis (شاويس), population 7,387
  • Piran (پیران, بيران), population 6715
Banoka Village

Banoka Village in Erbil Governorate


Pendro in 1968

Hawler Castle

Aerial view of the Citadel of Erbil, surrounded by the modern city

Academic establishments

  • Salahaddin University: Founded in 1958 in Sulaymaniya and transferred to Erbil in 1981[8]
  • Hawler Medical University: Founded in 2005.[9]
  • University of Kurdistan Hewlêr: Public English-medium university[10]
  • Ishik University: Private university that belongs to Fezalar Educational Institutions in Erbil.[11]
  • Cihan University: Private university, founded in 2007[12]
  • SABIS University: Private university[13]
  • Soran University, KRG-Iraq governmental university founded in 2009[14]


There are many national and international banks operating in Erbil offering citizens and visitors services, including:

See also


  1. ^ "Map of area of Kurdistan Region & its Governorates".
  2. ^ "The map of estimated population of Kurdistan Region 2017".
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ "The Kurdistan Region in brief". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  5. ^ Ramsey, David. "Questia, Your Online Research Library". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  6. ^ "The Map Of districts Of Kurdistan Region".
  8. ^ "Salahaddin University - Hawler". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  9. ^ "Hawler Medical University (HMU)". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  10. ^ "University of Kurdistan". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  11. ^ "> Home". Ishik University. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  12. ^ "Cihan University". Cihan University. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  13. ^ "SABIS® University". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  14. ^ "Soran University". Retrieved 2015-05-15.
  15. ^ "مصرف كوردستان الدولي". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  16. ^ "Trade Bank of Iraq - Your Trade and Investment Partner in Iraq". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  17. ^ "". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  18. ^ "BBAC Bank". Retrieved 2013-10-03.
  19. ^ "Home". IBL. Retrieved 2013-10-03.

External links

Barzan, Iraq

Barzan (Kurdish: بارزان‬‎) is a town located along the Great Zab in Erbil Governorate, Iraq. It is the birthplace of Sheikh Ahmed Barzani and Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani.

Choman District

Choman is a district in Erbil Province. Its administrative centre is also called Choman. The District of Choman lies at the Iraqi-Iranian boundary. The District is composed of four Sub-Districts Galala, Haji Omeran, Samilan and Qasre and about 166 villages.

Disputed territories of Northern Iraq

The disputed territories of Northern Iraq are regions defined by article 140 of the Constitution of Iraq as being Arabised during Baath Party rule in Iraq. Most of these regions are inhabited by non-Arabs, most notably by Assyrians, Yazidis, Turkmens/Turkomans, Shabaks and Kurds.

The disputed areas have been a core concern for Arabs and Kurds, especially since the US invasion and political restructuring in 2003. Kurds gained territory to the south of Iraqi Kurdistan after the US-led invasion in 2003 to regain land they considered historically theirs.Currently, in addition to the four existing governorates within Iraqi Kurdistan (Erbil, Dahuk, Halabja and Sulaymaniyah), Kurds control parts of Nineveh Governorate, Kirkuk Governorate, Salah ad Din Governorate and Diyala Governorate; on the other hand, Iraqi government controls other parts of those four provinces, some parts of which are also claimed by the Kurds. However, during the 2014 ISIL offensive, Iraqi Kurdistan's forces also took over much of the disputed territories. During the 2017 Iraq-Kurdish conflict, The Iraqi Government recaptured much of this territory after the referendum thus pushing KRG forces back to pre-2003 borders.

Erbil (disambiguation)

Erbil may refer to:

Erbil, a city in Iraq

Erbil Governorate, Iraq

Erbil District

Erbil District is a district of the Erbil Governorate in Iraq. It contains three sub-districts, Ankawa, Behirke and Shamamek, and 379 villages. The District of Erbil is centered on the city of Erbil.

Franso Hariri

Franso Toma Hariri (1937 – February 18, 2001), an Assyrian politician, was a high-ranking and long-standing Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq member and head of the KDP block of Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly.

Franso Hariri was born in the city of Harir (70 km from Arbil) in 1937, and graduated from Arbil teaching institution in 1960. He worked inside the KDP in the early 1960s. He was very near to the late Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani and rose to important positions in the KDP during the Kurdish Revolution. He was elected as a member of the KDP central committee in 1979 and was the head of the KDP delegation in the Kurdistan regional parliament, the governor of Arbil, and a minister in the third Kurdistan Regional Government in Arbil.

He supported projects for the beautification and modernization of the city of Arbil. He was also well known as a strong supporter of education, health and sport projects in the city.

Franso Hariri was assassinated on his way to work on February 18, 2001 by four Kurdish Ansar al-Islam members. Two more attempts had been made on his life in Arbil on 1994 and 1997 at the same place and the same street but he escaped from both.In honor of Hariri, the Kurdistan Regional Government declared three days of mourning and renamed the Arbil football stadium the Franso Hariri Stadium.

Today, his son Fawzi Hariri is Iraq's Minister of Industry.

Haodian, Iraq

Haodian (Arabic: هاوديان) is a village located in the northeast area of Erbil Governorate. The current population is about 200, mixed with Assyrian and Kurdish.

Koy Sanjaq

The town Koy Sanjaq (Sorani Kurdish: کۆیە‎, Kurmanji Kurdish: Koye, also known as Koya; Arabic: كوي سنجق‎, from Turkoman, koy, "town", "village", sanjaq, "district", together: district town), original Kurdish name Bijhenjar, is located in the Erbil Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan, close to the Iranian border.

Most of the town was property of two families (the Ghafuri’s and the Hawezi’s) Which were also known by the title of Agha which represents them for being wealthy.

Wallace Lyon, travelling through the town in 1923, compared it to Sulaymaniyah and noted that it was a centre for tobacco. The governor at the time was Jamil Agha Hawezi, succeeding the late Hama Agha Ghafuri. In the 1960s then it was all passed on to Fatih Agha Hawezi.

The population is between 50,000 and 100,000.

A specific variant of the Aramaic language, Koy Sanjaq Surat, a dialect of Aramaic, is spoken by about 1,000 Armota Assyrians who settled in the town by the end of the 1800s.

Famous people from the city include the Kurdish poet Haji Qadir Koyi, Sheikh Jangi Talabani (older brother of former Iraqi President Jalal Talabani), Zeki Ahmed Henari, Haji Agha, Hama Aghai Gewre Ghafuri, Kaka Ziad Aghai Ghafuri (Co-Founder and Vice President of KDP), Zozik Hamid Ghafuri, Jalal Talabani, Omar Debaba, Tahir Tewfiq, Mamosta Aziz, Malay Gewre, Jalal Aghai Hawezi, Fatih Aghai Hawezi, Haji Bakir Aghai Hawezi, Sajid Abdulwahid, Dildar, Dr Xalid Ghafuri, Amin Agha, Mela Masoum, Dr Fuad Masum, Sewa Koyi.

The former president of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, who was born in the nearby village of Kelkan, went to school here. In 1949 he joined the town's branch of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP).A university, known in English as "Koya University" was set up in the town in 2003.

Koy Sanjaq Syriac language

Koy Sanjaq Surat (Arabic: سورث كوي سنجق) is a modern Eastern Syriac-Aramaic language. Speakers of the language call it simply Surat, or 'Syriac'. It is spoken in the town of Koy Sanjaq in the Erbil Governorate. The speakers of Koy Sanjaq Surat have traditionally been Assyrians and thus the language has generally been considered a dialect of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. The Madnhâyâ version of the Syriac alphabet is used in writing, but most written material is in the Syriac language used in worship.

Koya University

Koya University is located in Koy Sanjaq, near Erbil (Hewlêr), capital of the Erbil Governorate in the Iraqi Kurdistan region of Iraq. It was established in 2003.

Makhmur, Iraq

Makhmur (Kurdish: مەخموور Mexmûr‎, Arabic: مخمور‎) is a town in Iraq. It is part of Makhmur District in Erbil Governorate in Northern Iraq. The district is a disputed territory, in between the Erbil and Ninawa Governorates. Makhmur is mainly populated by Arabs and Kurds and was captured by Iraqi army from Peshmerga in October 2017. During the 2014 ISIL crisis, the town was taken over by ISIL militants before being regained again by combined Kurdish forces, led by the Kurdistan Workers' Party. A volunteer civilian militia to defend the town in the future was started in response.During the ongoing 2017 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, clashes have been reported on the outskirts of the town between Peshmerga forces, and the Iraqi army supported by Popular Mobilization Forces (also known as Hashd al-Shaabi) until it was fully recaptured by the Iraqi Government.In the Makhmur District is also located the Makhmur Refugee Camp. About 12`000 Kurdish refugees, who fled the civil war between Kurds and the Turkish state in the 1990`s, live in the Refugee Camp.

Makhmur District

Makhmur District is a district in Iraq between the Erbil Governorate and the Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. Before 1991 the large district of Makhmur was part of Ninawa Governorate, but after Makhmur district became a part of Erbil Governorate in Iraq.

Mergasor District

Mergasor District (Kurdish: قەزای مێرگەسۆر, Qezayê Mêrgesor‎; Arabic: قضاء ميركسور‎) is a district in northern Erbil Governorate in the Northern Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Administrative center is the city of Mergasor.

The district encompasses the five subdistricts Barzan, Goratu, Ble, Piran and Shirawan Mezn, with a total of 67 villages. It is located in the north of Erbil Governorate, close to the Iranian and the Turkish border.

Nawzad Hadi Mawlood

Nawzad Hadi Mawlood (Kurdish: نەوزاد هادی‎) is the current Governor of Erbil Province. Hadi was born in Erbil in 1963, and he took over as governor in 2004.

Nawzad Hadi is still the governor of Erbil and this is his 13th year. He is one of the main heads of PDK in Erbil.

Piran, Iraq

Piran (Kurdish: پیران‬‎)is a small town in northern Erbil Governorate in the Northern Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It is 22 km from Mergasor



Shaqlawa (Kurdish: Şeqlawe , شەقڵاوە‎, Arabic: شقلاوة‎) is a historic city and a Hill station in the Erbil Governorate in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

Shaqlawa, a city of approximately 25,000 people, lies 51 km to the northeast of Erbil, at the bottom of Safeen Mountain. Shaqlawa is situated between Safeen Mountain and Sork Mountain, and sits 1066 m above sea level. The town is inhabited mostly by Kurds, with a small Assyrian minority. Shaqlawa has a very large quantity of waterfalls, trees, and a great growing of greenery.

Soran District

Soran (Kurdish: قەزای سۆران‎, Arabic: قضاء سوران‎ ; Syriac: ܪܘܣܬܵܩܵܐ ܕܝܵܢܵܐ‎) is a district of the Erbil governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan bordering Iran and Turkey. Its main city is Diana which is also called Soran. According to Kurdistan television, citing an official in the town of Soran, the population of the region is estimated to be over 400,000.

Kurdish settlement in the region dates back prior to the establishment of the Sassanid empire. King Ardashir I of Persia mentioned the region in 224 during his battle against the Median king Madig.

Major Kurdish dialect (Sorani) is named after the region.

One of the Kurdish principality named as the Soran lordship ruled, for some years, in the 19th century, one of the famous kings was Pasha Kora (\Blind king). They went to war with the Ottoman Empire and also the Baban lordship.

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